NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 9 Women, Caste and Reform

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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 9 Women, Caste and Reform

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Women, Caste and Reform

Chapter: 9




Imagine you are a teacher in the school set-up by Rokeya Hossain. There are 20 girls in your charge. Write an account of the discussions that might have taken place on any one day in the school.

Ans. Suppose I am a woman and a teacher at the Calcutta Primary School. Being a teacher, I understand that it is my solemn responsibility to dispel the darkness in my students’ lives and hence decided to gather all views about the same. One of the girls described me the challenges she has faced all throughout her life as she was told to be a docile, submissive and obedient person even in times her rights were barred.

Another Muslim girl explained how they were the target of conservative critics teasing them time and again urging them and their families to drop them for school. These pessimists had an inferior eye negativity for the poor little girls.

However, some aspirational girls decided to cope up with the loss and faced the heartbreaking insult with a calm mind and soul to get better returns in future. They had told me that they readily wanted to adopt the western mint-set, keeping intact with the values, culture and heritage of India. Some also embraced my efforts on women reform leaving me overwhelmed. I was filled with ecstatic joy to hear that few bright students wanted to make it to the pinnacle by becoming doctors, nurses, teachers and intelligent home makers. I was impressed by the view that we could even write successful women’s stories.


Q.1. What social ideas did the following people support? 

(i) Raja Rammohan Roy.

(ii) Dayanand Saraswati.

(iii) Veerasalingam Pantulu.

(iv) Jyotirao Phule. 

(v) Pandita Ramabai.

(vi) Periyar.

(vii) Mumtaz Ali.

(viii) Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar.

Ans. (i) Social ideas supported by Raja Rammohan Roy:

(a) Raja Rammohan Roy focused his attention towards removing the evil practice of Sati. 

(b) He preached in favour of widow remarriage. 

(c) He worked to secure a place of honour for women in the Hindu society. He demanded for them the right of inheritance to property.

(d) To ensure a place of respect for women, he condemned the practice of polygamy.

(e) He also supported the study of English literature.

(ii) Social ideas supported by Dayanand Saraswati:

(a) Dayanand supported widow remarriage. 

(b) He condemned Sati system.

(c) He opposed the practice of child marriage.

(d) He supported education of girls.

(e) He founded Arya Samaj which worked for the uplift and emancipation of women.

(iii) Social ideas supported by Veersalingam Pantulu:

He supported widow remarriage and formed an association in the Telugu speaking areas of the Madras Presidency.

(iv) Social ideas supported by Jyoti Rao Phule:

(a) Jyoti Rao Phule supported education for girls. He and his wife opened five schools for girls in and around Puna in 1848.

(b) Jyoti Rao Phule argued that Brahmans were not superior, just because they were Aryans. He supported the idea that land belonged to indigenous people, the so called low castes. 

(v) Social ideas supported by Pandita Ramabai:

(a) Pandita Ramabai worked for the upliftment of women’s status in society.

(b) She wrote a book about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women.

(c) She founded a widow’s home at Puna to provide shelter to widows who had been treated badly by their husbands’ relatives. Here, women were trained so that they could support themselves economically. 

(vi) Social ideas supported by Periyar:

(a) Periyar supported the idea that untouchables were the true upholders of an original Tamil and Dravidian culture which had been subjugated by Brahmans.

(b) He was of the view that untouchable had to free themselves from all religions in order to achieve social inequality.

(c) He did not support the authority of Brahmans over lower castes and the domination of men over women. Hence he was a critic of Hindi scriptures which supported these ideas.

(vii) Social ideas supported by Mumtaj Ali:

(a) Mumtaj Ali supported women’s education. She, along with other reformers reinterpreted verses from Koran to support for women’s education.

(b) Women were encouraged to read about religion and domestic management in language they could understand.

(viii) Social ideas supported by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:

(a) He carried a crusade for widow’s remarriage. He also tried to legalise widow’s remarriage.

(b) He raised his voice against child marriage.

(c) He opposed polygamy.

(d) He opened girl’s school which he ran at his own expense. Orthodox families criticized saying that after receiving western education, girls would not be able to perform their duties as mother and wives.

Q.2. State whether true or false:

(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property etc.

Ans. True.

