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Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Growth of Indian Nationalism
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Growth of Indian Nationalism
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
Q.1: Who was the writer of ‘Anandamath’?
Ans: The writer of Anandamathwas Shri Bankim Chandra Chetterjee.
Q.2: Who composed the song ‘Sare Jahan Se Achha’?
Ans: Urdu Poet Muhammad Ikbal composed the song Sare Jahan Se Achha.
Q.3: Who and where was the first railway line in India constructed?
Ans: The first railway line in India was built between Bombay and Thane during the tenure of Lord Dalhousie. The construction was started in Madras in 1854.
Q.4: When and where was the first telegraph line in India constructed?
Ans: The first indian telegraph line was constructed in 1851 between calcutta and diamond harbour.
Q.5: When and where was the first printing press established in India?
Ans: The first printing press established in India was 1556 at SreeramporeMission.
Q.6: When was the Calcutta Presidency College established? By what name was it known earlier?
Ans: The Calcutta presidency College was originally established in 1817 by the name of the Hindu College.
Q.7: Mention two important social reforms of Lord William Bentinck.
Ans: Two important social reforms of Lord William Bentinck:
(i) Abolition of sati system.
(ii) Promotion of women’s education.
Q.8: Name the first newspaper published in India.
Ans: The Bengal Gazette.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
Q.1: Write briefly how the Revolt of 1857 led to the growth of Indian nationalism.
Ans: (a) The uprising of the year 1857 was the first struggle of the Indian people to get freedom from British imperialism. Further, it paved the way for the rise of the national movement. The sacrifices made by many revolutionaries served as the key source of inspiration for future freedom fighters.
(b) Britishers were working in the government as well as private organisations in India and hence took away the huge amount of money. Actually, India was one of the major colonies for the Britishers to buy cheap raw materials and to sell their finished goods here. They invested in many industries for-profits, like in plantation, railways, jute mills, etc.
(i) Britishers declared their policy of non-interference in the religious affairs as well as the customs & traditions of the Indians.
(ii) They also abandoned the policy of Annexation and the Doctrine of Lapse. Due to this many Indian princes had shown their loyalty to the British during the uprising. Hence they were rewarded with the announcement such as they would have the right to adopt an heir.
Q.2: Write about six important reasons for the growth of Indian nationalism.
Ans: The six important reasons for the growth of Indian nationalism are:
(i) Influence of western education: The influence of Western education was a potent factor for the birth of Indian nationalism. Firstly, education in India had stagnated. Schools and colleges were opened in many places in Bengal and as well as rest of India.
(ii) Development of means of transport and communication: The developement of the modern means of transport and communication like roads, railways, post and telegraph services helped in the growth of nationalism. In 1839, the Grand Trunk Road was constructed between Calcutta and Delhi. In 1832 proposal was made for construction of network of railways in India. In 1854, railway construction was started in Madras etc.
(iii) Social-religious reform movement: Many socio-religious reform movements sprung up in the 14th century contributed towards the growth of nationalism in the country. They included the Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Prarthana Samaj, Ramkrishna Mission, Theosophical Society etc.
(iv) Role of press: The history of Indian press was introduced through the publication of English newspapers. The first newspaper published in India was the Bengal Gazatte published by James Augustus Hicky in 1780.
(v) Growth of political associations: These associations are the Indian Association, the level of political consciousness of the general people of India was aroused and they were prepared for a common political programme. As a result of Western education, India witnessed the growth of modern political ideas and the organisations. During the later half of the nineteenth century there was the growth of political associations in India.
(vi) Indian National Congress: The birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885, gave a form to the growing Indian nationalism.
Q.3: Write at least four effects of the introduction of western education in India.
Ans: (i) Western education opened to the newly educated Indians the floodgates of new ideas. Through their writings, they began to convey their ideas of liberty and equality to the masses.
