Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India and select needs one.
Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India
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Geography of India
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The Andaman and Nicobar islands group consist of ______ islands.
Ans. (d) 215.
2. The Wular lake is situated in _______.
(b) Tamil Nadu.
(d) Jammu and Kashmir.
Ans. (d) Jammu and Kashmir.
3. According to 2011 census, the average density of population of India is ______ persons per sq.km.
Ans. (c) 382.
4. The area in India that has the highest density of population is _______.
(b) Uttar Pradesh.
(d) Andhra Pradesh.
Ans. (a) Delhi.
5. The most populated state in India is _______.
(a) Madhya Pradesh.
(b) Uttar Pradesh.
(d) West Bengal.
Ans. (b) Uttar Pradesh.
6. The Brahmaputra river meets the river ______ before falling into the Bay of Bengal.
Ans. (a) Ganga.
7. In summer, ______ monsoon winds blows over India.
Ans. (a) south-west.
8. ______ extends from the mouth of Godavari river to the mouth of the Ganges.
(a) Konkan coast.
(b) Malabar coast.
(c) Northern circars.
(d) Coromandel coast.
Ans. (c) Northern circars.
9. The most thinly populated state of India is ________.
(a) Arunachal Pradesh.
(d) Jammu and Kashmir.
Ans. (a) Arunachal Pradesh.
10. ______ plain is also known as Thar desert.
(d) Punjab Haryana.
Ans. (b) Rajasthan.
Textual questions and answers Exercise:
Q.1: What is the total length of the land boundaries of India?
Q.2: Write about the geographical location of India.
Ans: India is located in the Northern Hemisphere. Latitudes and Longitudes will help in determining the exact location of a country. The coordinates of mainland India are longitudinally it extends between 68°7’E and 97°25’E, latitudinally mainland India extends between 8°4’N and 37°6’N.
The total area of India is 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world. The total length of India’s coastline is 7,516.6 Km. This includes Andaman & Nicobar Islands, and Lakshadweep Islands. India’s land boundary extends up to 15,200 Km.
3. What is the total length of Indian coastlines?
Ans: The total length of Indian coastline is about 6,100km.
Q.4: Write a short note on Indian landmass.
Ans: The Indian landmass extends from Kashmir to the Cape Comorin in its north-south extension and from Arunachal Pradesh to Saurastra in its east-west extension. This country is located between 8°4′28″N and 37°17 53 N latitudes and 68°7′33″E and 97°24′47″E longitudes.
The 23°30’N line of latitude or the Tropic of Cancer runs through the midway of the country. This line of latitude has divided the country into two equal northern and southern parts. The southern part is situated between the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west.
The landmass of India has north-south extension of 3,214 km. and the east-west extension of 2,933 km. India has about 6,100 km long coastlines along the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south.
Q.5: Write down four points of differences between the north and the south Indian rivers.
Ans: The differences between the north and the south Indian rivers are:
(i) Ice and rain combine to form northern rivers. They are perennial and are part of the Himalayan river system.
(ii) Northern rivers have abrupt changes in course, whereas southern rivers are stable.
(iii) Similarly, their drain areas exhibit the same characteristics.
(iv) Southern rivers are thought to be older than northern rivers.
(v) Southern rivers have a faster course to the sea than northern rivers.
Q.6: What are the physiographic divisions of India?
Ans: Physiography of an area is the outcome of structure, process and the stage of development. The land of India is characterized by great diversity in its physical features. The north has a vast expanse of rugged topography consisting of a series of mountain ranges with varied peaks, beautiful valleys and deep gorges. The south consists of stable table land with highly dissected plateaus, denuded rocks and developed series of scarps. In between these two lies the vast north Indian plain.
The physiographic division of India are: (i) North Himalaya Region, (ii) Plain Region of North India, (iii) Deccan plateau Region, (v) Coastal Region.
Q.7: What are the characteristics of the Northern Himalayan mountain region of India?
Ans: The main characteristics of the Northern Himalayan Mountain Region of India are:
(i) The Himalayas are the highest mountains of the world. The Himalayas with its all branches are altogether known as the Himalayan mountain system.
(ii) This mountain system extends over India, Nepal, Bhutan and China.
(iii) The Himalayan region of the India lies in the northern part of the country.
(iv) The geologists have confirmed that the Himalayas were borned during the tertiary period.
(v) The Himalayan ranges are composed of easily erodible rocks of the Tertiary period.
Q.8: Describe the characteristics of the North Indian plain.
Ans: Characteristics of the North Indian plain:
1. North Indian Plains which is mostly a flat low-lying area, lies between Himalaya Mountains in the north and the peninsular plateau in the south.
