NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 29 Urban Livelihoods

NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 29 Urban Livelihoods Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 29 Urban Livelihoods and select need one. NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 29 Urban Livelihoods Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 6 Solutions.

NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 29 Urban Livelihoods

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 29 Urban Livelihoods, NCERT Class 6 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – I: History, The Earth – Our Habitat: Geography, Social and political Life: Civics. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Urban Livelihoods

Chapter: 29



Q. 1. Read and discuss the following description of the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk. 

Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation and so sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay 6 a night for a bed at a nearby night shelter run by the Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops for the night for safekeeping, and pass on any extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safely and also offer loans to labourers in need.  

Source: Aman Sethi, Hindu On-line

Ans. Labourers whose work is not permanent find regular work to go to Labour chowk. They get hope of source of income. At labour chowk workers get work at available time, but cannot afford permanent job. There work is only for one or two days. They depend on ‘Rein Vasera’ built by Municipal Corporation. They do not earn on daily basis. They earn and only spend on families. They have to borrow money from moneylenders.

Q. 2. Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different:

Ans. (a) Name – Bachchu Manjhi.

Place of work – No.

Earnings – 100 a day.

Security of work – No. 

Benefits received – Saving spend on expenditure of his family.

Work on their own or employed – Self employed.

(b) Name – Harpreet, Vandana.

Place of work – Readymade showroom.

Earnings – Good economy growth. 

Security of work – Yes, own business.

Benefits received – Increase/profit in income

Work on their own or employed – Work on their own.

(c) Name – Nirmala.

Place of work – Garment factory.

Earnings – ₹ 80 per day + 40 for overtime.

Security of work-No security.

Benefits received – Only summer season, when business is on full swing.

Work on their own or employed – was employed. 

(d) Name – Sudha

Place of work – Company. 

Earnings – ₹ 30,000 pm

Security of work – Yes.

Benefits received-She received Provident funds, Medical facilities, Holidays on Sundays and other leaves.

Q. 3. In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.

Ans. The differences between permanent or regular jobs and a casual job.

Permanent JobCasual Job
(1) Here people gets a regular salary every month.(1) They did not get a regular salary.
(2) Working condition is not good.(2) Working conditions may not be desirable.
(3) They have fixed working hours.(3) The working hours may be very long.
(4) They get old age savings.(4) They do not get permanent employment.

Q. 4. What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?

Ans. Benefits that Sudha get along with her salary are:

(a) Sudha get Provident Fund.

(b) She has off day on Sunday, national festivals and other annual leaves.

(c) Her company provide her medical facilities.

(d) She also takes medical leave whenever she feel ill.

Q. 5. Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in the markets which you visit frequently.

Name of the shop or officeNature of the service provided


Name of the shop or officeNature of the service provided
1. Kirana shop.Raw materials for cooking.
2. Chemist shop.To buy medicine for oneself.
3. Electricity shop.To deposit electricity bill and to complaint against the supply of electricity.
4. Municipal counselor’s office.To provide facilities like street light etc.



Q. 1. Who is Bachchu Manjhi? 

Ans. Bachchu Manjhi was a cycle rickshaw puller.

Q. 2. Name one business carried out on the street. 

Ans. One business carried out on the street is vegetable selling.

Q. 3. How are casual workers paid?

Ans. Casual workers are paid according to the working hours. The working hours are very long and the payment is less.

Q. 4. What are the occupations in urban areas?

Ans. The occupations in urban areas are:

(a) Primary occupation. 

(b) Secondary occupation 

(c) Tertiary occupation.

Q. 5. Define street vendors.

Ans. People who work on streets to earn their living are called street vendors. For example, vegetable vendors, florists, cobblers, rickshaw pullers etc. 

Q. 6. Why is government considering a relaxation of laws concerning street vendors?

Ans. Government is considering a relaxation of laws concerning street vendors so that their right to earn a livelihood is recognised.