(ii) They came in contact with the liberal and radical thoughts of great political thinkers like Rousseau, Voltaire, Burke, Macaulay, Spencer, Locke, Bentham, Mill etc.
(iii) Wood’s Despatch encouraged vernacular at the school level and English at the university level. Scholarships were to be presented to minorities students by the government. A system of grant-in-aid was laid down to encourage the growth in number of educational institutions.
(iv) The western education opened to the newly educated Indians the flood gates of new ideas. They came in contact with liberal and radical thoughts of great political thinkers. They were inspired by the ideas of nationalism, democracy and self-government, which profoundly affected their thinking.
Q.4: Discuss the impact of western education towards the growth of Indian Nationalism.
Ans: The impact of western education towards the growth of Indian nationalism are discussed below:
The influence of western education was a potent factor for the birth of Indian nationalism. By this time, Education in India had stagnated. During the early part of the nineteenth century the Christian missionaries along with some progressive Indians initiated some measures to revive the system of education in India. Schools and colleges were opened in many places in Bengal and as well as rest of India. By the Charter Act 1813, the British Parliament provided for an annual expenditure of rupees one lakh to be spent on educating the Indians. In 1835 Lord Macaulay, president of the Committee on Public Instruction and Law Member, Governor General’s Council, advocated for the introduction of Western education with English as the medium of instruction in India.
In 1854, Sir Charles Wood, President of the Board of Control presented the first comprehensive plan for the spread of modern system of education in India. The Wood’s Despatch presented a systematic educational hierarchy from primary through the high school and college to university. He encouraged vernacular at the school level and English at the university level. Scholarships were to be presented to meritorious students by the government. A system of grant-in-aid was laid down to encourage the growth in number of educational institutions. Wood also recommended the establishment of Education Department in all the provinces. had conceived this new system of education
The British administrators to create a permanent class of humble, subservient Indians, always ready to serve the interest of the British administration. However, Western education opened to the newly educated Indians the flood gates of new ideas. They came in contact with the liberal and radical thoughts of great political thinkers like Rousseau, Voltaire, Burke, Macaulay, Spencer, Locke, Bentham, Mill etc. They were inspired by the ideas of nationalism, democracy and self-government, which profoundly affected their thinking. Their morale was boosted by the heroic stories of the American War of Independence, the French Revolution, Unification of Germany and Unification of Italy. Inspired by the ideas of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour, the educated Indians became ready to work for national unity and the liberation of the country.
They began to convey their ideas of liberty and equality to the masses through their writings. The patriotic poems of Ishwar Chandra Gupta, the slogan of Vande Mataram in Bankim Chandra’s Anandamath, Iqbal’s Sare Jaha Se Achcha rouses a strong sense of nationalism amongst the people.
Q.5: How did the development of transport and communication lead to the growth of nationalism in India?
Ans: The development of transport and communication lead to the growth of nationalism of India are discussed below:
The development of the modern means of transport and communication like roads, railways, post and telegraph services helped in the growth of nationalism. The necessities of administrative convenience, military defence and commercial exploitation, particularly dumping of British manufactured goods in Indian market and the supply of raw materials from India to feed the British industries prompted the British to initiate plans for the improvement of the means of transport and communication in India.
In 1839, the Grand Trunk Road was constructed between Calcutta and Delhi. This road was extended to Peshawar during the tenure of Lord Dalhousie (1848-56) connecting the major cities, ports and markets of India with it.
In 1832, proposal was made for construction of network of railways in India on the model of England. The first railway line of 21 miles connecting Bombay and Thana was inaugurated in 1853. In 1854, railway construction was started in Madras.
In 1883, railway networks were started between Sadiya and Dibrugarh in Assam keeping in mind trade opportunities in tea.
In 1839, telegraph was laid between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour by private sector initiative. In 1851, electric telegraph system was brought under government sector during the period of Lord Dalhousie and in 1854. a line of 800 miles was erected from Calcutta to Agra, which was the first electric line in India. The modern means of communication broke the isolation and forged a link between the people living in distant areas.
