NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.
NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
OUR PASTS – III [HISTORY PART – II]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Imagine you are a textile weaver in late-nineteenth century India. Textiles produced in Indian factories are flooding the market. How would you have adjusted to the situation?
Ans. I would have contacted the agents of different European companies and had bargained. I would have produced fine quality of textile and worked very hard in my working unit. I would have requested to my local merchants to increase the supply of the textiles.
Q.1. What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Ans. (a) European traders preferred fine cotton cloth from India carried by Arab merchants in Mosul in present-day Iraq.
(b) The Portuguese took back cotton textiles called ‘calico’ to Europe.
(c) Europeans also ordered printed cotton cloth called ‘chintz’.
(d) From the 1680’s there started a craze for printed cotton textiles in England and Europe mainly for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness.
(e) Rich people of England including the Queen herself wore clothes of Indian fabric.
Q.2. What is Jamdani?
Ans. Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white.
Q.3. What is bandanna?
Ans. The word ‘bandanna’ refers to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head.
Q.4. Who are the Agarias?
Ans. Agaria is a community of iron smelters who specialized in the field of craft.
Q.5. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The word chintz comes from the word __________.
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of __________ steel.
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the ___________ century.
Q.6. How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
Ans. There are various examples of names of textiles derived from different languages. The English word Chintz is derived from Chhint, a Hindi word. Originally the term, bandanna derived from the word ‘bandhana’ (Hindi for tying). The widespread use of such words shows how popular Indian textiles had become in different parts of the world.
Q.7. Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?
Ans. Worried by the popularity of Indian textiles, wool and silk makers in England began protesting against the import of Indian cotton textiles. In 1720, the British government enacted a legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles too.
Q.8. How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
Ans. (a) Indian textiles now had to compete with Britain textiles in the European and American markets.
(b) Exporting textiles to England also became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported to British.
Q.9. Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
Ans. (a) The new forest laws led to the decline of craft of iron smelting.
(b) When the colonial government prevented people from entering the reserved forests, the iron smelters could not find wood for charcoal.
(c) Even when they were granted access the iron smelters had to pay a very high tax to the forest department for every furnace used. This reduced their income.
(d) Moreover iron and steel was being imported from Britain.
Q.10. What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
Ans. (a) Indian textiles now had to compete with British textiles in European and American markets.
(b) Exporting textiles to England also became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed in Indian textiles imported to Britain.
(c) European companies had stopped buying Indian goods and their agents no longer gave out advantages to weavers to secure supplies.
(d) By 1830s, two-thirds of all the cotton clothes worn by Indians were made of clothes produced in Britain.
Q.11. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
Ans. (a) Steel produced in Britain now had to meet the demands of war in Europe. So, imports of British steel into India declined.
(b) The Indian railways turned TISCO for supply of rails.
(c) As the war dragged on for several years, TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels for the war.
(d) By 1919 the colonial government was buying 90% of the steel manufactured by the TISCO.
Q.12. Find out about the history of any craft around the area you live. You may wish to know about the community of craftsmen, the changes in the techniques they use and the markets they supply. How have these changed in the past 50 years?
Ans. Do it yourself.
Q.13. On a map of India locate the centres of different crafts today. Find out when these came up.
Ans. Do it yourself.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Define handicraft.
Ans. The products which are of aesthetic value and are the produced by hand or by using simple tools and machines are called handicrafts, i.e., hand made products.
Q.2. What made Britain the foremost industrial nation in the world?
Ans. Mechanized production of cotton textiles made Britain the foremost industrial nation in the nineteenth century.
Q.3. How and when did Britain came to be known as workshop of the world?
Ans. With the development of iron and steel industry from the 1850s in Britain, it came to be known as the “workshop of the world”.
Q.4. Why did European merchants preferred woven textile as muslin?
Ans. European traders first encountered fine cotton cloth from India carried by Arab merchants in Mosul in present-day Iraq. So they began referring to all finely woven textiles as muslin-a word that acquired wide currency.
Q.5. What is ‘calico’?
