Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India

Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India and select needs one.

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Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Advent of the Europeans into India

Chapter: 1



Q.1: who was the first Portuguese sailor to discover the sea route between India and the west ? When and where in India did he arrive for the first time ?

Ans: Vasco- da-Gama.In 1498 at Calicut port in South India.

Q.2: who was the English sailor able to move round the earth through the sea route ?

Ans: Francis Drake.

Q.3: who was the English sailor who entered India for the first time and when ?

Ans: Johnes MildenHall in 1599.

Q.4: when and where did the East India company initially establish ?

Ans: The East India Company (trade organisation) was initially established in England in 1600.The Company was then called the ‘English East India Company’.

Q.5: write two objectives of the East India Company to permanently rule in India ?

Ans: (1) To establish trade supremacy in India.

(2) To secure political dominance in India for affirming British hold over India.

Q.6: when and where in India was the first trade centre of the English established ?

Ans: At Masulipatnam in 1611.

Q.7: what is ‘Fort William’?

Ans: ‘Front William’is a fort built in Calcutta in honour of William III, the king of England. The old name of Fort William was Calcutta trade centre.

Q.8: which were the two main divisions of the British administrative period of dependent India ?

Ans: The British administrative period of dependent India was divided into following two main divisions: 

(i)The first phase,i.e. from the downfall of the Mughal Empire (around 1717) to the sepoy Mutiny(1857).In this phase,the East India Company dethroned the Indian 

rulers,unified the scattered divisions and began a central administration over the entire British Indian region.

(ii)The second phase,i.e.from 1858 to 1947,restoration of power to the hands of Indians. In this phase,many important administrative reforms and welfare  measures were introduced in India by the British Crown to ensure an organised British administration in India. In this period, national awakening in the country gained ground which led the British to quit India.

Q.9: Who,when and with what objective was the ‘Government of India act’ enacted ?

Ans: The Government of India act was passed by the British Parliament on 2 August 1858,with the objective that the British government would have the power to rule India directly. This made the East India Company devoid of its powers.

Q.10: When and with what objective was the ‘Indian Councils Act’ enacted ?

Ans: The Indian Councils act was passed by the British Parliament in 1861 with the objective to make the educated Indians familiar with the new administrative structure which was based on the Government of India Act,1858.


Q.1: What were the efforts made by the British to establish trade relations with India? Analyse the steps by which they succeeded.

Ans: The British made countless efforts to establish trade relations with India. Below is an outline of their various attempts before they finally succeeded in setting up the first trade centre of the East India Company in 1611 at Masulipatnam.

(i) During the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar: In 1599,Queen Elizabeth of England sent Johnes MildenHall,an English sailor with a petition letter to obtain certain trade privileges from the Mughal Emperor Akbar .This was the first time when an Englishman reached India via sea route with a trading purpose.

(ii) During the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir ):

(a) First attempt: In 1608,Captain William Hawkins,an English merchant came to India with a petition letter from English king James I to the Mughal emperor Jahangir urging for trade relation with India. The emperor issued a Firman allowing setting up an English settlement at Surat. After two years of staying in the Mughal empire,Captain Hawkins tried to earn some trade privileges from the Mughal emperor,but the letter rejected the request for a trede contact.

(b) Second attempt: In 1615,sir Thomas Roe,an Englishman was sent with a petition from English king 

James I to emperor Jahangir at Ajmer . Jahangir again refused to sign any trade contracts,he granted English merchants permission to set up factories at Surat .

(iii)During the reign of Mughal Emperor Farukhsiyar(1713-1719): In 1715,a new proposal for trade relation was offered by John Surman,as head of an English delegation,to the Mughal emperor Farukhsiyar. A member of the delegation,an English surgeon William Hamilton,cured the emperor of a painful illness. As a reward,the emperor granted three imperial ‘firmans’ to the East India company . These ‘firmans’can be considered as the ‘Magna Carta’of the company,by which:

(a)The company received the right of duty- free trade in Bengal with an annual payment of ₹ 3,000. 

(b) The company was permitted to rent additional territory around Calcutta .

(c)The company continued to enjoy the advantage of free trade in Mughal Deccan.

