NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 Civilising The “Native”, Educating The Nation Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 Civilising The “Native”, Educating The Nation and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 Civilising The “Native”, Educating The Nation and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.
NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 Civilising The “Native”, Educating The Nation
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 Civilising The “Native”, Educating The Nation and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Civilising The “Native”, Educating The Nation
OUR PASTS – III [HISTORY PART – II]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Q.1. Imagine you were a witness to a debate between Mahatma Gandhi and Macaulay on English education. Write a page on the dialogue you heard.
Ans. Macaulay emphasised India is an uncivilised country. No branch of Eastern knowledge could be compared to what England had produced. He stressed the need for English education.
Mahatma Gandhi, however, said that colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians. He said that there was poison in this education.
Macaulay argued that the knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature that world had produced.
Mahatma Gandhi emphasized that Indian language ought to be the medium of teaching. Mahatma Gandhi also felt that education in English crippled Indians, distanced them from their own social surroundings.
Macaulay urged that the British government in India should stop wasting public money in promoting oriental learning for it was of no practical use.
Mahatma Gandhi focussed on practical knowledge and experience. People should know how to operate different things rather than studying only from books.
Q.1. Match the following:
|(i) William Jones||(a) promotion of English education|
|(ii) Rabindranath Tagore||(b) respect for ancient Cultures|
|(iii) Thomas Macaulay||( c) gurus|
|(iv) Mahatma Gandhi||(d) learning in a natural environment|
|(v) Pathshalas||(e) critical of English education|
|(i) William Jones||(b) respect for ancient Cultures|
|(ii) Rabindranath Tagore||( c) gurus|
|(iii) Thomas Macaulay||(e) critical of English education|
|(iv) Mahatma Gandhi||(d) learning in a natural environment|
|(v) Pathshalas||(d) learning in a natural environment|
Q.2. State whether True or False:
(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.
(b) The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.
(c) Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.
(d) Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.
Q.3. Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?
Ans. William Jones felt the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law due to the following reasons:
(i) He had a deep respect for ancient cultures both of India and the West.
(ii) He felt that India had attained its glory in the ancient past but had subsequently declined.
(iii) He thought that in order to understand India, it was necessary to discover the sacred and legal texts that were produced in the ancient period.
(iv) William Jones went about discovering ancient texts, understanding their meaning, translating them and making their finding known to other.
Q.4. Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
Ans. James Mill thought that European education was essential in India because:
(i) The knowledge of the East was full of errors and unscientific thoughts.
(ii) The aim of education should not only be to teach the poetry and sacred literature of the Orient.
(iii) The education should provide useful and practical knowledge to the students.
Thomas Macaulay urged that: (i) Oriental learning was of no practical use.
(ii) The English education was better because it would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature of the world. It would also make them aware about the development in Western Science and Philosophy.
Q.5. Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi wanted to teach children handicrafts because he thought:
(i) Western education focused on reading and writing rather than oral knowledge.
(ii) Education ought to develop a person’s mind and soul. Simple learning to read and write by itself did not count as education.
(iii) If people are allowed to work with hands, learn a craft and know how differently things operated, this would develop their mind and their capacity to understand.
Q.6. Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi thought that English education had enslaved Indians because:
(i) It made them see Western civilization as superior, and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture.
(ii) Charmed by the West and after getting western education they began admiring British rule.
(iii) It had poisoned their minds and soul.
Q.7. Find out from your grandparents about what they studied in school.
Ans. For self study.
Q.8. Find out about the history of your school or any other school in the area you live.
Ans. Self study. Contact your school Principal/ Headmaster or recordkeeper of the school history.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Who set-up Calcutta Madrasa when and why?
Ans. Warren Hastings set-up the Calcutta Madrasa in 1781 to promote Persian and Arabic studies.
Q.2. What did British in India feel along with territorial conquest and control over revenues?
Ans. The British in India felt that along with territorial conquest and control over revenues they had also a cultural mission to civilize the natives, change their customs and values.
Q.3. Who is a linguist?
Ans. Someone who knows and studies several languages is known as linguist.
Q.4. What did William Jones study in India?
Ans. He studied ancient Indian text on law, philosophy, religion, politics, morality, arithmetic, medicine and the other sciences in India.
Q.5. Who were busy in discovering the ancient Indian heritage, mastering Indian languages and translating Sanskrit and Persian works into English?
Ans. Henry Thomas Colebrook and Nathaniell Halhed.
Q.6. Who set-up the Asiatic society of Bengal and name the journal started by them?
Ans. Henry Thomas Colebrook and Nathaniel Halhed together with Jones set up the Asiatic Society of Bengal and started a journal called Asiatick Researches.
Q.7. Who are known as Orientalists?
Ans. Those with a scholarly knowledge of the language and culture of Asia are known as Orientalists.
Q.8. Who is Munshi?
Ans. A person who can read, write and teach Persian is called a Munshi.
Q.9. Define the term vernacular.
Ans. A term generally used to refer to local language or dialect as distinct from what is seen as the standard language is called vernacular.
