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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 10 The Changing World of Visual Arts
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The Changing World of Visual Arts
OUR PASTS – III [HISTORY PART – II]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Imagine you are a painter living in the early twentieth century India trying to develop a “national” style of painting. What elements discussed in this chapter will form part of the style? Explain your choice.
Ans. The elements of paintings of my choice related with a national style of painting will be:
1. National flag.
2. National symbols.
3. National Animals and National birds.
4. Some freedom fighters and national birds.
5. Some topics from Epic- Mahabharata, Shrimadbhagwad Geera, Ramayana.
6. Some topics related with Buddha’s life and Buddhism.
7. Some topics related with Vardhman Mahavir and Jainsm.
8. All Sikh gurus.
9. Some Sufi saints.
10. Some socio-religious reformers.
11. Some framers of Indians Constitution.
12. Historical buildings, historical temples, forst, tombs, remain, sculptures, scenes from village temples, wells, tanks, streams, green lakes, gardens, etc.
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture exactly what the eye saw is called ______________.
(b) The style of painting which showed Indian landscape as quaint, unexplored land is called _____________.
Ans. Pictures Square.
(c) Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called _____________.
(d) Paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their victories are called ______________.
Q.2. Point out which of the following were brought in with British art:
(a) Oil painting.
(c) Life size portrait painting
(d) Use of perspective.
(e) Mural art.
Ans. (a) Oil Painting: It was brought in with the British art. It is technique with which Indian artists were not familiar.
(b) Miniatures: The technique already prevailed in India. Indian tradition of painting in India Indian tradition of painting portraits in miniature.
(c) Life-size portrait painting: It became popular during the British rule. Colonial portraits were life-size images that looked life-like and real. This new style of portraiture also served as an ideal means of displaying the lavish life style, wealth and status that the empire generated.
(d) Use of perspective: This technique also became more popular during the colonial rule. It was a technique of art of drawing solid objects in their natural appearance and relation.
Q.3. Describe in your own words one painting from this chapter which suggests that the British were more powerful than Indians. How does the artist depict this?
Ans. Look at the picture given below carefully:
The painting which depicts the discovery of the body of Tipu Sultan shows the British as more powerful than Indians. In this painting, the British General is shown as if standing on a high pedestal and exuding all the confidence, on the other hand, Tipu Sultan is shown half naked and lifeless lying in the dark recess.
The painting appears to announce that those who dare to challenge the British authority would meet the same fate.
Q.4. Why did the scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes?
Ans. (a) Scroll painters and potter came to Kalighat because of the following reasons:
1. This was a time when the city was expanding as a commercial and administrative center.
2. The British colonial offices were coming up in new huge buildings and road were being build, markets were being established. The city appeared as a place of opportunity where people could come to make a new living.
3. Villages artists too come and settled in the city in the hope of new patrons and new buyers of their art.
Living in a society where values, tastes, social norms and customs were undergoing rapid changes, Kalighat artists responded to the world around and produced paintings on social and political themes.
Q.5. Why can we think of Raja Ravi Verma’s paintings as national?
Ans. Raja Ravi Verma of Travancore (Kerala):
(i) A brief introducing: Raja Ravi Verma was one of the first artists who tried to create a style that was both modern and national.
(ii) Verma painted themes from Indian Mythology. He dramatized on Canvas scene after scene from Ramayana and Mahabharata, drawing on the theatrical performances of Mythological stories that he witnessed during his tour of the Bombay presidency.
Q.6. In what way did the British history paintings in India reflect the attitudes of imperial conquerors?
Ans. The British history paintings in India reflected the attitudes of Imperial conquerors in the following manner:
(a) The British history sought to dramatize and recreate various episodes of British imperial history.
(b) These paintings celebrated the British power, their victories and their supremacy.
(c) The imperial history paintings attempted to create a public memory of imperial triumphs.
Q.7. Why do you think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art?
Ans. I think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art due to following reasons:
(i) Towards the end of the nineteenth century, a stronger convention was established between art and nationalism.
(ii) There was a huge popular appeal of Mythological stories. Paintings related with different scenes from the Mahabharata including (Shrimadbhagwata Geeta).
(iii) Some Bengali painters artists felt that a genuine Indian style of painting had to draw inspiration from non-western and tradition and they tried to capture the spiritual essence of the East. So they broke away from the convention of oil painting and the realistic style and towards for inspiration to medieval Indian tradition of miniature painting and the ancient art of mural painting in the Ajanta Caves.