(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.

Ans. True.

(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country. 

Ans. False.

(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1829

Ans. False.


Q.3. How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?

Ans. The reformers worked for improving the status of women in the society using the knowledge of ancient texts. 

For example:

(i) Raja Rammohan Roy studied Hindu religious books and through his writings in Sanskrit, Persian and other languages emphasised that widow-burning had no sanction in ancient text. He cited verses from ancient texts to show that existing evil practices were against early traditions.

(ii) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar used ancient text to suggest that widows could remarry.

(iii) Swami Dayanand quoted from Vedas that many social evils of today had no religious sanctions. 

(iv) Mumtaz Ali reinterpreted verses from Quran to condemn the illiteracy among women and advocated for their education.

Q.4. What were the different reasons people have for not sending girls to school?

Ans. The people did not want to send girls to school because:

(i) They feared that schools would take girls away from home, prevent them from doing their domestic duties.

(ii) They believed that girls should stay away from public places. They feared that passing through public places would have a corrupting influence on them.

Q.5. Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?

Ans. (i) Christian missionaries were attacked by many people in the country because they did not like the activities of missionaries. Many Hindu nationalists felt that Hindu women were adopting western ways of living and that this would corrupt Hindu culture and erode family values.

(ii) Some people had supported them too for reasons such as:

(a) Christian missionaries began setting up schools for tribal groups and lower caste children. These children were equipped with some resources to make their way into a changing world.

(b) Christian missionaries supported women’s freedom and social equality. They condemned Sati system.

Q.6. In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as “low”? 

Ans. The new opportunities opened up for people in lower castes:

1. Raja Rammohan Roy through his writings was critical of caste-system. 

2. The Prathana Samaj adhered to the tradition of Bhakti that believed in spiritual equality of all castes.

3. Many reformers of this period violated caste taboos on food and touch. 

4. Christian missionaries began setting up schools for tribal groups and lower castes children. 

5. The poor from villages and small towns, many of them from low castes, began moving to cities where there was demand for new labour.

Q.7. How did Jyoti Rao the reformer justify their criticism of caste inequality in society? 

Ans. 1. Jyoti Rao opposed the idea that Brahmans were superiors, just because they were Aryans. He argued that Aryans were foreigners, who came from outside the subcontinent, and defeated and subjugated the true children of the country those who had lived here before coming of the Aryans. 

2. He said that the “upper” castes had no right to their land and powers. In fact, the land belonged to indigenous people, the so-called low-castes.

3. He proposed that Shudras and Ati Shudras should unite to challenge caste discrimination.

4. He wrote a book named Gulamgiri meaning slavery.

Q.8. Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?

Ans. Phule dedicated his book ‘Gulamgiri’ to the American movement to free slaves because he wanted to establish a link between the conditions of the lower castes in India and the black slaves in America.

Q.9. What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement? 

Ans. Temple entry movement was started by Ambedkar in 1927 because Brahmin priests were outraged when the Dalits used water from the temple tank. 

Through three temple entry movements between 1927 and 1935, he wanted to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.

Q.10. Why were Jyoti Rao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of the national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way? 

Ans. 1. Jyoti Rao Phule was critical of the anticolonial nationalism that was preached by upper-castes leaders. He wanted Indians to know that the unity between high and low in entire country was only way they could progress.

Ramswami Naicker also became critical of the national movement when as a member of the Congress he attended a feast organised by the nationalists. He found the seating arrangement followed caste distinctions. He founded the Self Respect Movement for untouchables. 

2. Their assertions helped national struggles as they continued beyond the colonial period and are still going over the years. Their ideas were respected at many places and people united for a stronger national movement. The forceful speeches, writings and movements of lower- caste leaders did lead to rethinking and some self criticism among upper- caste nationalist leaders.



Q.1. What played an important role in bringing a new education system and some of the western ideas to India?

Ans. The spread of education played an important role in bringing a new education system and some of the western ideas to India. 

Q.2. What is patriarchal society? 

Ans. Male dominated society is called patriarchal society.

Q.3. Who was called ‘Sati’? 

Ans. A widow choose her death by burning herself on the funeral pyre of her husband is called ‘Sati’.

Q.4. From where did demand for reforming the position of women came? 

