NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 How, When and Where?

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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 How, When and Where? Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 How, When and Where? and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 How, When and Where? Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.

NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 How, When and Where?

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 How, When and Where?, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

How, When and Where?

Chapter: 1




Imagine that you are a historian wanting to find out about how agriculture changed in a remote tribal area after independence. List the different ways in which you would find information on this.

Ans. (i) I will consult administrative records related to the agriculture in tribal areas.

(ii) I will study the old reports and notices.

(iii) I will also find information from the documents produced by different scholars-Indians as well as the Europeans.


Q.1. State whether true or false:

(a) James Mill divided Indian history into three periods: Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

Ans. False.

(b) Official documents help us understand what the people of the country think.

Ans. False.

(c) The British thought surveys were important for effective administration.

Ans. True.


Q.2. What is the problem with the periodisation of Indian history that James Mill offers?

Ans. (a) James Mill divided history on the basis of religion of the rulers of the times. However, a variety of faiths existed simultaneously in these periods.

(b) Mill, through his periodisation suggested that British rule could civilise India. He was of the opinion that the British should conquer all the territories in India to ensure the enlightenment and happiness of the Indian people. He thought that India was not capable of progress without British help.

Q.3. Why did the British preserve official documents?

Ans. The British preserved official documents because they liked to have permanent record of every instruction, plan, policy, agreement, etc. They believed that things could be properly studied and debated once we had such records.

Q.4. How will the information historians get from old newspapers be different from that. found in police reports?

Ans. The information in police reports tells us only about what officials thought, what they were interested in and what they wished to preserve for posterity.

However, the information from old newspapers tell as about the feelings and actions of other (common) people of the country.


Q.5. Can you think of examples of surveys in your world today? Think about how toy companies get information about what young people enjoy playing with or how the government finds out about the number of the young people in school. What can a historian derive from such surveys?

Ans. Yes, there are many examples of surveys in world today. The administrative, botanical and market surveys help to know about the needs and aspirations of the people.

The government finds out about the information of employees through the records and reports of school authorities.



Q.1. Into how many periods does a historian classify Indian History?

Ans. A historian classify Indian History into three periods. 

These periods are:

(i) Ancient History.

(ii) Medieval History.

(iii) Modern History.

Q.2. Who was James Mill? Name the book written by him.

Ans. James Mill was a Scottish economist and philosopher. He published a book named “A History of British India”. 

Q.3. How did James Mill classify Indian History?

Ans. James Mill classified Indian History into periods, i.e.:

(i) Hindu period.

(ii) Muslim period.

(ii) British period.

Q.4. When did modern age began in Europe and in India?

Ans. Modern period began in Europe from the 16th century while in India it began from 18th century.

Q.5. What is colonialism? 

Ans. The exploitation and control over the resources of a weaker or a under developed country by a powerful country to strengthen its resources through political, economic and social policies is known as colonialism.

Q.6. What is periodisation?

Ans. Pondering any event into period is called periodisation.

Q.7. What is meant by word ‘source’? 

Ans. The word ‘source’ refers to any piece of writing, books, manuscripts, travelogues, inscriptions, coins, monuments or any evidence of a particular period by studying which historian reconstruct history. 

Q.8. Who is a calligraphist?

Ans. One who is specialised in the art of beautiful hand writing is called a calligraphist.

Q.9. What are the two types of sources for studying Modern History?

Ans. Two types of sources for studying Modern History are:

(i) Primary sources.

(ii) Secondary sources.

Q.10. What includes in primary sources of history?

Ans. Primary sources of History include archaeological sources, original documents, photographs, newspapers, magazine, pamphlets.

Q.11. Why do we divide history into chapters?

Ans. We divide history into chapters to tell some events or a story in chronological order to make sense. It also gives each chapter some coherence.

Q.12. Who was the first Surveyor General of India? 

Ans. The first Surveyor General of India was George Everest.