Ans. The cotton textiles which the Portuguese took back to Europe, along with the spices, came to be called “calico” (derived from Calicut), and subsequently calico became the general name for all cotton textiles.
Q.6. By what names printed clothes are known?
Ans. Printed cotton clothes are known as chintz, or cossaes (or khassa) and bandanna, etc.
Q.7. What is Chintz? From which language is it derived?
Ans. The word chintz is derived from the Hindi word chhint. A chintz is a cloth with small and colourful flowery designs.
Q.8. What was Calico Act?
Ans. The British Government in 1720 enacted a legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles known as chintz in England. This Act is known as the Calico Act.
Q.9. Who invented Spinning Jenny and when?
Ans. The Spinning Jenny was invented by John Kaye in 1764.
Q.10. Define the term deindustrialization.
Ans. The process of decay in rural and urban industries that upset the balance of economy is called de- industrialization.
Q.11. Name two towns which emerged as important centres of weaving in India in the late 19th century.
Ans. Sholapur in Western India and Madura in South India.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What do you know about Samuel Slates?
Ans. In 1790 Samuel Slates, setup the first factory in America. He also setup a cotton spinning mill in Rhode Island, run by water- power. Over the next decade textiles was the dominant industry in the country.
Q.2. Why was there a craze for chintz in England?
Ans. From the 1680s, there started a craze for printed Indian cotton textiles mainly for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness.
Q.3. What happened to the weavers and spinners who lost their livelihood?
Ans. (a) Many weavers became agricultural labourers.
(b) Some migrated to cities in search of work, and yet others went out of the country to work in plantations in Africa and South America.
(c) Some of the handloom weavers also found work in the new cotton mills that were established in Bombay (now Mumbai), Ahmedabad, Sholapur, Nagpur and Kanpur.
Q.4. When and where was first cotton mill set-up in India? How did this place grew as an important centre?
Ans. The first cotton mill in India was set up as a spinning mill in Bombay in 1854.
Bombay grew as an important centre in the following ways:
1. From the early nineteenth century, Bombay had grown as an important port of the export of raw cotton from India to England and China.
2. It was close to the vast black soil tract of western India where cotton was grown.
3. By 1900, over 84 mills started opening in Bombay. Many of these were established by Parsi and Gujarati businessmen who made their money through trade with China. Cotton textile mills came up and they got supplies of raw material with ease.
Q.5. Who were weavers? Name some communities famous for weaving.
Ans. Weavers belonged to communities that specialised in weaving. Their skills were passed on from one generation to the next.
Some of the communities famous for weaving during the 18th century were:
(a) The tanti weavers of Bengal.
(b) The Julahas or momin weavers of North India.
(c) Sale and Kaikollar and devangs of South India.
Q.6. Give two reasons why Indian textiles were renowned all over the world?
Ans. Their fine quality and beautiful craftsmanship made Indian textiles renowned all over the world.
Q.7. Why were printed Indian cotton textiles popular in England?
Ans. Printed Indian cotton textiles were popular in England for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness.
Q.8. Why was the Wootz steel making process completely lost by the mid-19th century?
Ans. There were two reasons for it:
(a) The sword and armour making industry died with the conquest of India by the British.
(b) Imports of iron and steel from England displaced the iron and steel produced by craftsmen in India.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Write any four causes which are responsible for the decline of cotton textile industry in India.
Ans. Causes responsible for the decline of cotton textile industry in India are as follow:
1. With the expansion of the British Empire, the Indian handicraft industry lost the royal patronage of local rulers and nobles.
2. With the absence of the encouragement from the government, The Indian handicraft industry suffered a lot.
3. To feed their industries in their home country the British required huge amount of raw materials, which were easily available in bulk in the Indian market.
4. To discourage export of Indian goods, heavy export duties were levied on Indian goods. On the other hand, tax was not imposed on British made goods.
Q.2. Describe the impact of the decline of Indian cotton textile industries.