Q. 7. What do you understand by Urban Livelihood? 

Ans. The occupations adopted by people in the cities and towns are known as urban livelihood.

Q. 8. What kind of shops can you find in a local market?

Ans. In a local market then are many shops such as shops selling utensils, crockery, electronic goods such as T.V., refrigerators and music systems. There are also shops selling clothes, footwear and toys.

Q. 9. Who are called self employed?

Ans. Self employed is a situation in which an individual works for himself instead of working for an employer who pays him salary or a wage.

Q. 10. Define casual labourers.

Ans. Workers who are employed on a temporary basis i.e., they get work as and when required by the worker.

Q. 11. Define Migration. 

Ans. Moving from one place to another is called migration.


Q. 1. How do the migrant workers live in cities? 

Ans. The migrant workers live in cities like:

(a) Vendors on street.

(b) Factory workers. 

(c) Domestic helpers. 

(d) They live in slums.

Q. 2. Who is self employed person? Give three examples.

Ans. Self employed persons are those persons who depend on their own business.

Q. 3. How are lives in urban areas? 

Ans. The lives in the urban areas are relatively prosperous. People hire domestic help who work as maid. Street vendors or hawkers are an important part of the urban economy as they have been providing different services and goods to the middle and lower middle class urban population for decades.


Q. 1. What is the condition of street vendors in our country?

Ans. The condition of street vendors in the country can be explained as follows:

(a) Street vending was till recently looked upon only as an obstruction to traffic and to people walking. 

(b) However with the effort of many organizations it is now recognised as a general benefit and as a right of people to earn their livelihood. 

The government is thinking about modifying the law that banned street vendors, so that they have to place to work and that there is also a free flow of traffic and people.

Q. 2. What steps have been taken by the government to stop migration? 

Ans. Government has taken following steps to stop migration:

(a) Government has introduced skill development and self help groups.

(b) Government is generating self employment opportunities. 

(c) Government is starting industrial training institutions and loan facilities for setting up. Cottage and small scale industries.

Q. 3. Differentiate between Urban and Rural livelihood. 


Urban LivelihoodRural Livelihood
1. People of urban areas are surrounded by man-made empowerment and seperated from the natural habitat.1. People of rural areas are close to nature.
2. People living in urban areas are largely professionals. Many of these are also involved in manufacturing trade and business.2. Farming is the main activity of people living in rural areas. Besides, some people are engaged in non-agricultural activities as well.
3. Urban communities are class based.3. Rural communities are caste based.
4. Literary rate is much higher.4. Literary rate is quite low.
5. Status of women is much lower. They are more educated and enjoy more liberty.5. Status of women is much lower.

Q. 4. How are street vendors important for economy? 

Ans. Street vendors are important for an economy in the following ways:

(a) Street vendors are an important part of the economy as they have been providing different services and goods to the middle and lower middle class urban population for decades. 

(b) Tea hawkers on small crossings and intersections offer a social gathering place where the poor and middle class population assemble and share their thoughts and experiences over a cup of tea after a tiring day at work.

Q. 5. What are the benefits available to regular workers?


What advantages do we get in a permanent job? 

Ans. Regular employees enjoy the following benefits:

(a) They receives a fixed salary every month. 

(b) Every month a part of his/her salary is kept in a fund with the government. These are the savings when he/she receives at the time of retirement.

(c) He/she gets holidays like Sundays and other national holidays. Besides these, they get annual leave, medical leave etc. 

(d) The company also pays his/her medical bills up to a certain amount.

Q. 6. Differentiate between Regular Employment and Wage Earners.


Regular EmploymentWage Earners
1. People are employed on a regular basis.1. People are employed on a temporary basis.
2. They have a fixed salary.2. Salary is not fixed.
3. There is job security.3. There is no job security.

Q. 7. Name the four professions of urban livelihood.

Ans. The four professionals of urban livelihood are: 

(a) Teachers and lecturers in schools and colleges.