Q.13. Why do we called history our past?

Ans. We call our history our past because it is about finding out how things were in the past and how they have changed. We compare them and refer to them as ‘before’ or after. 

Q.14. Define the term ‘Colony’..

Ans. Colony means the country or territory which is under another country’s domination.

Q.15. What is periodisation?

Ans. The demarcation of history into different periods according to the changes that took place at that times is called periodisation.

Q.16. How were records preserved during the British rule?

Ans. Archives and museums were established to preserve important records.

Q.17. Who wrote the book ‘A history of British India’?

Ans. James Mill.


Q.1. Differentiate between primary and secondary sources of studying history in brief.

Ans. Primary Sources: The literary evidence and all original documents together comprise of primary sources. Manuscripts, paintings, inscriptions, film, etc., are the examples of primary sources.

Secondary Sources: These sources refer to those accounts, works, etc., which are based on primary sources. Several records, official documents, etc., are the examples of secondary sources.

Q.2. What are archives? Why are they important? Explain in brief.

Ans. Archives are the places where government records and documents are preserved. Archives are important because they provide us first hand information about the event.

Q.3. Why did surveys became a common practice under the colonial administration in India?

Ans. The practice of surveying became common under the colonial administration in India because the British believed that a country had to be properly known before it could be effectively administered.

Q.4. What are the events that are usually recorded in history books?

Ans. The events that are usually recorded in history books are those of wars, crowning of kings and events related to kingdom and the lives of rulers.

Q.5. What do official records not tell? 

Ans. The official records do not tell us the following:

(a) They do not tell about the needs of people of India.

(b) Many official records hide the truth and show only one aspect of the event.

Q. 6. How were the historians able to write about the last 250 years of Indian history?

Ans. The historians were able to write about the last 250 years of Indian history from the official records maintained by the British Administration.


Q.1. What were the kinds of surveys the British conducted in the early nineteenth century?

Ans. By the early nineteenth century, the British conducted following surveys:

(a) Revenue surveys were conducted in villages to know about the topography, the soil quality, the flora and the fauna, the local histories and the cropping pattern.

(b) Census operations were held to know the detailed records of the number of people, religions and occupations.

(c) Botanical surveys, archaeological surveys, anthropological surveys, forests surveys, etc.

Q.2. Describe James Mill’s opinion about the British rule in India.

Ans. James Mills’ opinion about British rule in India was: 

(a) British rule, Mill felt could civilise India.

(b) He suggested that the British should conquer all the territories in India to ensure the enlightenment and happiness of the Indian people. For India was not capable of progress without British help.

(c) The period before the British rule was one of darkness. Before the British came to India, Hindu and Muslim despots ruled the country and religious intolerance, caste taboos and superstitious practices dominated the social life.

Q.3. Historians divide Indian history into ancient, mediaeval and modern period. This division has its problems. What are these problems?

Ans. Historians divide Indian history into three periods. These periods are Ancient, Medieval and Modern. 

This division has its problems such as:

(a) This periodisation of Indian history is borrowed from the west, where modern period was associated with the growth of all stances of Modernity such as science, reasons, democracy, liberty and equality.

(b) Medieval was the term used to describe a society where these features of modern society did not exist. It is difficult to accept this characterisation of modern society.

(c) Under the British rule, people did not have equality, freedom or liberty. Nor was the period one of economic growth and progress. Many historians therefore refer to this as colonial.


Q.1. How are dates important? Discuss.

Ans. Dates are important in history as:

(i) In the past, historians were fascinated with dates.

(ii) Our comparison of the past with present refers to time.

(in) All these events occurred in different span of time.

(iv) There is no clear date for a process to complete.

(v) Dates are important, when we are describing about before, after and when.

Q.2. Why did the British preserved official documents?

Ans. Britishers preserved official documents because:

(a) Official records of the British administration served as an important source of history.

(b) The British rulers believed that every instruction, plan, policy, decision, agreement etc. should be clearly written up.

