Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Moamoriya Rebellion The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Moamoriya Rebellion and select needs one.
Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Moamoriya Rebellion
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The Moamoriya Rebellion
Very short answer type questions:
Q.1: What is Mayamara?
Ans: Mayamara was the name of a Vaishnava Sattra.
Q.2: What is Sattra?
Ans: The Sattra was a religious and cultural organisation of devotees concerned with the dissemination of the principles and devotional practices of Neo- Vaishnavite religion preached by Sankardev and Madhabdev.
Q.3: What is Songhoti?
Ans: traditional and age-old centres that are related to the Ekasarana Tradition of Vaishnavism.
Q.4: During the reign of which King did the Moamoriya Rebellion begin?
Ans: Swargadeo Lakshmi Singha.
Q.5: During the reign of which King did the Moamoriya Rebellion conclude?
Ans: The Moamoria Rebellion ended in 1805 during the reign of King Kamaleswar Singha.
Q.6: Which Ahom king is said to have adopted the title of Swargadeo/ Swarganarayan?
Ans: King Suhungmung.
Q.7: During the reign of Surampha Bhagaraja which satradhikar was murdered?
Ans: During the reign of Surumpha Bhagaraja, the Satradhikar Guru Nityanandadeva was murdered on royal orders.
Q.8: Which Satradhikar was humiliated in the royal court of Rudra Singha?
Ans: Chaturbhujdev Mahanta.
Q.9: Who was the chief deity of the Ahoms?
Ans: Somdev was the chief deity of the Ahoms.
Q.10: Which Satradhikar did Jaydhwaj Singha accept as his religious preceptor?
Ans: Jaydhwaj Singh accepted Satradhikar Niranjan Dev of Auniati Satra as his religious preceptor.
Q.11: Which Sattradhikar did Rudra Singha accept as his religious preceptor?
Ans: Sattradhikar Keshadev of Auniati Satra.
Q.12: Who was Krishnaram Bhattacharya?
Ans: Krishnaram Bhattacharya was a Shakta Brahmin Pandit from Nadiya in Bengal.
Q.13: During which Ahom king’s reign did Shaktism become very strong?
Ans: During the reign of Swargadeo Siva Singha become very strong.
Q.14: Who was Gagini?
Ans: Gagini was the son of Moamoriya Mahanta Ashtabhuj who invited the disciples of Neo-Vaishnavite.
Q.15: Whom did the Moamoriyas first establish as king?
Ans: The Moamoriyas first established Ramakanta or Ramananda as King.
Q.16: How long did Captain Welsh stay in Assam?
Ans: Captain Welsh stay in Assam From November 1792 to May 1794.
Q.17: Where was salt produced in Assam?
Ans: Sadiya and Nagapahar.
Q.18: Why were the common people of Assam unable to use salt?
Ans: The common people of Assam were unable to use salt because it was very expensive.
Long answer type question:
Q.1: Who were the Moamoriya? Can this rebellion be called a mass uprising?
Ans: It seems the word Moamoriya has originated from the word ‘Mayamara’. ‘Mayamara’ was the name of a Vaishnava Satra. It was within the Kaal Songhoti. Primarily the people belonging to the Moran tribe were the disciples of the Satra.
The Moamoriyas basically belonged to the Moran tribe. The Vaishnava Satra named Mayamara was established in the post Sankar-Madhab period. It is assumed that the name Moamoriya has been derived from the word Mayamara. Since the Satradhikars of Mayamara Sattra belonged to the Sudra caste, this Sattra was very popular among various castes and tribes like the Kacharis, Chutiyas, Ahom, Kaibartta etc.
The Morans, this Sattra gained great popularity among the various order tribes of Assam like the Kachari, Chutiya, Ahom. Kaibarta etc. A main reason for this popularity was that the Satradhikars (Religious preceptor) of this Sattra belonged to the Sudra caste. In the prevailing social set up these tribal people were looked down on as ‘inferior’.