Ans. The demand for reforming the position of women came from the colonial rulers or with the emergence of a new educated middle class.

Q.5. Write the name of some social evils directly related with the Indian women of 19th century.

Ans. 1. Sati.

2. Social inequality or injustice.

3. Illiteracy.

4. Child marriage.

5. Polygamy.

Q.6. What is Polygamy? 

Ans. Marrying more than one woman is call polygamy. 

Q.7. Who were Aryans according to Phule?

Ans. According to Phule, Aryans were foreigners who came from outside the subcontinent and defeated and subjugated the true children of the country.

Q.8. Who was Lila Nag? Name the organization set up by her.

Ans. Lila Nag played a prominent role in women’s movement in East Bengal. She set up ‘Depali Sangha’ with an objective of enhancing women’s education in 1923.

Q.9. Whom did Phule dedicate the book Gulamgiri?

Ans. Phule dedicated his book to all those Americans who had fought to free slaves, thus establishing a link between the condition of the lower castes in India and the black slaves in America.

Q.10. What was Swami Vivekanand’s mission in life? 

Ans. 1. He wanted to propagate Vedanta as a religion of all and not the Hindus alone. For this he attended the Parliament of Religions at Chicago (USA). His eloquence at the parliament made him a world figure.

2. He wanted to improve all aspects of national life, particularly the depressed economic conditions of the masses and the low status of women. He also wanted the youth to take pride in their country.

Q.11. Whom did Periyar criticise? 

Ans. Periyar was an outspoken critic of Hindu scriptures especially the codes of Manu, the ancient law giver and the Bhagwad Gita and the Ramayana.

Q.12. What steps did Sayyid Ahmed Khan took to spread modern education among the Muslims?

Ans. 1. He founded the Scientific Society in 1862 to translate and publish scientific works in Urdu and to make people familiar with modern science. 

2. He started the Mohammedan Anglo- Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875. It became the breeding ground for new trends in the lives of Muslims.

3. He founded several schools and a weekly magazine in English and Urdu. 

Q.13. In which two ways did the social reform movements contributed to the rise of nationalism in India?

Ans. 1. In the early period some British rulers through social legislation tried to reform the Indian society. Like the Sati system, the child marriage, the child infanticide and the low status of women.

2. The educational system recognized through this step was undertaken to train the Indians for clerical and low jobs. It brought people in close contact with the modern ideas.


Q.1. Who was the founder of Arya Samaj? Give an account of any social and religious reform made by this institution. 

Ans. Swami Dayanand was the founder of Arya Samaj. 

The social and religious reforms made by Arya Samaj were as under: 

1. This institution raised voice against caste system. 

2. It opposed sati system, child marriage and infanticide. 

3. It gave permission for widow remarriage and laid emphasis on women education.

Q.2. Examine the contribution of Jyotiba Phule to social reform. 

Ans. 1. Jyotiba Phule was a great reformer of Maharashtra. He played a great part in the upliftment of the oppressed classes.

2. In 1873, he laid the foundation of the Satya Shodhak Samaj to mobilize the oppressed and other lower castes to flight for their rights and equality. 

3. He challenged the supremacy of the Brahmans and the authority of scriptures.

Q.3. Write some social reforms carried out by Arya Samaj. 

Ans. Some of these reforms were: 

1. It resulted in the decline of the evil practice of Sati. 

2. It advocated widow remarriage.

3. It was greatly opposed to child marriage.

4. It set up orphanages and widow- ashrams.

Q.4. Who was Keshab Chander Sen? What was done by the Brahmo Samaj after 1830?

Ans. 1. Keshab Chander Sen was a great reformer and one of the main leaders of the Brahmo Samaj. 

Keshab Chander Sen laid stress on social reforms, such as women education, inter-caste marriage and widow remarriage. He was also against the social evils, like child marriage, polygamy, casteism, etc., and wanted to abolish them.

2. The Brahmo Samaj: The Brahmo Samaj, formed in 1830, prohibited all forms of idolatry and sacrifice, believed in the Upanishads and forbade its members from criticizing other religions practices. It critically drew upon the ideals of religions especially of Hinduism and Christianity looking at their negative and positive dimensions.

Q.5. Write a short note about Derozio and young Bengal Movement. 

