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NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 11 The Making of the National Movement: 1870s – 1947
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The Making of the National Movement: 1870s – 1947
OUR PASTS – III [HISTORY PART – II]
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Imagine that you are involved in the Indian national movement. Based on your reading of this chapter, briefly discuss your preferred methods of struggle and your vision of a free India.
Ans. I would have preferred the Gnadhian methods of struggle:
(iv) Disobedience of British goods and jobs.
My vision of free India would have been:
(i) India would be federal, secular, liberal, socialistic country.
(ii) The society of India free from rigidity of caste-system.
(iii) Democratic system in the country.
(iv) Promotion of Globalization and liberalization should be the aim.
(v) No benefit to SC/ST or OBC in education. Merit should be awarded honestly.
(vi) Common national welfare should be promoted.
Q.1. Why were the people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Ans. The people were dissatisfied with British rule in 1870s and 1880s because:
(a) They thought that the British were exercising control over the resources of India and the lives of its people.
(b) The Arms Act which was passed in 1878, disallowing Indians from possessing arms.
(c) Vernacular Press Act was also enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government. The Act allowed the government to confiscate the assets of newspapers including their printing presses if the newspaper published anything that was objectionable.
Q.2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
Ans. The Indian National Congress wished to speak for the good of all countrymen. As through a newspaper report, we come to know that Badruddin Tyabji said that the Congress is composed of the representatives of all the different communities of India.
Q.3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
Ans. The First World War (1914-1918 A.D) had the following economic impact of India:
1. Rise in defence expenditure: The First World War altered the economic and political situation in India. It led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India.
2. Heavy Taxes: The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.
3. Rise in Prices: Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sleep rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people.
4. Profit to Businessmen: On the other hand, businessmen grouped reaped fabulous profits from the war.
5. Rise of Industries: The war created demand for industrial goods and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.
6. Fast Development: Indian industries expanded during the war, and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development.
Q.4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
Ans. In 1940, the Muslim League resolution “Independent States” for the Muslims in the North-Western and Eastern areas of the country. The resolution did not mention partition for Pakistan.
Q.5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
Ans. Moderates were the leaders of the Congress who presented their demands to the British in a moderate way and they wanted gradual reforms. They aimed at better and friendly association with the British. The moderates included leaders like Surendranath Banerjee, Pherozeshah Mehta and Gopal Krishna Gokhle.
Proposed methods to struggle against the British government:
(a) The demands were presented to the British through petitions, meetings, speeches and resolutions.
(b) Their whole attitude was of reconciliation and not confrontation.
(c) They would do nothing which would offend the British rulers.
Q.6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
Ans. The politics of the radicals within the Congress was different from that of the moderates as:
(a) The radicals opposed the moderates’ policy of ‘petitions’ and ‘resolutions’. They laid stress on self-reliance and constructive work.
(b) Moderates wanted self government or Swaraj within the British empire. Radicals demanded ;Swaraj’ from the British rule. The extremists advocated the radical methods of strikes and boycott for the fulfillment of their demands.
Q.7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
Ans. (I) The Non-Cooperation movement gained momentum differently in different parts of India:
(a) In Kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants organized nonviolent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
(b) In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.
(c) In the Guntur district of Andhara Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “Forest Satyagrahas”, sometimes sending their cattle into forest without paying grazing fee.
(d) In Sind, (now in Pakistan), Muslim traders and peasants were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call.
(e) In Bengal, the Khilafat-Non- Cooperation movement alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.
(f) In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants supported by the British from their gurudwaras.
(g) In Assam, tea gardens laboureres, shouting “Gandhi Maharaj Ki Jai” demanded in big increase in their wages.
(II) The way in which the people understood Mahatma Gandhi:
Gandhiji was thought of by people as a messiah. Peasants were hopeful that Gandhiji wished to build their fight against Zamindars. For instance, at the end of a powerful movement, peasants of Pratapgarh in the United Provinces managed to stop illegal eviction of tenants but they felt it was Gandhiji who had won this demand for them.
Q.8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Ans. According to salt law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Mahatma Gandhi thought it was sinful to tax salt since it was such an essential item of our food.