Q.6: Discuss the contribution of Raja Ram Mohun Roy in the growth of Indian nationalism.
Ans: Raja Ram Mohun Roy was the fore-runner of Indian nationalism. Born to an orthodox Brahmin family in the Burdwan district in West Bengal, he practically laid the foundation of all principal movements-social, religious and political in India to fight for the advancement of the country. He sought to affect a cultural synthesis between the East and the West. Raja Ram Mohun Roy published two hand written pamphlets, viz.- (i) Brahman Sabadhi and (ii) Brahman Missionary Sangbad.
He wrote articles on Hindu religion and philosophy in these pamphlets and at the same time highlighted the similarities between the tenets of the different religious of the world. He wrote that the corruptions in the Hindu religious were a creation of a later age, mainly the work of the orthodox Brahmins. With a determination to purge Hinduism of the abuses that had crept into it, he established the Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta in 1815. In 1828 he founded the Brahmo Sabha. Raja Ram Mohun Roy also approached the British to bring about liberal reforms in the administration. He advocated for the separation of the judiciary from the executive and also codification of the civil and criminal laws. He took up the cause of the poor peasants. He strongly urged the government to reduce the amount of land revenue and introduce welfare measures for them. In 1833, he visited the House of Commons to present certain demands of the Indians to the British government.
Raja Ram Mohun Roy inspired many to work for the regeneration of the society. Amongst them mention may be made of Dwarkanath Tagore, Prasanna Kumar Tagore and Henry Vivian Derozio etc. deeply influenced by Roy, Derozio founded the Young Bengal Association. The students of the Hindu College were its members. Derozio inspired his pupils with the ideals of nationalism and encouraged them to raise their voice against all kinds of social evils and injustices. He tried to expose the vices and evils of the contemporary Hindu society, particularly the condition of the week and the underprivileged could be seen in his poems. Bankim Chandra’s ‘Bande Mataram’ was also inspired by Derozio’s creations.
Q.7: Discuss the contribution of Dayanand Saraswati in the growth of Indian nationalism.
Ans: Eighteenth century India presented a decadent picture steeped in blind faith and age-old superstitions. With the introduction of western education, liberal and humanistic ideas gave birth to a new awakening in India. A few educated and enlightened Indians tried to motivate public opinion against the prevalent social evils and religious superstitions. They tried to improve the condition of women in the Indian society through the various socio-religious reform movements.
Dayanand Saraswati was the another four member of Indian nationalism. In 1857, he founded the Arya Samaj in Punjab. He played an important role in carrying forward the reformist movement that had already emerged in the hindu society.
Arya Samaj supported sea voyages and discouraged all types of superstitions associated with it.
According to Swami Dayanand, he considered the Vedas as the true source of Hinduism. He gave the slogan ‘Go back to the Vedas”. There was no provision for educating the non-Hindus in Hindu religion. It was Swami Dayanand,, who for the first time had introduced “Dharmantakaran’. This system allowed non-hindu to take Hindu religion according to their wishes.
Q.8: Discuss the contribution of Keshav Chandra Send in the growth of Indian nationalism.
Ans: Keshab Chandra Sen was the founder of Prarthana Samaj and a social activities who promoted the spirit of nationalism. Prarthana Samaj chiefly devoted its attention to social reforms.
Drawing inspiration from the teachings of the new Vaishnavite Bhakti Saints, he worked hard for the upliftment of his people and progress of the society. He establishing the Widow Re-marriage Association, he encouraged widow re-marriage and created employment opportunities for them. He also established many orphanages for the homeless and night school for the illiterate and unprivileged.
He established the Decan Education Society, he spread education especially among the orphans.
The activities of the Prarthana Samaj promoted the spirit of nationalism in mind of the people of Southern India.
Q.9: Discuss the contribution of Ramakrishna Paramhansa in the growth of Indian nationalism.