Q.10. Name the Britishers who attacked the Orientalist way of Education.
Ans. James Mill and Thomas Macaulay.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. On what basis in early nineteenth century many British officials began to criticise the orientalist vision of learning?
Ans. From the early nineteenth century many British officials began to criticise the orientalist vision of learning because:
1. They said that knowledge of the East was full of errors and unscientific thought.
2. Eastern literature was non-serious and light hearted.
3. They argued that it was wrong on the part of the British to spend so much effort in encouraging the study of Arabic and Sanskrit language and literature.
Q.2. Explain the English Education Act of 1835.
Ans. According to the English Education Act of 1835.
1. English was to be made the medium of instruction for higher education.
2. To stop the promotion of Oriental institutions like Calcutta, Madras and Benaras sanskrit college. These institutions were seen as “temples of darkness that were falling of them selves into decay”.
3. English textbooks now began to be produced for schools.
Q.3. What were Tagore’s experiences as a student?
Ans. Tagore’s experiences as a student were not pleasing:
1. He hated going to school. He found it suffocating and oppressive.
2. The school appeared like a prison, for he could never do what he felt like doing.
3. While other children listened to the teacher, Tagore’s mind would wander away.
Q.4. How did English system of education began in India? Explain in brief.
Ans. 1. English system of education began in India in 1813, when the Charter Act was passed.
2. It was decided that the Company would annually spend one lakh rupees on education in India. 3. But this gave rise to a controversy as on to which type of education this amount was to be spent-on the Indian style of education or on the western style.
Q.5. Why was Hunter Commission set up? What were its recommendations?
Ans. Hunter Commission was presided over in 1882 by W.W Hunter to review the progress of education since Wood’s Despatch. The government accepted of the recommendations of Hunter Commission and new schools and colleges were opened. The Punjab University and the Allahabad University were established in 1882 and 1887, respectively under the recommendations of Hunter Commission.
Q.6. Discuss the drawbacks of modern education.
Ans. 1. The British succeeded to some extent to create Indians with European tastes.
2. The status of the English-educated persons differed from those who were taught in the vernaculars.
3. It neglected the education of the girls.
4. The Indians who received modern education gradually began to blindly follow the European ideas, thought and literature.
Q.7. Explain Tagore’s views on Education.
Ans. Tagore’s views on education were:
(a) He felt that childhood ought to be a time of self learning, outside the rigid and restricting discipline of the schooling system set up by the British.
(b) Teachers had to be imaginative, understand the child and help the child develop her curiosity.
(c) He was of the view that creative learning could be encouraged within a natural environment.
(d) He also wanted to combine the western civilisation with the Indian tradition.
Q.8. Write a short note on the views of Thomas Macaulay regarding English as the medium of instruction for Indians.
Ans. Thomas Macaulay was a well known anglicist. His views on education were:
(a) He emphasised the need to teach the English language.
(b) He felt that knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature the world had produced.
(c) English language, he thought, would make Indians aware of the developments in Western science and philosophy.
(d) Teaching of English, could thus be a way of civilising people, changing their tastes, values and culture.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What were the differences between Orientalists and Anglicists?
|1. Orientalists were those who had knowledge of ancient Indian texts and preferred the local languages to be the medium of teaching.||1. Anglicists were those who preferred english as the medium for learning.|
|2. They wanted to set-up such educational institutions that encouraged the study of ancient Indian texts. They had respect for ancient culture of India.||2. They wanted to acquaint the Indians with the advancement of science and technology blooming in the west.|
|3. William Jones and Thomas Colebrooks are some of the well known Orientalists.||3. James Mill and Thomas Macaulay are some of the well known Anglicists.|
Q.2. What were the main recommendations of the Wood’s Despatch?
Ans. 1. The main aim of government’s education policy would be teaching of modern education.
2. English language would be the medium of instruction in higher classes.
3. An education department was to be established in every province.
4. At least one government school should be opened in every area.
5. Grant-in-aid was to be provided to affiliate private schools.
6. The Indian natives should be given training in their mother – tongue also.
Q.3. Describe the impact of western languages and their impact on Indian society.
Ans. 1. The spread of western education evoked a modern, democratic, rational and national outlook among educated Indians which then spread to the masses.
2. Western education and influence of western thoughts helped in eradicating numerous age old customs and traditions.
3. The study of English literature introduced new western thoughts like liberty, equality and fraternity in India.
Q.4. Discuss the effects of modern education.
Ans. 1. The modern education that began in India during the British times, brought the Indians into a close contact with rational and scientific ways of thinking and increased their interest in science and technology.
2. The British focus was limited to introducing English education in India to produce an educated class to fulfill minor official work.
3. The spread of modern education facilitated the growth of democracy, nationalism and socialism in India.
4. The British made every effort to maintain control over education and prevent the growth of patriotism and nationalism among the Indians.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING QUESTIONS
Q.1. After 1854 the Company decided to improve the system of vernacular education. It feel that this could be done by introducing order within the system, improving routines, establishing rules, ensuring regular inspections. How was this to be done? What measures did the Company undertake?