Ans. Derozio and Young Bengal:

1. Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, a teacher at Hindu College Calcutta in the 1820s, promoted radical ideas and encouraged his pupils to question all authority.

2. Referred to as the Young Bengal movement, his students attacked tradition and customs, demand education for women and campaigned for the freedom of thought and expression.

Q.6. What were the changes that could be seen, as women became actively involved in reforms?

Ans. The whole scenario changed as women became actively involved in reforms:

1. They wrote books and started schools.

2. They started training centres and set up women’s associations.

3. Women formed political pressure groups to push through laws for the right for females to vote.

4. They fought for better health and education for women.

5. They joined various nationalist and socialist movements from the 1920s.

Q.7. Write a short note on the ‘Temple entry movement’.

Ans. In 1927, Ambedkar started a temple entry movement, in which Mahar caste (to which he also belonged) followers participated. Brahman priests were outraged when the Dalits used water from the temple tank. Ambedkar led three such movements for temple entry of untouchables between 1927 and 1935. His aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within the society.

Q.8. Who was the founder of the ‘Self Respect Movement’? What were the aims of this movement? 

Ans. Periyar founded the Self Respect Movement. 

This movement had the following aims:

1. He argued that untouchables were the true upholders of an original Tamil and Dravidian culture which had been subjugated by the Brahmins. 

2. He felt that all religious authorities saw social divisions and inequality as God given.

3. Untouchables had to free themselves from all religions in order to achieve social equality.

Q.9. Who was Tarabai Shinde?

Ans. By the 1980s, Indian women began to write and publish their critical views on the place of women in society. One such woman was Tarabai Shinde, who published a book ‘Stripurushtulna’ (A comparison between Women and Men) in which she criticised the social differences between men and women.

Q.10. Why in the early days most parents were apprehensive of sending their girls to schools?

Ans. In early days, most parents were apprehensive of sending their girls to schools because of the following reasons:

1. They feared that schools would take girls away from home, prevent them from doing their domestic duties.

2. Moreover, girls had to travel through public places in order to reach school. Many people felt that this would have a corrupting influence on them. 

3. They felt that girls should stay away from public spaces.


Q.1. Write nearly five lines about some of the progressive ideas of Raja Rammohan Roy. 

Ans. 1. Raja Rammohan Roy opposed ‘sati’ system and urged the British government to pass an act against this evil. He got success in his effort in 1829.

2. Roy favoured widow remarriage. 

3. He was keen to spread the knowledge of Western education in the country and bring about greater freedom and equality for women.

4. Raja Rammohan Roy published some newspapers and wrote about the way women were forced to bear the burden of domestic work, confined to the home and the kitchen, and not allowed to move out and became educated.

Q.2. Discuss the work and contribution of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar for the upliftment of women. 

Ans. 1. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar is remembered for his contribution to the upliftment of India’s oppressed or miserable women.

2. He did a lot for the education of women. Besides, doing a lot for education he also waged a long struggle for widow remarriage.

3. It was due to his efforts the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856 was passed which allowed the widows to remarriage.

4. Ishwar Chandra also protested against child marriage and polygamy. He had also opposed the sati system and promoted the education of girls and started first a school for them.

Q.3. Who founded the Arya Samaj and when? Name the book written by him. List the guiding principles of the Arya Samaj.

Ans. Swami Dayanand founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 to spread his teaching to the masses. 

His book Satyarth Prakash describes his philosophies and it laid down the ten guiding principles of his followers: 

1. God, the primary source of true knowledge.

2. God alone is worthy of worship. 

3. Vedas, a book of true knowledge.

4. Dharma should be guiding principles of all actions.

5. Arya, to accept only truth and shun untruth. 

6. Arya Samaj, to promote the well-being of the people. 

7. Equal treatment to one and all.

8. Knowledge to increase and ignorance to overcome. 

9. One’s own progress to depend on the upliftment of others. 

10.Social well-being should come before individual’s well-being.

Q.4. What is meant by Aligarh Movement? What was its contribution?

Ans. Sayyid Ahmed Khan established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875 which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. It was because of this, that the movement started by Sir Sayyid is known as Aligarh Movement. 