Ans: Ramkrishna Paramahans was a simple and pious man. His teachings attracted a large number of followers towards him.
The Ramakrishna Mission was established to spread the message of Ramakrishna Paramahansa.
The founder of Ramkrishna Mission was Swami Vivekananda. Swami Vivekananda, a meritorious student of Calcutta University, was fascinated by Ramkrishna’s personality and became his disciple After Paramahans’s death, he established the Mission in 1897.
Swami Vivekananda wanted to spread the true message of Hinduism far and wide. He wanted to create a sense of love for the country among the youths. He wanted to unite the Indians as well as to prove the fact that Indian philosophy and spiritual ideas were the best in the world.
Q.10: Discuss the contribution of Anne Besant in the growth of Indian nationalism.
Ans: The Theosophical Society was an international society founded in New York and opened its branch in Madras. Mrs Anne Besant was an Irish lady who came and settled in India in 1893. It was she who reorganised and popularised the movement in India. Through social service, she wanted to revive among the Indians a sense of self-respect and pride for India’s past.
She reminded the Indians about the richness of Indian Philosophy, culture and heritage. By reviving ancient ideals and institutions, she was convinced that she could help the people to regain their lost faith and overcome their inferiority complex. She instilled among the educated Indians a new spirit of awakening and national sentiment. In 1916 Besant started the Home Rule League and spread the message of self-rule among the Indians. She was the first lady president of the Indian National Congress.
Q.11: What is Aligarh Movement? To what extent did it modern outlook and thinking among the Indian Muslims?
Ans: In the later years of the 19th century, the Aligarh movement was an initiative to set up a system of Western-style scientific education in British India for the Muslim population. The origin of the movement is from Aligarh, which is where it has derived its name from. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founder of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College and some institutions that developed from it. The chief person leading the Aligarh movement objectives was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. This Muslim renaissance movement has profound implications for the culture, society, politics, and religion of the Indian subcontinent.
Thus the Aligarh movement played a great role in developing modern outlook and thinking among the Indian Muslims and brought in them the following changes:
(i) The movement raised political consciousness among the Indian Muslims.
(ii) It inspired Indian Muslims to embrace western education.
(iii) It campaigned against social abuses within the Muslim community.
(iv) It opened the gates of new world of western literature and culture to the Indian Muslims.
Q.12: How did the printing press in India lead to the growth of Indian nationalism? Discuss.
Ans: The Government became convinced of the role played by the Press towards Indian Renaissance and growth of Indian nationalism. That is why they decided to increase their control over the vernacular press. Lord Wellesley (1798-1804) imposed censorship on the Indian press by the Censorship Act, 1799. In 1807, Lord Hastings (1813-1823) abolished the Censorship Act but prohibited the publication of articles which might tarnish the image of the British Government in India.
In 1823, John Adam, the acting Governor-General, reversed the policy of Lord Hastings and again imposed restrictions on the Indian Press. Raja Ram Mohun Roy (1772-1833) vehemently protested this. As a mark of protest he stopped, for the time-being, the publication of his weekly Mirat-ul-Akbar. He pleaded before the Calcutta High Court and the Governor-General of Bengal for the removal of these restrictions on the Indian Press.
In 1835, the officiating Governor-General Charles Metcalfe repealed these restrictions and became the ‘Liberator of the Indian Press’. This helped in the growth of the vernacular press in India.
The vernacular Press was highly critical of the policies of the British Government in India and had succeeded in building up public opinion against the colonial rulers. In this regard the newspapers published from Bengal made noteworthy contributions. Papers like Bangadarshan, Sanjivani, Aryadarshan, Amrita Bazar Patrika published from Bengal during the second half of the nineteenth century served as powerful instrument in rousing political consciousness among the people.