(iv) There were some Indian artists and painters who felt that artists had to explore real life instead of illustrating ancient books and look for inspiration from living folk art and tribal designs of different regions of India rather than ancient or medieval art forms.
Q.8. Why did some artists produce cheap popular prints? What influence would such prints have had on the minds of people who looked at them?
Ans. Some artists produced cheap popular prints so that colour prints of religious paintings could be bought even by the poor people.
With the spread of nationalism, the popular prints of the early 20th century began carrying nationalist messages. Such popular prints would have inspired people to fight British rule.
Q.9. Look at any tradition of art in your locality. Find out how its has changed in the last 50 years. you may check who supports the artists, and who looks at their art. Remember to examine the changes in styles and themes.
Ans. Do it your self.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. When was railway introduced in India?
Ans. The British introduced in India in 1853.
Q.2. When was the first printing press set up in India and by whom?
Ans. In India, the first printing press was set up by the Portuguese missionary in Goa 1557.
Q.3. Define the term engraving.
Ans. A picture printed onto paper from a piece of wood or metal into which the design or drawing has been cut in known as engraving.
Q.4. What is portrait?
Ans. A picture of person in which the face and its expression is prominent is called portrait.
Q.5. When did a stream of European artists came to India and what did they brought with them?
Ans. From the eighteenth century a stream of European artists came to India along with the British traders and rulers. They bought with them a new styles and new conventions of painting.
Q.6. Who brought the idea of realism?
Ans. European artists brought with them the idea of realism. This was a belief that artists had to observe carefully and depict faithfully what the eye saw.
Q.7. What is convention?
Ans. An accepted norm or style is called convention.
Q.8. Give examples of new things introduced by the British in India in the field of arts.
Ans. A grand public building with domes, columns and arches, a scenic landscape, the realistic human image in portrait or popular icons of gods and goddesses a mechanically printed and mass produced pictures.
Q.9. What these new things was introduced by the colonial rule in India?
Ans. (a) New art forms.
(b) New style.
(c) New materials.
Q.10. What was the idea of realism?
Ans. It is the idea that artists had to observe carefully and depict faithfully what the eyes saw when the artists produced what expected to look real and life like.
Q.11. What is portraiture?
Ans. The art of making portraits is known as portraiture.
Q.12. What were the three categories of Imperial Art?
Ans. Three categories of Imperial Art were:
(a) Landscape Painting.
(b) Portrait Painting.
(c) History Painting.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Who brought with them the idea of realism? What do you know about this? Write in brief.
Ans. European artists brought with then the idea of realism.
It had the following features:
(a) Realism was a belief that artists had to observe carefully and depict faithfully what the eye saw.
(b) What the artist produced was expected to look real and life like.
(c) European artists also brought alb with them the technique of oil painting which enabled artists to produce images that looked real.
Q.2. Why did portrait painting became popular? How did it attract European portrait painters?
Ans. Portrait painting became important because of the following reasons:
(a) The rich and the powerful, both British and India, wanted to see themselves on canvas.
(b) Under the existing Indian tradition of painting portraits in miniature, colonial portraits were life size images that looked life like and real.
(c) The size of the paintings itself projected the importance of the patrons who commissioned these portraits.
(d) The new styles of portraiture also served as an ideal means of displaying the lavish lifestyles, wealth and status that the empire generated.
As portrait painting became popular, many European painters came to India in search of profitable commissions. One of the most famous of the vesting European painter was Johan Zoffany. Many of the Indian nawabs too began commissioning imposing oil portraits by European painters.
Q.3. What were the features of the portrait painting?
Ans. Portrait painting had the following features:
(a) The rich and the powerful, both British and Indian wanted to see themselves on canvas.
(b) Unlike the existing Indian tradition of painting portraits in miniature, colonial portraits were life size images that looked life like and real.
(c) The size of the paintings itself projected. The importance of the patrons who commissioned these portraits which served as an ideal means of displaying the lavish lifestyles, wealth and status that the empire generated.
Q.4. How did imperial history paintings sought to creat a public memory of imperial triumphs?
Ans. Imperial history paintings sought to create a public memory of imperial triumphs. This can be proved through the following points.
(a) Francis Hayman depicted the defeat of Sirjauddualah in the Battle of Plassey. This painting was placed on public display in the Vauxhall Gardens in London. The painting shows Lord Clive being welcomed by Mir Jafar and his troops after the Battle of Plassey.