Q.9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
Ans. (i) The provincial elections of 1937 seemed to have convinced the Muslim League that Muslims were a minority, and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure.
(ii) The Congress’s failure to mobilize the Muslim masses in the 1930s allowed the League to widen its social support. (iii) In 1945, the talks between the Congress, the League and the British was failed because the League, saw itself the sole spokesperson of India’s Muslims.
(iv) The League success in the seats reserved for Muslims in the elections of 1946 was spectacular.
(v) Muslim League persisted with its demand for Pakistan.
(vi) Three-member mission sent by British cabinet suggested that India should remain united with autonomy for Muslim majority areas.
(vii) However, the Congress and the Muslim League did not agree to the specific details. All the above factors led to the creation of Pakistan.
Q.10. Find out the National Movement was organized in your city, district, area or state. Who participated in it and who led it? What did the movement in your area achieve?
Ans. Try it your self.
Q.11. Find out more about the life and work of any two participants or leaders of the national movement and write a short essay about them. You may choose a person not mentioned in this chapter.
Ans. Try it your self.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Who introduced Vernacular Press act and when?
Ans. Lord Lytton introduced the Vernacular Press Act in 1878.
Q.2. Write any one provision of Vernacular Press Act.
Ans. Under this act, the editors of Vernacular newspapers were supposed to take an undertaking not to publish anything against the government.
Q.3. What widened the racial gulf between the British and the Indians?
Ans. The arms acts of 1878. This act made it a criminal offence for the Indians to keep and smuggle arms without license.
Q.4. What is the provision of Arm Act?
Ans. This act made it a criminal offence for the Indians to keep and smuggle arms without license.
Q.5. Who were known as Lal-Bal-Pal?
Ans. The three famous nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal came to be collectively known as Lal-Bal-Pal.
Q.6. What do you know about Bal Gangadhar?
Ans. He was the leader of the Indian Freedom struggle. He gave the popular slogan, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.” According to him, no legislation could eradicate the social evils, but it was only freedom from the foreign rule that could remove these evils.
Q.7. Which act was introduced in 1919?
Ans. The Indian Council Act was passed in 1919, popularly known as Morley-Minto Reforms.
Q.8. Who formed the all Indian Muslim League and when who supported him?
Ans. In 1906, Aga Khan and Nawab Salimullah Khan formed the all Indian Muslim League supported by Viceroy Minto.
Q.9. Who started Home Rule League and when?
Ans. Home Rule League was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1916 in Pune.
Q.10. Where and when was Gandhiji born?
Ans. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat.
Q.11. What were the provisions of Ilbert Bill?
Ans. Ilbert Bill was a bill introduced in 1883 for British India by Lord Ripon.
It had the following provision:
(a) The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians and sought equality between British and Indian judges.
Q.12. When was the Khilafat and Non Cooperation Movement launched?
Q.13. Mention the people who participated in the Dandi March. What was the British response towards this movement?
Ans. Peasants, tribals and women participated in the Dandi March. British responded in the following manner.
(a) The government tried to crush the movement through brutal action against peaceful satyagrahis.
(b) Thousands were sent to jail.
Q.14. Who was A. O. Hume? What role did he play in the history of India?
Ans. A. O. Hume was a retired British official. He played an important role in bringing Indians from the various regions together.
Q.15. What does RSS stands for?
Ans. Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu organization.
Q.16. Who was Bhagat Singh? What on slogan did he raise?
Ans. He was a revolutionary nationalist. His slogan was Inqilab Zindabad.
SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. Name some of the political associations that were formed in the 1870s and 1880s. What were their goals?
Ans. Some of the political associations of 1870s and 1880s were:
(a) Poona Sarvajanik Sabha.
(b) The Indian Association.
(c) The Madras Mahajan Sabha.
(d) The Bombay Presidency Association.
(e) The Indian National Congress.
These organizations worked with the idea that the people should be sovereign. In other words, they believed that the Indian people should be empowered to take decisions regarding their affairs.
Q.2. What was the Idea behind working of “Poorna Sarvajanik” Sabha?