Q.2: How did the East India Company establish three trade centers at three important places in India?

Ans: The three trade centres of the East India company at three important places in India were:

(i) Trade center at Masulipatnam: The East India Company established its first factory at Masulipatnam in 1611, with the permission of the Sultan of Golkunda.

(ii) Trade centre at Armagaon: The East India company started its second trade centre at Armgaon in 1636. In 1639,the company entered into a treaty with the king of Chandragiri to transfer the Armagaon trade centre to Madras.This trade centre was renamed as Fort St George.

(iii) Trade centre at Calcutta: In 1690, job charnock (company officer) made a treaty with the Nawab of Bengal to obtain zamindari right over three villages,viz.Gobindapur, Sutanutee and Kali Ghata (Kolkata), subject to a payment of ₹ 1,200 per annum. He established a trade centre here. Letter,these three villages amalgamated to form the town of Calcutta .

Q.3: Who was the most remarkable person of the East India company to pave the way for the establishment of British imperialism in India ? Write with four arguments about his strategies to lay the foundation stone of the British Empire.

Ans: Robert Clive,an ordinary servant of the East India company was the most remarkable person of the East India company.He was Governor during the period 1757-60 and again from 1765-67. He paved the way for the establishment of British imperialism in India.

The strategies of Robert Clive which laid the foundation of the British Empire were:

(i) He devised schemes by which other European companies would be expelled from India .

(ii) He adopted the policy of either war or friendship to win over the native kings.

(iii) He developed friendship with the Nawab of Bengal,Nizam of Hyderabad,Nawab of Oudh,kings of Rajputana,and signed such agreements with them by which they lost their authority over their kingdoms.

(iv) Clive deceitfully won the Battle of Plassey (1757)against Siraj-ud-daulah,the Nawab of Bengal,Bihar and Orissa and laid the foundation of the British empire in India.

Q.4: Write four causes for the outbreak of the sepoy Mutiny.

Ans: Four main causes for the outbreak of the sepoy Mutiny are:

(i) political cause: The reactionary policies of Lord Dalhousie caused dissatisfaction among the people.

(ii) Economic cause: Scrapping the name of the Mughal Emperor from the coins of the East India company in 1835.

(iii) social cause: Unrest among the royal class and the common people caused by the preceding hundred years of British rule.

(iv) Religious cause: Replacing royal Persian language with English in the administration.( We also know of the final spark for the mutiny being provided by  the rumour of cartridges being greased with tallow made from beef and pork,which were against the religious beliefs of Hindus and Muslims respectively.)

Q.5: Mention four important results of the sepoy Mutiny.

Ans: The sepoy Mutiny of 1857 brought remarkable changes in the outlook of the British government towards  India.These changes can broadly be classified into two categories,viz:

(i) Constitutional changes: 

(a)passing of Government of India Act,1858: The British government passed the Government of India act,1858 and with this Act empowered the British government to put India under its direct administration.By this Act,the whole administrative set up had to be refurnished.

(b) Queen’s  proclamation : Viceroy Lord canning put forward a proclamation declaring himself as the representative of Queen Victoria. The main objective of this proclamation was to eradicate discrepancy and hesitation existing among the Indians . He also abolished the Doctrine of Lapse.

(ii) Social changes:

(a) Modernisation of Indian society : As a result of the rebellion,there were significant changes in the minds of Orthodox Indian people.A section of newly educated Indians was getting influenced by the modern western culture .

(b) Realization of need of organization: The valour and confidence of the rebel sepoys became an inspiration for the people . However,they realized that they needed to get organized before initiating another national movement.

(c) Unity among Indians : Being brought under direct British rule,the Indians were infused with a sense of unity as being ‘We Indians ‘. People of different castes and races of the country began to look upon themselves as on unit.

Q.6: Mention four administrative changes brought through the ‘Government of India Act’.

Ans: Following the sepoy mutiny the British government passed an Act named the Government of India Act,1858. The administrative changes brought through this Act were :

(i) Change of authority: By the introduction of the new act,the administration of India passed on from the English East India company to the British Crown,I.e.then British Parliament.It also abolished the Board of Control and the the court of Directors which earlier used to manage the affairs of the company.