(b) Tipu Sultan of Mysore was defeated by the Britishers in the famous battle of Seringapatam. This was beautifully depicted through paintings where the british troops are shown storming the fort from all sides, culting Tipu’s soldiers to pieces, climbing the walls, raising the British flag aloft on the ramparts of Tipu’s fort. It is a painting full of action and energy.
Q.5. What does the colonial architectural styles tell us?
Ans. Colonial architectural styles throw lights on many things:
1. It provides us important information about the ideas perspective and viewpoints of patrons or rulers who constructed them.
2. Architectural patterns not only reflected the conventional tastes but also depicted the popular styles and shapes belonging to the different cultures.
3. For example, many Indians adopted European styles as they considered them as symbols of modernity and civilization.
4. However, there were many who preserved the local styles.
5. There were some other Indians who accepted a few elements of the west which they considered modern and mixed them with local style as per their convenience.
Q.6. Why did Indian Nawabs began commissioning imposing oil portraits by European painters?
Ans. 1. Many Indian Nawabs began commissioning imposing oil portraits by European painters. The British posted residents in Indian courts and began controlling the affairs of the states, undermining the powers of the kings.
2. Some of these Nawabs reacted against this interference; others accepted the political and cultural superiority of the British. They hoped to socialize with the British and adopted their styles and tastes.
3. Muhammad Ali Khan was one such Nawab. After a war with the British in the 1770s he became a dependent pensioner on the East India company. But he nonetheless commissioned two visiting European artists, Tilly Kettle and George Williron to paint his portraits and gifted these paintings to the King of England and the directors of the East India company.
Q.7. Why was Raja Ravi Varma’s paintings rejected by some group of nationalists?
Ans. Raja Ravi Varma was one of the first artist who tried to create a style that was both modern and national.
But his paintings were rejected by some group of nationalists because:
(a) They saw Varma’s paintings as initiative and westernized and declared that such a style was unsuitable for depicting the nation’s ancient myths and legends.
(b) They felt that a genuine Indian style of painting had to draw inspiration from non-western art traditions and try to capture the spiritual essence of the East.
Q.8. What were ‘Company Paintings’?
Ans. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the British employed Indian artists to illustrate the manners and customs of India and to record scenes of monuments, duties, festivals and occupations. These works later came to be known as company paintings, because they were created by Indian artists employed by members of the British East India Company.
LONG TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Write a discretionary note on the artistic skills of Raja Ravi Verma.
Ans. 1. Raja Ravi Verma was one of the first artists who tried to create a style that was both modern and national.
2. He mastered the western art of the oil painting and realistic life study, but painted themes from Indian mythology.
3. He dramatized on canvas scene from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, drawing on the theatrical of Mythological stories that we witnessed during his tour of the Bombay presidency.
4. From the 1880s, Ravi Verma’s mythological paintings become the rage among Indian princes and art collectors who filled their palace galleries with his works.
Q.2. What happened to artists who earlier painted miniature? How did the painters at Indian courts react to the new traditions of imperial art? Explain with example.
Ans. We can see different trends in different courts. In Mysore, Tipu Sultan not only fought the British on the battlefield but also resisted the cultural traditions associated with them. He continued to encourage local traditions and had the walls of his palace at Seringapatam covered with mural paintings done by local artists. This painting celebrates the famous battle of Pollilur of 1780 in which Tipu and Haider Ali defeated the English troops.
In the court of Murshidabad we see a different trend. Here after defeating Sirajuddaulah the British had successfully installed their puppet Nawabs on the throne, first Mir Jafar and Mir Qasim. The court at Murshidabad encouraged local miniature artist to absorb the tastes and artistic styles of the British.
Q.3. What does the colonial buildings and architectural styles tell us?
Ans. 1. Buildings and architectural styles provide us important information about the ideas, perspective and viewpoints of patrons or rulers who constructed them.
2. A particular kind of architectural styles reflects the perception of the masses about authority and power which can be estimated from the attributes, styles and design such as pillars, arches, domes, vaulted roofs etc. of the buildings.
3. Architectural patterns not only reflected the conventional tastes but also depicted the popular styles and shapes belonging to different cultures.
4. For example, many Indians adopted European style as they considered them as symbols of modernity and civilization. However, there were many who preserved the local styles.
5. There were some other Indians who accepted a few elements of the west which thus considered modern and mixed them with local style as per their convenience.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. In the nineteenth century a new world of popular art developed in many of the cities of India especially in and around the pilgrimage center of the temple of Kalighat. Discuss.