In the Mayamara Satra, which was run by the Sudra Satradhikars (referred to as Mahanta), these people found a special dignity the Sattra. The increasing strength in the number of disciples and their unquestionable devotion to the Guru were factors that contributed to the rise in the power and position of not only the Sattra but also the Mahantas. Latter on, it was only natural that the Sattra but also the Mahantas. Later on, it was only natural that this rising power of the Sattra led to a clash with the Ahom royal power. And the result of this clash was the longest rebellion in the history of Assam.
This rebellion has been called a ‘mass uprising’ because the innumer- able common people who took part in it were simple peasants and other professionals.
Q.2: Analyse the political of the Moamoriya Rebellion.
Ans: The political results of this rebellion were detrimental. At the end of this civil war that lasted for three long decades, both the Ahom monarchy and the Ahom kingdom were completely shattered and were merely counting their days.
By intending a helping hand to the Ahom administrative mechanism that had failed to dead with the rebellion, the English had initiated the process of securing a foothold in Assam.
Another result of the Moamoriya rebellion was the decline of the Ahom administrative mechanism. The Ahom rule was a medieval feudal mechanism. In this structure the King was the head of the administration and all the Burhagohains, Borgohains, Borpatragohains, Borbaruas, Borphukans along with the Phukans, Saikias; Boras etc were the abiding officials of the King. It has always been a part of history that taking advantage of the King’s weakness, sometimes the officers-bureaucrats became too powerful. Assam was no different.
From the time of Swargadeo Siva Singha, the Officials began to exploit the weakness of the King and became powerful. Most of them could not deliver their duties properly because of their selfishness and this resulted in discontentment among the subjects. In fact, from the time of Laksminath Singha and his successors, the activities of a group of selfish Officials made the lives of the common people unbearable. When the King himself was a fugitive, it was only natural that the Kingdom was in chaos. The faith of the subjects in the Ahom administration was gradually slipping. Many people joined the rebels to save their own lives and property. But, the Moamoriyas could not develop a central administrative mechanism amongst themselves.
Once they grabbed administrative power, they began to fight within themselves for power and position. As a result, several independent rulers emerged at the same time. Moreover the Moamoriyas did not try to implement a new administrative mechanism. As the earlier administrative system still continued the common people did not feel any change. Their faith in monarchy was depleting with each day.
Q.4: How far was the paik system responsible for the Moamoriya Rebellion? Give your own opinion.
Ans: The paik system responsible for the Moamoriya Rebellion because:
(a) The Moamoriya Satta were mainly the tribal people as well as the lower sections of the society. As such, these people were bound to provide menial labour under the Paik system of the Ahoms. Moreover, the disciples of this Sattra were expert artisans. Their professions included pottery, blacksmith, leather-work, artisans etc. These people were experts in all the important works like making weapons for the Ahom army, boats required for battle, catching elephants and training them for battle etc. The Ahom state machinery fully exploited the expertise of these people but continued to abuse them both socially and economically.
(b) Every male citizen in the Ahom Kingdom (Between 15 and 50 years of age) was a Paik. Initially, four paiks were formed into a Got and every member had to render service for three months to the state in rotation. Later on during the reign of Rajeshwar Singha the membership of each Got was reduced to three paiks which led to each paik having to render service to the state for four months. Thus one month of additional labour increased for every paik. Since the majority of the Moamoriyas were hardworking common people, they were not willing to accept this additional one month of menial labour.
(c) Another means of exploitation through the Paik system was the division of the Parks into two classes. The first was the Kanri Paik which was the majority, and the second was the Chamua Paik. Though less in number the Chamua Paik held a status higher than the Kanri Paiks. In matters of menial labour, the Chamua paiks were exempted in lieu of payment of land taxes. Then, due to various reasons the number of Chamua paiks began to increase and the Kanri paiks decreased. As a result, the pressure on the existing Kanri paiks doubled. This led to social inequality, which gave birth to conflict.
(d) The Moamoriya disciples nurtured a false idea that since the economy of the Ahom state depended completely on them, the Ahoms, in such a situation will very soon come to an understanding with them. But now, they decided to end the long saga of their exploitation by the Ahoms through a rebellion.
Q.5: Discuss the results of the Moamoriya Rebellion.