After 1861, famines had occurred at many places in India and people were dying because of food scarcity. The Indian newspapers criticised the failure British government in India under Lord Lytton (1876-1880) in extending relief measures among the people. In retaliation to this, Lytton passed the ill-famous Vernacular Press Act of 1878. It was a great blow to the vernacular press. All over India many printing presses were closed down. Following this, printing of papers like Hindu from Madras, Kesari from Bombay, Amrita Bazar Patrika from Calcutta etc. were stopped. To escape itself from the clutches of this ‘Gagging Act’, the Amrita Bazar Patrika changed itself to an English paper.
In 1878, Lord Lytton passed the Arms Act which prohibited the Indians from keeping arms. The reactionary policies of Lytton exposed before the Indian public the true nature of the British rule and made a mockery of the British policy of ‘Equality before Law’. Lytton’s Vernacular Press Act and Arms Act provoked a strong wave a reaction and prepared the Indians for a fight to preserve their self-respect.
Q.13: Discuss briefly the factors that led to the birth of Indian National Congress.
Ans: During the tenure of Lord Dufferin, Allan Octavian Hume, a retired English Civil Servant took the initiative to organise an all India organisation of the Indians. Hume addressed an open letter (1st march 1883) to the graduates of the Calcutta University calling upon them to join hands in the service of their motherland. With the support of 50 students he organised a meeting under the banner of Indian National Union and came to the conclusion to form a permanent organisation in the interest of the nation. It was decided to organise a great congregation in Bombay in their regard. Lord Dufferin encouraged Hume in this regard.
On 28th December 1885, the congregation was held at Gokul Das Tejpal Sanskrit College Hall, Bombay. It was attended by 72 delegates from different parts of the country. It was decided to name the Congress as the Indian National Congress and Womesh Chandra Banerjee, a barrister of Calcutta, was chosen as the first President of the Indian National Congress. The foundation of the Indian National Congress was laid with a pledge to work for the interest of the people and the country.
During the second half of nineteenth century, lots of civil societies were organised by the educational middle class people in different parts of India. These societies imparted political lessons to the people of India and through their works, increased the attraction of Indian people towards national interests. Though their political activities these societies played most important role in creating an all India sentiment amongst the people living disparately in various parts of the country. In consequence thereof, there grew up the Indian National Congress under the untiring efforts and initiative of retired British official Allen Octavian Hume in December 1885. If there been no civil societies, it would have been not possible for Allen Octavian Hume to form the Indian National Congress.
Before the formal Congress organisation was launched, Hume had held discussion with the then Viceroy of India Lord Dufferin in detail for floating such an organisation. The first conference of the Indian National Congress was held at Bombay in December 1885 and Womesh Chandra Banerjee presided over the session. Allen Octavian Hume was elected the Secretary of the Congress. 72 eminent persons from different parts of the country attended the first session of the Congress.
Q.14: Give a brief account of the working of the Indian National Congress during the early years of its formation.
Ans: Indian National Congress, byname Congress Party, broadly based political party of India. Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain. It subsequently formed most of India’s governments from the time of independence and often had a strong presence in many state governments.
The working of the Indian National Congress during the early years of its formation are discussed below:
During the yearly years, the Congress adopted a moderate policy of working through prayers and petitions. Maintaining friendly relation with the government, it aimed at securing Indian representation in the administrative machinery.
The Congress sent an Indian team under the leadership of S. N. Banerjee to England in 1890. But the Indian Council Act of 1892 greatly disappointed the Congress when it failed to give any concession to the Indians.
It was in these circumstances that a section of the Congress leaders started losing faith in the moderate tactics of the Indian National Congress They decided to break away and take up the extreme path.
The faith of Congress leaders in constitutional methods of the British weakened after the partition plan of Lord Curzon in 1905. In the Baranasi session of the Congress in 1905, Bipin Chandra Pal opposed the moderate policies of the party president Gopal Krishna Gokhle and encouraged the Congress leaders to give up the moderate policy and make Swadeshi movement.
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