Ans. 1. In Bengal, around the pilgrimage center of the temple of Kalighat, local village scroll painters (called patuas) and Petters (called Kumrs in eastern India and Kumhars in North India) began developing a new style of art.
2. Village artists too came and settled city in the hope of new patrons and new buyers of their art.
3. Before the nineteenth century, the village Patuas and Kumors had worked on mythological themes and produced images of gods and goddesses.
4. Kalighat painters began to use shading to give them a rounded form, to make the images look three dimensional. Kalighat paintings in the use of bold, deliberately non-realistic style, whereas the figures emerge large and powerful with a minimum of lines, detail and colors. After the 1840s, we see a new trend with in the Kalighat artists.
5. Many of the late-nineteenth century Kalighat paintings depict social life under British rule.
Q.2. Give a brief sketch of Thomas Daniel and his paintings.
Ans. Thomas Daniel and his nephew William Daniel were the most famous artists of the 18th and the 19th century. Their paintings had the following features.
(a) They produced some of the most evocative picturesque landscapes of Britain’s newly conquered territories in India.
(b) Their large oil paintings on canvas were regularly exhibited to select audiences in Britain and their albums of engravings were eagerly bought up by a British public keen to know about Britain’s empire.
(c) In one of their paintings, they depicted the making of a new Calcutta, with wide avenues, majestic European style buildings and new modes of transport. He contrasted the image of traditional India with that of life under the British rule.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1 Explain the features of Kalighat painting.
Ans. Kalighat painting had the following features:
(a) Kalighat painters began to use shading, to give images a rounded form, to make images look three-dimensional.
(b) Kalighat artists produced paintings on social and political themes.
(c) Often the artists mocked at the changes they saw around, ridiculing the new tastes of those who spoke in English and adopted western habits, dressed like Sahibs and smoked cigarette or sat on chair.
(d) They often expressed the anger of common people against the rich, and the fear many people had about dramatic changes of the social norms.
(e) Initially, the images were engraved in wooden blocks. By the late 19th century mechanical printing press were set up in different parts of India, which allowed prints to be produced in large numbers.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
A. Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who developed as a national style of art?
(a) Satindra Nath Tagore.
(b) Devarikanath Tagore.
(c) Aabindranath Tagore.
(d) Francis Robert.
Ans. (c) Aabindranath Tagore.
2. Who decided to set up a picture production team and printing press in Bombay.
(a) Francis Hayman.
(b) Ravindranath Tagore.
(c) Aabindranath Tagore.
(d) Raja Ravi Verma.
Ans. (d) Raja Ravi Verma.
3. Which of these new things introduced during colonial rule in India?
(a) New art forms.
(b) New style.
(c) New materials.
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
4. Who is the painter of this painting?
(a) Satindranath Tagore.
(b) Devarikanath Tagore.
(c) Aabindranath Tagore.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) Aabindranath Tagore.
5. Where was Johann Zoffany?
Ans. (a) German.
6. Who was Raja Ravi Verma?
(a) An artist.
(b) A photographer.
(c) An architect.
(d) An analyst.
Ans. (b) A photographer.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. Look at the given below. Name the painter and interoperate in your own words.
Q. 1. Name of the painter- Daniells.
Ans. It is a typical example of picturesque landscape. The ruins of such buildings reminds us the past glory, remains of an ancient civilisation that was now in ruins. It was as if this decaying civilisation would change and modernize only through British governance. Actually Daniell’s compares to the image of traditional India with dramatic change and modernizing influence of the British rule.
Q. 2. Look at the given below picture and answer the question that follows:
1. Identify and name this personality.
Ans. Muhammad Ali Khan.
2. Who was he?
Ans. He was the nawab of Arcot.
3. Who made this portrait and when?
Ans. This portrait was painted by George Willinson in 1775.
4. How and when he became a dependent pensioner of the East India Company?
Ans. He became a dependent pensioner of the East India Company after a war with the British in the 1770s.
Q.3. Look at the given below picture and the question that follows:
1. Who was Tipu Sultan?
Ans. Ruler of Mysore.
2. What does this picture depict?
Ans. The celebration of British military triumph in the battle of Seringapatam (now Srirangapatna).
3. Who was defeated in war and when?
Ans. Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the most powerful enemies of the British was defeated in the famous battle of Seringapatam in 1799.
4. How are British troops portraits?
Ans. The British troops are shown storming the fort from all the sides, cutting Tipu’s soldiers to pieces, climbing the walls, raising the British flag aloft on the ramparts of Tipu’s fort. It is a painting full of action and energy.