Ans: The results of the Moamoriya Rebellion are discuss below:
(a) The political results of this rebellion were detrimental. At the end of this civil war that lasted for three long decades, both the Ahom monarchy and the Ahom kingdom were completely shattered and were merely counting their days.
(b) The another result of the Moamoriya rebellion was the decline of the Ahom administrative mechanism. The Ahom role was a medieval feudal mechanism.
(c) The Moamoriyas could not develop a central administrative mechanism amongst themselves. Once they grabbed administrative power, they began to fight within themselves for power and positions. As a result several independent rulers emerged at the same time.
(d) The Moamoriyas did not try to implement a new administrative mechanism. As the earlier administrative system still continued the common people did not feel any change. Their faith in monarchy was depleting with each day.
(e) The Moamoriya Rebellion had adversely effected the economic and social scenario in Assam. Just as the rebels did not think twice to kill the supporters of the monarchy and grabs their properties, the royal army also killed, tortured and exiled men, women and children. As a result of the intolerable atrocities of both sides, many people had to run away into the jungles and mountains.
(f) The Moamoriya rebellion was the differences in Hindu Brahmanism and Mahapurusha Vaishnavism. Almost all the kings after Swargadeo Rudra Singha were believers in the Brahmanical Shaktism. Therefore at times these rulers.acted in a biassed manner against the Mahapurusha Vaishnava Satras and their disciples.
Q.6: Do you think the Moamoriya Rebellion was successful or unsuccessful? Give logic for your answer.
Ans: 1. The Moamoria Rebellion was a peasant uprising that took place in Assam, India, from 1769 to 1805. The rebellion was led by the Moamoria community against the ruling Ahom dynasty.
2. The main reasons for the rebellion were the oppressive taxation system, forced labor, and social discrimination faced by the Moamoria community.
3. The rebellion lasted for almost 36 years, indicating that it had significant support from the local population and was able to sustain itself for a long period.
4. The Ahom dynasty was weakened by the rebellion, and it eventually led to the British East India Company’s intervention in Assam in 1826.
5. However, the Moamoria community did not achieve their primary goal of overthrowing the Ahom dynasty and establishing a more equitable society. Considering these points, we can conclude that the Moamoria Rebellion was partially successful. It managed to weaken the Ahom dynasty and draw attention to the plight of the oppressed communities, but it did not achieve its ultimate goal of overthrowing the ruling class and establishing a more just society.
The Moamoriya rebellion is one of the most significant events that changed the history of medieval Assam. The original aim of the most rebels was to rise against the atrocities of the Ahom rulers, and dethrone them,and possibly set their own representative on the throne. The rebels wanted a better life for the common man where they would not be dictated by the whims and fancies of the changing rulers.
Q.7: Under what circumstances did Captain Welsh come to Assam? Why did he leave his expedition incomplete and go back?
Ans: The Moamoriya mas uprising had shaken the entire core of the Ahom Kingdom. Consequently, the very base of the monarchy was almost uprooted The Ahom administrative mechanism was completely destroyed and to save itself from a political catastrophe, they were compelled to beg for military assistance from the East India Company in Bengal. The English were also waiting for such an opportunity. That is why, when Swargadeo Gaurinath Singha requested the English to deliver the common populace from the Moamoriya Rebellion and the repeated atrocities of the Burkandazes of Bengal, the Company government readily agreed to send a military expedition.
The main purpose behind this expedition was to gather detailed information about Assam, and to re-establish the Ahom King on the Throne, after suppressing both the Moamoriya Rebellion and the burkandaze. This expedition was led by Captain Thomas Welsh. This contingent was to Assam in November, 1792 where they remained till May, 1794.
For this circumstance did captain Welsh come to Assam. In the mean-time, the successor of Governor General Lord Cornwallis, Sir John Shore, adopted a new policy. This was the policy of non-intervention. He wanted to implement this policy strictly and as such, ordered Welsh to return immediately. Consequently, in spite of the repeated requests of Swargadeo Gaurinath Singha and the other Ahom high officials. Welsh decided to leave the expedition halfway and go back.
Q.8: Describe the role played by Captain Welsh in suppressing the Moamoriya Rebellion. How far was he successful?