(c) This was necessary for proper study and debate about the issue.


Q.1. How important are dates in the study of history?

Ans. Dates in history are linked to events. For some events, like battles, specific dates can be assigned. But for some processes there can be no fixed dates. These process take place over a long period of time and we can only assign a particular century or period to them.

Q.2. The American and French Revolution changes the lives of millions of people around the world. What value did they fight for?

Ans. (a) Both American and French Revolution are the two most important events of the modern history. The ideas of the revolutions: liberty, equality and fraternity inspired the millions of people through out the world.

(b) They inspired the people to rebel against domination and exploitation and fight for freedom and democracy.

(c) The idea of Nationalism was spread by these revolutions in the entire world.


Q.1. Write True or False for each of the following statement: 

(i) Dates in history are linked to events.

Ans. True.

(ii) Interpretations are same in history.

Ans. False.

(iii) Official records are archaeological sources. 

Ans. False.

(iv) French Revolution begin in 1776.

Ans. False.

(v) There is lack of sources to reconstruct Modern History. 

Ans. False.

(vi) The British came to India to know about its great culture.

Ans. False.

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

(i) The History of British India is a massive __________work.

Ans. Three volume.

(ii) The colonial government give much importance to the practice of ____________.

Ans. Surveying.

(iii) The last Viceroy of British India was ___________.

Ans. Lord Mountbatten.

(iv) James Mill divided History into ____________. period.

Ans. Three.

(v) The National Archives of India was set up in ___________.

Ans. 1920.

(vi) Census Operations are held __________.

Ans. Every ten years.

(vii) The History of British India was written by ____________.

Ans. James Mill.

Multiple Choice Question Tick (✔) the correct of option from the given below four alternatives:

1. This century is also taken as the beginning of the modern period in India.

(a) 16th.

(b) 17th.

( c ) 15th.

(d) 18th.

Ans. (d) 18th.

3. When did Modern Age began in Europe?

(a) 16th century.

(b) 12th century.

(c) 17th Century.

(d) 19th century.

Ans. (a) 16th century.

4. When was History of British India Published by James Mill?

(a) In 1816 

(b) In 1817

(c) In 1819

(d) In 1815

Ans. (b) In 1817

5. Who introduced the culture of recording everything?

(a) Mughals.

(b) British.

(c) Delhi Sultans.

(d) French.

Ans. (b) British.

6. Which of these are the sources of history? 

(a) Census survey.

(b) Survey records.

(c) Anthropological and Archaeological surveys. 

(d) All of the above.

Ans. (d) All of the above.

7. Diaries and accounts of pilgrims are examples of: 

(a) Official records.

(b) Survey report.

(c) Foreign records.

(d) Indigenous records.

Ans. (d) Indigenous records.


Q.1. Look at the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Explain in brief how this image projects an imperial perception.

Ans. Rennel was asked by Robert Clive to produce maps of Hindustan. Rennel, was an ardent supporter of British conquest of India and saw preparation of map as essential to the process of domination.

(b) What does the picture trying to depict?

Ans. The picture trying to depicts that Indians willingly gave over the ancient text to Britannia-the symbol of British power. In this way, the image projects an imperial perception because of the Britannia dominates the scene.

(c) How does the image project an imperial perception?

Ans. This image depicts the imperial superiority. The image of iron symbolised superior power. The empire superior giver and its subjects are always loyal to the throne.

Q.2. Look at the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Identify and name this picture.

Ans. This is the picture of the National Archives of India.

(b) When did it came up?

Ans. It came up in 1920s.

(c) Where is it?

Ans. It is in Delhi.

Q.3. Look at the given picture carefully and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Who started survey in India? 

Ans. The British started surveying in India.

(b) Why did they start surveying?

Ans. The British believed that if the counting had to be properly known before it could be effectively administrated. That is why practice of surveying become common in colonial rule.

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