Ans. The idea behind working of “Poorna Sarvajanik Sabha” was that people should be sovereign-a modern consciousness and a key features of nationalism. They believed that people should be empowered to take decision s regarding their affairs.
Q.3. Write a short note about the foundation of the Indian National Congress.
Ans. The Indian National Congress was established when 72 delegates from all over the country met at Bombay in December 1885. The early leadership Dadabhai Noaroji, Pherozshah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji, W.C. Bennerji, Surendernath Banerji, Ramesh Chandra Dutt, S.Subramanyia Iyer among others was largely from Bombay and Calcutta. A retired British official A.O Hume also played a part in bringing Indians from the various regions together.
Q.4. When and why was Bengal partitioned? How did Indians reacted?
Ans. Bengal was partitioned in 1905 by Lord curzon.
Reason for Partition The justification given for partition was that Bengal was too big a province to be administered efficiently and therefore should be divided for administrative convenience. However the actual political motive was to crush the rising wave of nationalism in Bengal and to play the policy of divide and rule by separating the Hindus and the Muslims.
Reactions of the Indians:
(a) All sections of the congress i.e. the moderates and the radicals opposed the partition.
(b) Large public meetings and demonstrations were organized and novel methods of mass protest developed.
(c) It led to the swadeshi movement which sought to oppose British rule and encourage the ideas of self-help, swadeshi enterprise, national education and use of Indian languages.
Q.5. Write a short note on the Lucknow pact.
Ans. The Lucknow Pact (1916): (a) The Lucknow Pact of December 1916 was an understanding between the Congress and the Muslim League (controlled by the U.P based young party) when by the Congress accepted separate electorates.
(b) The pact provided a joint political platform for the moderates, extremists and the Muslim League.
Q.6. What were the main provisions of Morley-Minto reforms?
Ans. To maintain peace the British offered a few constitutional reforms. The Indian Council Act was passed in 1909, popularly known as Morley-Minto Reforms.
The main provisions of this act were:
(i) An Indian member was included in the Viceroy’s Executive Council. Sir S.P Sinha was the first to be appointed to the council.
(ii) The strength the Central Legislative Council was to be raised to 60, it was compared of nominated members.
(iii) The Provincial Legislative Council should consist of 30 to 50 members.
Q.7. Why was the Cripps Mission sent to India? Why did it fail?
Ans. The Cripps mission was sent to India under the leadership of Sir Stafford Cripps because Japan had joined the war against English in 1942 and the British government wanted to win over the Indian leaders to get their active cooperation in war effort.
The Cripps Mission failed because:
(a) He failed to give any assurance for the formation of a national government during the war.
(b) He was not prepared to give any assurance on the question of granting independence to India after the war.
Q.8. What were the objectives of All Indian Muslim league?
Ans. The objectives of their organizations were:
(i) To safeguard the political and other rights of the Indian Muslim.
(ii) To create a feeling of loyalty among Indian Muslims towards the British rulers.
(iii) To help the growth of friendly relations between the Muslim and other communities in India.
Q.9. Discuss the aim and objectives of Swaraj party.
Ans. Aims and objectives of the Swaraj party:
(a) It aimed to capture seats in legislatures by contesting elections and to intensify the struggle for Swaraj.
(b) In the elections of the 1923, the Swarajists won a dominant position in the Central Legislative Assembly.
(c) It had a powerful influence in the provincial Legislative councils. The party was also successful in getting the Rowlatt Act repealed.
(d) Under the influence of this party, the government decided to increase the share of the Indian commissioned officers in the army.
(e) Due to the efforts of the party, some laws were also paused for the welfare of the Industrial labour.
Q.10. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement gain momentum through 1921-22 ?
What was the result of Non- Cooperation Movement?
Ans. The Non- Cooperation Movement gained the momentum through 1921-22:
(a) Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.
(b) Many lawyers such as Motilal Nehru, C.R Das, C. Rajgopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices.
(c) British titles were surrendered and legislatures boycotted.
(d) People lit public bonfires of foreign clothes.
(e) The imports of foreign cloth fell drastically between 1920-1922.
Q.11. What were the provisions of Gandhi- Irwin Pact 1931?