Ans: Captain Welsh was partially successful in suppressing the rebellion; however, he failed to completely eliminate the rebels and their spirit, as the uprising resumed as soon as he left. Rangpur was retaken by the Moamoriyas.
The existing political and socio-economic situation in Assam in 1792 was alarming. The common people were terrorized by the Moamoriyas and the burkandazes of Bengal,and the monarchy had utterly failed in delivering them from the atrocities. This led Gaurinath Singha to seek help from the British Government in Bengal, who sent an expedition under Captain Thomas Welsh. The expedition had far reaching consequences in the ensuing years and initiated a series of changes that altered the very face of Assam.
Since 1786, Purnananda Burhagohain was somehow keeping the Moamoriyas outside Jorhat. Now, the New English force that arrived under the command of Welsh boosted the spirit of the Assamese soldiers. The joint assault of the English and Assamese soldiers compelled the Moamoriyas to flee Rangpur. A large number of Moamoriyas were killed. Raja Bharat Singha was also badly injured and only managed to escape alive. Rangpur was freed from the clutches of the rebels and on 21st March, 1794. Gaurinath Singha entered the capital.
Q.9: Discuss the Captain Welsh’s Account of Assam.
Ans: Captain Welsh remained in Assam from Nov 1792 to March 1794. Towards the later part of his stay in Assam, Captain Welsh sent a detailed report to the English East India Company’s government in Bengal. The report touched every aspect of Assam’s life and customs.
Write Short Notes On:
Q.1: Kirtichandra Borbarua.
Ans: Kirti Chandra Barbarua convinced King Rajeswar Singha to confiscate all the Ahom Buranjis (Historical chronicles) in the kingdom. He ordered burning of each and every Buranji that were not favourable to him or his past.
At the demise of Rup Chandra Barbarua, his son Kirti Chandra was appointed as ‘Barbaruah’ by the Ahom king Siva Singha. The Ahom top ranking officials were dissatisfied at the various conspiracy hatched by Kirti Chandra Barbaruah. Due to his conspiracy Rajeswar Singha became king of Ahom kindgom instead of Mohanmala Dev, the elder son of Rudra Singha. Kirti Chandra exiled Mohanmala Dev to the deep forest of Namrup. Kirti Chandra inspired ‘Barraja Phuleswari to torture the Moamorias. Later, the Moamorias killed him. Kirti Chandra became a character of slur in the history of Ahom.
Q.2: Mayamara Satra.
Ans: The Mayamara satra was founded by Aniruddhadeva. He was the nephew of Sankardeva. He gained great popularity. The Moamoriyas were a branch of the Moran tribe. Because the Satradhikars of Mayamara Sattra belonged to the Sudra caste, the sattra was well-liked by people of all castes and tribes. The Mahantas’ power grew in tandem with the popularity of Mayamara Sattra. Swargadeo was the name given to the Ahom Kings.
They supported the Brahmanical Sattras and despised the Sudra Mayamara Sattra and its Mahantas and disciples. As a result, there was conflict between the King and the Moamoriyas. Gradually, the Ahoms’ atrocities against the Mayamara Sattra and its disciples increased, culminating in the Moamoriya Rebellion.
Q.3: Purnanada (original name-Lari Gohain).
Ans: Purnananda Burhagohain: The son of Ghanashyam Buragohain. He remained the Burhagohain or Rajmantri for nearly 35 years during the period from 1782 to 1817. Purnananda was the son of Ghanashyam Buragohain, who was died while the Moamoria rebellion began during the region of Gaurinath Singha. After his death, Purnananda became the new Burhagohain’ of Ahom administration. Though he determined to crush the rebellion, he could do nothing. He was the Burhagohain or Rajmantri for nearly 35 years from 1782 to 1817. Purnananda Buragohain was not popular among the officials of Ahom administration because automatic rule.
Q.4: Kanri paik and Chamua paik.
Ans: Kanri Paik and Chamua Paik: Paik system was the divisions of the parks into two classes.