(ii) Appointment of the Secretary of State for india: A new official named the Secretary of state for India was appointed. A council of 15 members called the’ Council of India’ guided the secretary of state for India. The 15 members comprised 8 members from the British government and 7members from the East India company.

(iii) Appointment of a Viceroy and Government: The Act decreed that the Governor-General would henceforth be known as’Viceroy’ and he alongwith provincial heads,who would be called Governors, would be appointed by the British Government.

(iv) Control of company army: The Act brought the company army under direct control of the British Government.

(v) Role of secretary: The Secretary of the Council was empowered to:

(a) Preside over the council,and 

(b) Prepare an annual report of all documents concerning Indian administration and submit it to the British Parliament.

Q.7: Write about two main reforms of Lord cannig.

Ans: Two main reforms of Viceory Lord canning to strengthen India’s condition ruined by the sepoy Mutiny 1857 were:

(i) Bengal Rent Act,1859: The objectives of Bengal Rent Act,1859 were:

(a) To eradicate the chaos created by the Parliament settlement.

(b)To bestow the tenants,rights over their lands.

(c) To protect the indigo farmers from the influence of indigo merchants.

(ii) Improvement in education system: For the improvement in education system in india,Lord Canning executed Wood’s Despatch and inaugurated an Education Department in each state presided by a secretary.

Q.8: Write two merits and two demerits of the ‘Indian Councils Act’.

Ans: Indian councils act was passed in 1861 to acquaint the Indians with the new system of administration brought about by implementation of the Government of India Act,1858.Two merits and demerits of the Act are outlined hereunder:


(i) Formation of representative government: The Act of 1861 opened the doors for Indians in the British administration.The Indian were empowered to participate in the legislative functions in the highest administrative unit through legal procedure.

(ii)Authorisation of the Central Legislative Assemblies(Councils): Through the enactment of this Act,the Central Legislative Council was entrusted with the authority to make suggestions and enact laws on:

(a) finance,


(c)protection of defense force,and 

(d)protection of territories of both British occupied Indian states and native Indian states.


(i) Unlimited powers of Viceroy: As per this Act,the proposed laws and suggestions of the Legislative Assembly could be nullified by the Viceroy.

(ii) Limitation of the provincial government: The legal powers embraced on the Provincial Legislative Council were subject to certain limitations.

Q.9: Discuss the changes occurred through the local self-government during the British period.

Ans: With the changes in the central and provincial administration of the country,many significant changes were witnessed in the local self-government in India during the British period.The main changes were:

(i) Formation of Local Board(Area Council): Many Local Boards (Area councils)were formed in each sub-division in 1882,constituting of nominated members.Provision was made to establish primary boards in the rural areas under each local board.

(ii) Introduction of financial decentralization: During the administration of Lord Mayo in 1870,’resolution on financial decentralization’ was introduced for the first time in the country.Thus,provinces were assigned the responsibility of:

(a) Expanding the scope of civil amenities in the country through maintenance of public health, education,water supply, registration, prison, police,etc.

(b)Undertaking works of public utilities without any interference from the central or provincial heads. This could be done by raising funds from local inhabitants through taxes and tolls.

(iii) Formation of town committees and municipal boards: The town committees and municipal boards were formed in urban areas constituting of 75% of the members elected through election.

(iv) Overall improvement of local self-government: Lord Ripon,the then Governor- General and Viceroy(1880-84)made great efforts for improving the local self-government in India.

(a) A resolution was passed by him in 1882 for the betterment of local self-government in the country.

(b)He proposed to divide local sefl- government into two sets,viz.rural and urban areas,so that each area could be given special attention.

(c) He wanted to increase the number of non-official members in both the local bodies.

(d) He also tried to give special attention to ensure that the chairman of the local body was non-official and elective.Lord Ripon did not get much support from the British government in this regard. As a result,many alterations were made in the proposal. The district commissioners performed the duties of the chairman . In spite of all these,it must be noted that Lord Ripon was the pioneer in the field of bringing about a total revolution in the local self-government of our country.

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