Ans. 1. It appointed number of a government pandits, each incharge of looking after four to five schools.
2. The task of the pandit was to visit the pathshalas and try to improve the standard of teaching.
3. Each Guru was asked to submit periodic reports and take classes according to a regular timetable.
4. Teaching was now to be based on textbook and learning was to be tested through a system of annual examination.
5. Students were asked to pay a regular fee, attend regular classes, sit on fixed seats and obey the new rules of discipline.
Q. 2. What was the outcome of Wood’s Despatch?
Ans. Wood’s Despatch led to the several measures such as:
1. Educational departments of the government were set up to extend control over all matters regarding education.
2. Steps were taken to establish a system of university education.
3. In 1857, universities were being established in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
4. Attempts were made to bring about changes within the system of school education.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. Who was William Adam and why did he visited India? What way his findings? Or Write the features of education under pathshalas.
Ans. William Adam was a Scottish missionary who toured the districts of Bengal and Bihar in the 1830s. He had been asked by the company to report on the progress of education is vernacular schools.
He had the following findings:
(a) He found that there were over 1 lakh pathshalas in Bengal and Bihar.
(b) The main features of education under pathshalas were:
(i) The Pathshalas followed a flexible system of education.
(ii) There were no formal schools.
(iii) Classes were held in open space.
(iv) There were no roll call registers, no annual examination and no regular time table.
(v) Teaching was oral and the Guru decided what to teach.
(vi) The Guru taught according to the needs of his students.
Q.2. What were the differences between Tagore’s and Mahatma Gandhi’s idea about education?
Ans. Gandhi ji was highly critical of western civilization and the worship of machines and technology.
Tagore wanted to combine elements of modern western civilization with what he saw as the best with him Indian tradition. He emphasised the need to teach science and technology at Shantiniketan along with art, music and dance.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
A. Multiple choice questions
Tick (✔) the correct option:
1. During whose tenure do the universities come under the control of the government:
(a) Warren Hastings.
(b) Lord Curzon.
(c) William Bentinck.
(d) Thomas Macaulay.
Ans. (b) Lord Curzon.
2. In which year did William Jones arrive in Calcutta?
Ans. (a) 1783
3. From where did William Jones study Greek and Latin?
(a) From a friend.
(b) At Oxford.
(c) From pandits.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (b) At Oxford.
4. What studies were promoted by the Madrasa in Calcutta in 1781?
(c) Islamic law.
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
5. Which of the following statement is incorrect?
(a) Thomas Macaulay saw India as an uncivilised country that needed to be civilised.
(b) Macaulay emphasised the need to teach English.
(c) Following Macaulay’s minute oriental institutions like Calcutta, Madras and Benaras Sanskrit College were promoted.
(d) James Mill opposed orientalists.
Ans. (c) Following Macaulay’s minute oriental institutions like Calcutta, Madras and Benaras Sanskrit College were promoted.
B. Match the names in Column I with particular events in Column II:
|Column – I||Column – II|
|(a) Warren Hastings||(i) The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.|
|(b) Sir William Jones||(ii) Dayanand Anglo Vedic School.|
|(c) Mahenderlal Sircan||(iii) Shantiniketan School.|
|(d) Rabindranath Tagore||(iv) Calcutta Madrasa set up in 1781.|
|(e) Swami Dayanand Saraswati||(v) Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal founded in 1784.|
|Column – I||Column – II|
|(a) Warren Hastings||(iv) Calcutta Madrasa set up in 1781.|
|(b) Sir William Jones||(v) Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal founded in 1784.|
|(c) Mahenderlal Sircan||(i) The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.|
|(d) Rabindranath Tagore||(iii) Shantiniketan School.|
|(e) Swami Dayanand Saraswati||(ii) Dayanand Anglo Vedic School.|
PICTURE BASES QUESTION
Q.1. Study the given below picture and answer the questions that follows:
1. Who prepared this monument and when?
Ans. This monument is prepared by Richard Westmacott in 1830.
2. Where is it?
Ans. It is in Victoria Memorial in Calcutta.
3. What does this image represent?
Ans. This image represents how Orientalists thought of British power in India. On carefully looking at this, you will notice how that the majestic figure of Hastings, an enthusiastic supporter of the Orientalists is placed between the standing figure of a pandit on one side and a seated Munshi on the other side.
SOURCE BASED QUESTIONS
Read the given below passage and answer the questions that follow: Language of the wise?
Emphasising the need to teach English, Maculay declared:
All parties seem to be agreed on one point, that the dialects commonly spoken among the natives of India, contain neither literary nor scientific information, and are moreover so poor and rude that, until they are enriched from some other quarter, it will not be easy to translate any valuable work into them.
From Thomas Babington Macaulay, Minute of 2 February 1835 on Indian Education.
1. When did the attack on the Orientalists did became sharper?
Ans. By the 1830s the attack on the Orientalists became sharper.
(2) Who was Thomas Babington Macaulay?
Ans. Thomas Babington Macaulay was one of the most outspoken and influential of such critics who saw India as an uncivilized country that needed to be civilsed.