Ans. Impact of the decline of cotton textile industries:
1. The decline of Indian handicraft transformed the nature of Indian economy.
2. Indian goods were not accepted in the British markets while Indian markets were flooded with British goods.
3. Indian artisans became unemployed.
4. The demand of raw material increased the pressure on Indian agriculture.
5. The Company forced the farmers to grow cash crops such as cotton and indigo, in order to feed the manufacturing industry in Britain.
Q.3. Discuss in detail history of the beginning of cotton textile industries in India.
Ans. 1. The first cotton mill in India was set up as a spinning mill in Bombay in 1854.
2. From the early 19th century, Bombay had grown as an important part for the export of raw cotton from England and China.
3. Mills came up in other cities too. The first mill in Ahmedabad was started in 1861. A year later a mill was established in Kanpur in the United Provinces.
4. Thousands of poor peasants, artisans and agricultural labourers moved to the cities to work in the mill.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. How were Indian textiles viewed in the world market?
Ans. Around 1750, before the British conquered Bengal, India was by far the world’s largest producer of cotton textiles.
(a) Indian textiles had long been renowned both for their fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship.
(b) They were extensively traded in S.E. Asia (Java, Sumatra and Penang), West and Central Asia.
(c) From the 16th century European trading companies began buying Indian textiles for sale in Europe.
Q.2. Exporting textiles to England also become increasingly difficult. Give reason.
Ans. Exporting textiles to England also become increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported to Britain.
Q.3. Handloom production did not completely die in India. Why?
Ans. Handloom weaving did not completely die in India. This was so because:
(a) Some types of cloths could not be supplied by machines. How could machines produce saris with intricate borders on cloths with traditional woven patterns.
(b) Nor did the textile manufacturers in Britain produce the very coarse cloths used by the poor people in India.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. What technological innovations were made during 18th century?
Ans. Following technological innovations were made during the 18th century:
(a) In 1769, the spinning jenny was invented by John Kaye which increased the productivity of the traditional spindles.
(b) The invention of steam engine by Richard Art Wright in 1789 revolutionised cotton textile weaving.
Q.2. How did charkha became an important part of national movement?
What did Mahatma Gandhi urged people during national movement?
Ans. In the late nineteenth century, Mahatma Gandhi urged the people to boycott imported textile and use hand spun and hand woven clothes. These were spun using charkha. Khadi gradually became a symbol of nationalism during the national movement. In this case, the charkha was the traditional spinning instrument that came to represent India and it was put at the centre of the tricolour flag of the Indian National Congress adopted in 1931.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
A. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✔) the correct of option
1. When did the First World War break out?
Ans. (a) 1914
2. Give full form for TISCO:
(a) Tata Iron and Steel Corporation.
(b) Triumphant Institute of Science Company.
(c) Tata Iron and Steel Company.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) Tata Iron and Steel Company.
3. Which American accompanied Dorabji Tata to set-up TISCO?
(a) Robert Brown.
(b) Charles Weld.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (b) Charles Weld.
4. Name a revolutionary whose sword is smelted with Wootz steel:
(a) Bhagat singh.
(b) Rani Laxmi Bai.
(c) Nana Sahab.
(d) Tipu Sultan.
Ans. (d) Tipu Sultan.
5. Which of the following does not refer to a cotton textile?
Ans. (d) Muslin.
6. Name the cotton textile’s legislation passed in 1720:
(a) Silken Act.
(b) Calico Act.
(c) Cotton Act.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) Cotton Act.
7. Which of these is not a weaving community of South India?
Ans. (b) Julahas.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. Look at the given picture and answer the questions that follow:
1. What is a Tanti weaver doing?
Ans. The Tanti weaver is here at work in the pit loom.
2. Where might they hail from?
Ans. They might hail from Bengal.
Q.2. Look at the picture and answer the questions that follow:
1. What pattern is shown?
2. Where is it mainly produced?
Ans. In Rajasthan and Gujarat.
3. Why does the line separate two patterns?
Ans. This is because two tie and dye patterns are seemed together with gold thread embroidery.