They are: (i) Kanri Paik, (ii) Chamua Paik The Kanri Paik which was the majority, and the Chamua Paik less in number. The Chamua Paik held a status higher than the Kanri Paiks. In matters of menial labour, the Chamua Paiks were exempted in lieu of Payment of land taxes. Then, due to various reasons the number of Chamua Paiks began to increase and the Kanri Paiks decreased. As a result, the pressure on the existing Kanri Paiks doubled. This led to social inequality which gave birth to conflict.
Q.5: Trade treaty between Welsh and Gaurinath Singha.
Ans: Trade Treaty between Welsh and Gaurinath Singha: Captain Welsh imposed a commercial treaty containing 14 clauses on Gaurinath Singha on 28th February 1793. Even after perpetrating these things Captain Welsh was not satisfied, he advocate for the establishment of company’s direct and permanent control over Assam and accordingly made recommendation to the company’s highest authority in Bengal to this effect Lord Cornwallis was then Governor General of the Company’s territory in Bengal.
(i) Tax of 10% was levied on any commodity imported into Assam from any English dominated region.
(ii) Tax of 10% was levied on any commodity exported from Assam to any English dominated region.
(iii) No tax was to be collected on grain and rice.
(iv) Two custom offices were set up in Gauhati and Kandahar for collec- tion of import and export duties.
(v) No other European traders were to trade in Assam without the permis- sion of the English or the Ahom government.
Q.6: Bar Raja Phuleswari.
Ans: The Phuleswari was queen by name prameteswari devi and had the title of Bar Raja or chief king. ‘Phuleswari minted coins’ in joint name of her and her husband where she used ‘Persian legend’, the ‘first kind in Assam’.
Phuleswari was under the influence of Brahmins. She had found shaktism, which is state religion. She made the vaishnava to worship the Durga mata. He had great zeal for sakta.
Some of the head priests of the Sattras called Satradhikars were restrained and forced to smear the blood of sacrificed animals on their foreheads as tilak. Her actions and unpopular measures heightened the already existing social and religious discontentment in Assam.
Q.7: Parbatiya Gosain.
Ans: Swargadeo Rudra Singha had invited a slzakta Barhman Pandit named Krishnaram Bhattacharya from Nadiya in Bengal. Later, His son, Siva Singha, became a disciple of this Brahman and established him in the Nilachal Hill. From then on Krishnaram Bhattacharya and his successors came to be known as ‘Parbatiya Gosain’.
Ans: Sarbananda: A person named Sarbananda Singha declared himself as the king of Bengmara and ruled over area till the end of the Moamariya rebellion.
Sarbananda was a leader of Moamoria rebellion. After the succession of rebellion, the rebels of the Hatisungi Morans made him the king of Bengmara He ruled over Bengmara from 1788 to 1805. The rebellion by Sarbananda at Bengmara for a long time made the people against the Ahom rule.
Q.9: Bharat Singha.
Ans: Bharat Singha: Bharat Singha was a relative of the satradhikar of Mayamora satra. After succession and occupied the capital Rangpur, the Moamoria rebels began to rule the kingdom and made Bharat Singha at their king. Sukura was the Barbaruah of the administration of Bharat Singha. Raja Bharat Singha, a Moamoriya was a relative of the Mahantas of the Mayamara satra. Captain Welsh and the Assamese Army under Purnananda Buragohian attacked Rangpur, Bharat Singha who badly injured and some how managed to flee alive.
Q.10: Rangpur city.
Ans: Rangpur is the 4th capital of the Ahom kingdom, was established by Swargadeo Rudra Singha in “Meteka” in 1707 after shifting the capital from Garhgaon. It is currently a part of Sibsagar town. The place holds many monuments build by the Ahom dynasty, the most notable of which are the Talatal Ghar and the Rang Ghar.
Captain Welsh’s account includes a description of the Ahom capital. He stated that the capital’s boundary was approximately 20 miles long and was secured by brick walls, but the walls were in disrepair.
There was fertile agricultural land near the city. The majority of the land was owned by the King or high officials. Products were generally not sold in the market, and grain in particular was unable to be sold. The medium of exchange was salt and gold, and goods were very cheaply priced. The common people suffered from a lack of funds.
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