(b) Garment export units which fabricate garment of different types to other countries. 

(c) A larger part of the urban population is self employed or works in shopping malls.

(d) Skillful cooks and managers in different hotels and restaurants.


Q. 1. Why casual worker’s job is not permanent?

Ans. Casual workers are those workers who are employed on a temporary basis, ie, they are called for the work when required by the employer. There is no job security for them and their services can be terminated at the will of the employer. They have to work for very long hours.

Q. 2. Name and explain the three different types of occupations. 

Ans. There are three types of occupations: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.

(a) Primary occupations: Those occupations that are related to land, such as agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry and mining.

(b) Secondary occupations: Those occupations which involve the transformation of raw materials into finished products. All manufacturing industries or factories who uses raw materials and change them to finished products perform secondary activities such as the transformation of raw cotton into cotton cloth.

(c) Tertiary occupations: Those occupations which include all services such as banking, transport, teaching, communication, trade etc. It also refers to those activities which are neither primary nor secondary.

Q. 3. Why do people migrate to cities? 

Ans. People migrate to cities because of following:

(a) Lack of educational facilities in villages.

(b) Lack of health care and medical facilities.

(c) Desire of rural population to improve their standard of living. 

(d) To overcome the seasonal nature of agriculture.

Q. 4. What measures have been taken by the government to protect street vendors?

Ans. Government has taken the following steps to protect the rights of street vendors:

(a) Hawking zones have been suggested for towns and cities.

(b) It has also been suggested that middle vendors should be allowed to move around freely.


Q. 1. Why are occupational activities in village different from those in the cities? 

Ans. The occupational activities in village is different from those in the cities because: In the rural areas:

(a) In the village the occupation of the people is fishing and agriculture. These are called as primary occupation.

(b) Their main occupation is agriculture.

(c) Seventy percent of our population lives in the villages.

(d) There are big, small and landless farmers. 

(e) They have bigger land areas for irrigation facilities.

(f) There are modern methods of cultivation like high quality seeds, fertilizers etc. 

In the cities or urban areas:

(a) People are either self employed or employed in government offices, companies, banks, hospitals, education institutions, trading and business concerns. 

(b) He may be a businessman, a trader, a builder or a decorator.

(c) There are businessmen who manage their own shops.

(d) There are many people employed as workers in these concerns. 

Q. 2. Why call centres have become very popular in cities?

Ans. Call centres have become very popular in the cities because: 

(a) Persons in the call centres are well versed in English.

(b) The call centres are well versed in all forms like computers, telephones and are linked with Indian and foreign companies.

(c) It even sorts out to deal with the problems faced by customers and consumers all over the world.

Q. 3. What are problems of migration?

Ans. There are several problems of migration. 

These are as follows:

(a) Overcrowding.

(b) Lack of adequate housing.

(c) Sanitation problem.

(d) Fewer jobs.

Thus, it means that cities have become more polluted and congested.



Tick (✓) the correct option:

(a) Which of the following is known as Financial capital of India?

(i) Kolkata.

(ii) Delhi.

(iii) Mumbai.

Ans. (iii) Mumbai.

(b) Agriculture and mining are a few examples of _________occupations.

(i) Primary.

(ii) Tertiary.

(iii) Secondary.

Ans. (i) Primary.

(c) Nirmala is an example of _________.

(i) Self-employed 

(ii) Unemployed.

(iii) Casual worker.

Ans. (iii) Casual worker.

(d) SEWA helps _________.

(i) Rural Women.

(ii) Urban Women.

(iii) Poor Women.

(iv) All Women.

Ans. (iii) Poor Women. 

(e) Certain parts of the city are banned for ___________.

(i) Government workers.

(ii) Factory workers.

(iii) Street vendors.

(iv) Newspaper sellers.

Ans. (iii) Street vendors. 

(f) The density of population in urban areas is ___________.

(i) high.

(ii) low.

(iii) medium.

(iv) zero.

Ans. (i) high.

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