Contribution of the Aligarh Movement:

1. The Aligarh Muslim University became one of the important breeding grounds of new trends in the political, social and cultural life of the Muslims.

2. It awakened the Muslims and soon Aligarh became the centre for religious and cultural revival of the Muslim community.

3. Sir Sayyid also tried to reform the social abuses in the Muslim community. 

4. He condemned the purdah system and easy divorce.


Q.1. Describe the contributions of Jyotiba Phule in reforming the society.

Ans. Contribution of Jyotiba Phule: 1. In 1873, Jyotiba founded Satya Shodhak Samaj (society of Seekers of Truth). The main objectives of the organization was to liberate the subordinate castes. 

2. He criticised slavery of the so called subordinate caste people and demanded justice for them. 

3. He also criticised the exploitation of the so called subordinate caste people by the so called dominant caste through his speeches and writings. 

4. He advised the people of the so called subordinate caste to perform the religious sacrament of marriage without Brahman and purohits.

Q.2. Being a leader of nation, Mahatma Gandhi played an important role in eradicating untouchability. Discuss how? 

Ans. Role of Mahatma Gandhi in eradicating untouchability:

1. He called these people the children of God (or Harijan) and said that they should be treated equally.

2. They should get access to public utilities and public places.

3. From Wardha, he started his journey for the welfare of these people and appealed them for the same.

Q.3. Describe the reform movements started by the people of the lower caste against caste discrimination across India.

Ans. By the second half of the 19th century, people from within the “lower” castes began organising movements against caste discrimination and demanded social equality and justice. 

Some of these movements were as follows:

1. The Satnami Movement in Central India founded by a leader named Ghasidas who came from a “low” caste, worked among the leather workers and organised a movement to improve their social status.

2. In eastern India, Haridas Thakur’s Matua sect worked among Brahmanical texts that supported the caste system.

3. In Kerala, a guru from among “low” caste Ezhavas, Shri Narayana Guru, proclaimed the ideals of unity for his people. He advocated equality of all within a single sect on caste.

4. All these leaders tried to create a sense of self- esteem amongst the lower castes.


Q.1. Evaluate the impact of reform movements of the 19th century towards, the emancipation of women. 

Ans. 1. Raja Rammohan Roy and the Brahmo Samaj understood the importance of women’s education and gave it strong support. They also supported widow remarriage and opposed the sati system.

2. Devendra Nath Thakur established Tattvabodhini Sabha in 1839 and advocated the causes of widow remarriage, abolition of polygamy and promotion of women’s education.

3. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar dedicated himself for the cause of the emancipation of women. It was due to his efforts that legal obstacles to the marriage of widows were removed through a law in 1856. He played a leading role in promoting education of girls. He started and helped the setting up of a number of schools for girls.

Q.2. With reference to “Women wrote about women” discuss the impacts of women awakening on the following:

(a) The orthodox of the Indian society. 

(b) Impact on other women. 

Ans. (a) Impact on Orthodox: Many Hindu nationalists felt that Hindu women were adopting western ways and that this would corrupt Hindu culture and erode family values. Orthodox Muslims were also worried about the impact of these changes. 

(b) Impact on other women: By the end of the nineteenth century women themselves were actively, working for reform. They wrote books, edited magazines, founded schools and training centres and set up women associations. From the early twentieth century, they formed political pressure groups to push through laws for female suffrage (the right to vote) and better health care and education for women. Some of them joined various kinds of nationalist and socialist movements from the 1920.

Q.3. What was the plight of Indian girls and women 200 years ago?

Ans. Two hundred years ago things were very different:

1. Most girls were married off at an early age.

 2. Both Hindu and Muslim men could marry more than one wife. 

3. In some parts of the country, widows were praised if they chose death by burning themselves on the funeral pyre of their husbands.

4. Women’s rights to property were also restricted.

5. Most women had virtually no access to education.

Q.4. Name some of the associations formed by lower-caste leaders. What was the aim of such associations?

Ans. Many social leaders from the lower caste founded associations and organisations to challenge the orthodox Hindu society. Some of these associations were: Sanatan Dharma Sabhas and the Bharat Dharma Mahamandal in the north and Brahman Sabha in Bengal.