Ans. The Provision of Gandhi-IrwinPact 1931:
(a) To release all the prisoners who were not convicted of violent act.
(b) To withdraw all special ordinances issued to crush Civil Disobedience Movement.
(c) To permit people living within a certain distance of seashore to make salt for personal use.
(d) To release all the prisoners who were not convicted of the violent act.
(e) To withdraw all special ordinances issued to crush Civil Disobedience Movement.
(f) To permit people living with in a certain distance of seashore to make salt for personal use.
Q. 12. What were the objectives of Non Cooperation movement?
Ans. Non cooperation movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920. It had two objectives.
(a) Redressal of the wrongs done to the people of Punjab i.e. the Jallian wala Bagh incident.
(b) To protest the British action against Turkey and to secure swaraj.
Q. 13. Who were the Revolutionaries?
Ans. The Revolutionaries were a small group of people who suggested that the use of violence to make a radical change within the society would be necessary to overthrow the British Rule.
LONG TYPES QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.1. What reasons were responsible for the growth of dissatisfaction amongst people against the British rule in the 1870s?
Ans. Some of the reasons for the rise of the Indian National Movement were as follows:
(a) Unity of the country Administrative and Political: Introduction of a uniform legal system, the postal system, common currency, railways and the telegraph system helped to link the different parts of the country together. This made them aware of their common problems and encouraged them to look for solutions.
(b) Western education and thought: Western Education had been introduced in India so as to produce clerks for the administrative purpose. This however had another impact. The educated Indians started reading the famous works of writers like Voltaire Mill etc. and were inspired by the revolutions like American Revolution, French Revolution etc. They wanted to achieve the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
Moreover, the educated Indians were discontented as they were unemployed and good jobs were reserved for the British who were also well paid.
(c) Economic Backwardness: The start of deindustrialization, a gradual decline of traditional handicrafts, and non interest of the British in opening new industries were significant enough to anger and frustrate Indian expectations. India was turned into a mere supplier of raw materials and a market for machine made goods.
(d) Policies of the British: Some of the specific policies followed by the British also led to the spread of nationalism.
These policies were:
(i) The arms act which prohibited Indians from carrying arms.
(ii) Reducing of the recruitment age for the Indian Civil Services.
(iii) The Vernacular Press Act which restricted the newspaper published in Indian languages.
(iv) The cost of the war in Afghanistan and Burma was borne by India.
(e) Role of the Press and Literature: Many Indian newspapers had come about at this time, like the Kesari, the Hindu, Amrita Bazar Patrika etc. They created awareness among the people about the anti-Indian policies of the British and spread the message of patriotism and national consciousness. Indian writers like Bankrim Chandra Chaterjee, Rabindra Nath Tagore etc. through their writings aroused awareness among the people of India.
Q.2. Write a detail note on Government of India Act 1919.
Ans. Government of India Act 1919 was introduced during the First World War.
Some of the important features of this act were:
(a) At center, Central Legislative Council was replaced by two houses: the Imperial Legislative Assembly and the council of the state. In these houses, the majority of the members were elected. The imperial council (Legislative Assembly) consisted of 144 members out of which 41 were nominated. The council of state consisted of 60 members, out of which 26 were nominated.
(b) The provincial government had an element or representative government. A dual system of government was introduced. The subjected to be administered by the provincial government was divided into two groups-transferred and reserved subjects.
(c) All the powers remained with Governer General and his council. Government General can reject any decision or provincial government. Governer General and his council remained accountable to the British government not to the Indian legislative.
Q.3. Why were the early years of the Indian National Congress referred to as the moderate phase?
What were the demands of the Moderates?
Ans. The early stage of the congress was called the moderate phase (1885- 1905) as the leaders of this phase put forward moderate and reasonable demands on the British.
The aims and demands of the congress at this time were:
(a) To increase the voice of the Indians in the government and administrative jobs by giving them more representation and participation.
(b) Removal of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression in national newspapers.
(c) Cutting down on expenditure in military matters and on administration.
(d) To stop drain of wealth from India.
(e) To hold civil service examinations in India. Henceforth, with increasing the age for taking the examinations so that Indians get a better chance of clearing them.