The objective of these associations was to uphold caste distinctions as a cornerstone of Hinduism and show how this was sanctified by scriptures.

Q.5. What were the reasons for the awareness among women during the 18th and the 19th century?

Ans. Following were the reasons for awareness among women during the 18th and the 19th century:

1. People started reading books, newspapers, magazines, leaflets and pamphlets as they were much cheaper now.

2. There were debates and discussions about social customs and practices which also helped in creating awareness among women.


A. Multiple Choice Questions 

Tick (✔) the correct of option

1. Who supported the idea of self- respect movement?

(a) Mumtaz Ali.

(b) Rammohan Roy.

(c) Periyar.

(d) Pandita Ramabai.

Ans. (c) Periyar.

2. The idea of widow remarriage was advocated by:

(a) Dayanand Saraswati.

(b) Jyotirao Phule. 

(c) Periyar.

(d) Pandita Ramabai.

Ans. (a) Dayanand Saraswati.

3. The Satya Shodhak Samaj was founded by:

(a) Mumtaz Ali.

(b) Periyar.

(c) Jyotirao Phule.

(d) B.R. Ambedkar.

Ans. (c) Jyotirao Phule.

4. Ambedkar started a temple entry movement in the year:

(a) 1919

(b) 1927

(c) 1929 

(d) 1939

Ans. (b) 1927

5. Widow Remarriage Act was passed in the year:

(a) 1826

(b) 1856

(c) 1876

(d) 1886

Ans. (b) 1856

B. Match the names in column I with particular events in column II:

Column IColumn II
(a) Swami Dayanand(i) 1856
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar(ii) Central India
(c) Law permitting widow remarriage(iii) Gulamgiri
(d) Nationalist Leaders(iv) Arya Samaj
(e) The Satnami movement(v) Untouchables
(f) Ali Shudras(vi) Full suffrage for all men and women
(g) Phule(vii) Widow could remarry


Column IColumn II
(a) Swami Dayanand(iv) Arya Samaj
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar(vii) Widow could remarry
(c) Law permitting widow remarriage(i) 1856
(d) Nationalist Leaders(vi) Full suffrage for all men and women
(e) The Satnami movement(ii) Central India
(f) Ali Shudras(v) Untouchables
(g) Phule(iii) Gulamgiri

C. Fill in the blanks:

1. Two hundred years ago, most children were married off at an _________________ age.

Ans. Early.

2. In most regions, people were divided along lines of _______________.

Ans. Caste.

3. Brahma Sabha was later known as the _______________.

Ans. Brahmo Samaj.

4. Begums of Bhopal founded a primary school for girls at _________________.

Ans. Aligarh.

5. In aristocratic Muslim household in North India women learnt to read the ________________ in Arabic.

Ans. Quran.


Q.1. Look at the given picture and answer the related questions:

1. Who are seen in the picture? 

Ans. Students of Hindu Mahila Vidyalaya.

2. To which year does this picture belong to?

Ans. 1875.

3. Name a Vidyalaya that was one of the first institutions to provide girls with the kind of learning that was usual for boys at the time.

Ans. Hindu Mahila Vidyalaya.

Q.2. Look at the given picture and answer the related questions:

1. What kind of ship is shown in the picture? 

Ans. A collie ship, nineteenth century.

2. What was the name of the ship? 

Ans. John Allen.

3. Whom did the ship carry and where? 

Ans. The ship carried many Indian labourers to Mauritius.

4. What did they do there? 

Ans. They do a variety of farm works of hard labour.

Q.3. Look at the given picture and answer the related questions:

1. What is seen in the picture?

Ans. Dublas of Gujarat carrying mangoes to the market. 

2. For whom did the persons in the picture work?

Ans. The persons in the picture worked for upper-caste landowners.

3. What work did they do?

Ans. They cultivated their fields and worked at a variety of old jobs at the landlord house.

Q.4. Look at the given picture and answer the related questions:

1. Who are seen in the picture?

Ans. Madigas are seen in the picture.

2. Which state did they belong to?

Ans. Present day Andhra Pradesh. 

3. How were they important?

Ans. They were an important caste of present day Andhra Pradesh.

4. What works were they expert

Ans. They were experts at cleaning hides, tanning them for use and sewing sandals.

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