(f) To bring about a change in the economic policies so as to free the farmers from the clutches of moneylenders and to open up agricultural banks and other facilities.
Q.4. List some essential features of Mountbatten plan.
Ans. (a) Country would be divided into two Dominions, ie., India and Pakistan.
(b) A plebiscite would be held in the North-Western Frontier Provinces (N.W.F.P) to ascertain whether the people of those provinces wanted to join India or Pakistan.
(c) A Boundary Commission would settle the boundaries of two Dominions, In the case partition was decide upon.
(d) The Constituent Assemblies of the two Dominions would decide whether to remain in British Commonwealth or not.
(e) The transfer of power would take place much earlier than June 1948. Both Congress and League accepted the Mountbatten Plan. This cleared the way for independence of India.
Q.5. Why did Gandhiji organized a dandi march?
Ans. Gandhiji organized a dandi march in 1930 to oppose the salt law. According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Gandhiji and along with other nationalist leaders reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our food.
Gandhiji and his followers marched over 240 miles from Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi where they broke the government law by gathering natural salt found on the seashore, and boiling sea water to produce salt.
Q. 6. Explain the Khilafat Movement.
Ans. Khilafat Movement was launched in 1920 by two Brothers – Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. The movement was started by the Muslims of India against the British for the treatment meted out to Turkey after it was defeated in the First World War. The movement was launched to restore the power and prestige of the Sultan of Turkey.
Q.7. Write a short note on the Quit India Movement.
Ans. 1. It was officially launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) led by Mahatma Gandhi on 9 August 1942.
2. The movement gave the slogans ‘Quilt India’ or Bharat Chodo. Gandhi i gave the slogan ‘Do or Die.’
3. It aimed at urging the British to grant India independence.
4. The Quit India resolution was passed by the Congress working committee on 8 Aug 1942 in Bombay. Gandhiji was named the movement’s leader.
Result of the Movement:
(a) Gandhiji and other leaders were jailed.
(b) Communications and symbols of state authority were attacked all over the country.
(c) In many areas, people set up their own governments.
(d) Congress was declared illegal.
(e) By the end of 1943, over 90,000 people were arrested and around 1000 killed in police firing.
Q. 8. Describe the Rowlatt Satyagraha.
Why did the nationalist leaders opposed Rowlatt Act?
Ans. Reasons for Satyagraha Rowlatt Satyagraha:
(a) In 1919, Gandhiji gave a call for a satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act passed by the Britishers. The Act curbed the fundamental rights such as the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers.
(b) Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah and others felt that the government had no right to restrict people’s basic freedom.
(c) They criticized the act as devilish and tyrannical.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q.1. Point out the important features of Congress Session at Lahore in 1929.
Ans. Important features of the Congress Session at Lahore in 1929 were:
(a) The Congress demanded for the first time Poorna Swaraj or complete independence.
(b) January 26 was to be observed as Poorna Swaraj Day all over the country.
(c) The congress announced the launching of the Civil Disobedience movement.
(d) The Lahore Session of the Congress was presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Q.2. What do you understand by the term Swadeshi movement? Point out the features of this movement.
Ans. The word Swadeshi comes from two words- ‘Swa’ and ‘dish’ which means ones own country.
Features of this movement were:
(a) The Swadeshi movement sought to oppose British rule and encourage the ideas of self-help, swadeshi enterprise, national education and use of Indian languages.
(b) To fight for swaraj, the radicals advocated mass mobilization and boycott of British institutions and goods.
(c) Some individuals also began to suggest that revolutionary violence was necessary to overthrow the British rule.
Q.3. Differentiate between the Moderate and extremists.
|(a) Methods: They believed in peaceful methods of expressing themselves. The methods used by them to achieve their goals were Press, persuasion, Petitions, Prayers etc.||(a) Methods: They believed that britishers would understand only through harsh and exhaust ways. Swadeshi and boycott were their two weapons.|
|(b) Leaders: Dadabhai Naroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhala.||(b) Leaders: Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak.|
|(c) Aim: They aimed at administrative and constitutional reforms.||(c) Aim: They aimed at Purna Swaraj and end of the British rule in India.|
VALUE BASED QUESTION
Q. 1. What brought the Moderates and the radicals together?
Ans. It was the division of Bengal that brought the moderates and the radicals together.
Q. 2. What made Gandhiji call off the non-cooperation movement?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi was against violent movements. He abruptly called off the Non Cooperation movement when in February 1922, a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura. Twenty-two policemen were killed. The peasants were provoked because the police had fired on their peaceful demonstration.
Q.3. List the features of Government of India Act of 1935.
Ans. To meet the growing nationalist demand, the Government passed the government of India Act.
According to this Act
(a) Government prescribed provincial autonomy.
(b) Government also announced. elections to the provincial legislature in 1937. The Congress formed governments in 7 out of 11 provinces.
Q.4. Why did Congress Ministeries resigned in 1939?
Ans. In September 1939, after two years of congress rule in the provinces, the Second world war broke out. Critical of Hilter, congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort. But in return they wanted that India be granted independence after the war. The British refused to concede the demand. The congress ministries resigned in protest.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
A. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✔) the correct of option
1. Name the retried British Official who played part in bringing Indian from the various regions together.
(a) A.O. Hume.
(b) Dadabhai Naoroji.
(c) Romesh Chandra Dutt.
(d) S. Subramania Iyer.
Ans. (a) A.O. Hume.
2. Where did 72 delegates from all over the country meet in December 1885?
(d) None of these.
Ans. (b) Calcutta.
B. Name of the following:
(A) A veteran nationalist and leader of the Salt Satyagraha in the South popularly known as Rajaji.
Ans. C. Rajagopalachari.
(B) He hailed from an impoverished peasant-proprietor family of Nadiad played important role in an negotiations for independence.
Ans. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
(C) He was an ambassador of Hindu- Muslim unity until 1920 and played an important role in the making of Lucknow Pact.
Ans. Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
(D) Also known as Badshah Khan, he was the founder of the Khudai Khidmatgars, a peaceful movement among the Pathans of his province.
Ans. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
(E) He headed the commission sent by the British Government in 1927 to decide India’s political failure.
Ans. Lord Simon.
(F) The Congress resolved to fight for Purna Swaraj in 1929 under his presidentship.
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Q.1. Map of India and mark the location of the following princely states:
(a ) Junagarh.
SOURCE BASED QUESTIONS
I. Read the given below source and answer the questions that fallows:
VEER LAKHAN NAYAK WAS HANGED
Baji Mohammad, President of the Nabarangpur Congress, Orissa in the 1930s, reports: On August 25,1942″ nineteen people died on the spot in police firing at Paparandi in Nabarangpur. Many died thereafter from their wounds. Over 300 were injured. More than a thousands were jailed in Koraput district. Several were shot or executed. Veer Lakhan Nayak ( a legendary tribal leader who defied the British) was hanged.
Nayak, Baji tells us, was not worried about being executed, only sad that he would not live to see freedom s dawn.
Baji Mohammad mobilized 20,000 people to join the national struggle. He offered satyagraha many times over. He participated in protests against the Second World War and in the Quit India Movement and served long jail terms.
(A) Who was Veer Lakhan Nayak?
Ans. Veer Lakhan Nayak was legendary tribal leader who defied the British.
(B) Why was Nayak Baji sad at being executed?
Ans. He was said that he would not live to see freedom’s down.
(C) Write two activities of Baji Mohammad in favour of freedom struggle.
Ans. (a) He participated in protest against the Second World War and in the Quit India Movement.
(b) He served long jail terms.
PICTURE BASED QUESTIONS
I. Look at the following picture and answer the following questions:
1. Who seen in the picture?
Ans. Founders of the Natal Congress, Durban are seen in the picture.
2. Who established Indian Congress and when?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi established the Natal Congress in 1895.
3. What was the objective of Natal Congress?
Ans. The objective of Natal Congress was to fight against racial discrimination.
II. Look at the picture and answer the following questions:
1. Who is driving Krishna’s Chariot?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi.
2. Who are seen at the back of the Chariot?
Ans. Other nationalist leaders in the battle against the British.