2. Also, it extends from Rajasthan and Punjab in the west to Assam in the east.
3. The North Indian Plains are divided into two sub-divisions, viz. the Ganga Basin and the Brahmaputra Valley.
4. The part lying to the east of the Aravallis is the Ganga Basin and is therefore known as the Ganga Plains which slopes eastward.
5. Most of the parts of West Bengal and Bangladesh together constitute the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta system. It is known as Sunderbans which is world’s largest delta.
6. The western part of the North Indian Plains is occupied by Thar Desert. It is also known as the Marusthali or the Thar Desert.
7. To the north of the desert lie the Punjab plains which are formed due to the depositional work by river Sutlej and its tributaries. It slopes towards the west and is spread to the west of Aravalis & Delhi ranges. Agriculture is largely practised in this region as the soil here is very fertile.
Q.9: Describe the characteristics of the Deccan Plateau.
Ans: (i) The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada.
(ii) The Satpura range flanks its broad base in the north while the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and the Maikal range form its eastward extension.
(iii) It is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards.
(iv) Its north-east extension is locally known as the Meghalaya and Karbi Anglong plateau and North Cachar Hills. It is separated by a fault from the Chota Nagpur plateau.
(v) Three prominent hill ranges from the west to east are the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills.
Q.10: Mention the characteristics of the Coastal Region of India.
Ans: The characteristics of the Coastal Region of India:
(i) These are narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea on the west and Bay of Bengal on the east.
(ii) These are known as western coast and eastern coast of the coastal plains.
(iii) The western coast is sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
(iv) It is a narrow plain and consists of three sections. The northern part of the coast is called the ‘Konkan’, the central is called ‘Kannad Plain’ and the southern part is called the ‘Malabar Coast’.
(v) The plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level.
(vi) In the northern part, it is called Northern Circas, while the southern part is known as Coromandel Coasts.
(vii) Large rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri form extensive deltas on the eastern coasts.
(viii) Lake Chilika is also located on the eastern coast. It is the largest salt water lake of India.
Q.11: Write down the characteristics of the climate of India.
Ans: The characteristics of the climate of India are:
1. Seasons: The climate of India is influenced by the two oppositely blowing monsoon winds, i.e The south-west monsoon winds help in the classification of Indian climate into four seasons-Winter (December-February), Summer (March-May), Monsoon or Rainy season (June-September) and Autumn (October-November).
2. Oppositely blowing winds: The direction from which the winds blow in the summer season (south-west) is reversed in the winter season (north-east).
3. Hot wet summers and cool dry winters: The moist south-west monsoon winds provide sufficient rainfall during late summer and the rainy season. The north-west monsoon winds are generally dry and do not provide rainfall except for the Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu. Thus, the summers are hot and wet while the winters are cool and dry.
4. Orographic rainfall: The south-west monsoon winds collide with the mighty Himalayas on the north and the Western Ghats along the western coast. Thus, they provide orographic rainfall in the foothills of the Himalayas and the western slopes of the Western Ghats.
5. Unpredictable rainfall: The whimsical nature of the monsoon winds make the occurrence of rainfall unpredictable. In some years rains come early and retreats late, while in some years the rains arrive late and retreats early. Thus, the monsoon winds sometimes cause floods and sometimes lead to droughts.
6. Diverse climate: The northern part of India is surrounded by landmasses. Hence, it experiences extreme and continental climate. The southern part is surrounded by oceans on three sides (west, south and east). Hence, it experiences moderate climate.
7. Cyclones: During the autumn season, the eastern and the western coastal regions experience cyclonic storms and rainfall. During the winter season, the Western disturbances cause cyclonic rainfall in the north-western part of India. The temperature drops to a great extent, and the hilly regions experience snowfall.
Q.12: Write a note on the impact of monsoons in India.
Ans: The impact of monsoons on Indian climate is significant. Monsoons blow in different seasons of the year, especially during summer and winter. In summer the south-west monsoons blow and in winter the north-east monsoons blow.
(i) South-west monsoons: The south-west monsoons enter India after blowing over he Arabian sea. As this wind comes from the south-western side, it is called south-west monsoons. This wind carries enormous amount of moisture from the Arabian sea and hits the western Ghats. Then it rises up and on getting cold rain occurs. In this way, the western coasts such as the Konkan and the Malabar coasts receive more than 300 cm of rainfall annually. This wind then crosses the Meghalaya plateau and enters into Assam. It then moves further north and gets obstructed by the foothills of the Himalayas. In this way, Assam and the foothills of Himalayas also receive heavy rainfall due to the south-west monsoons during summer.
(ii) The North-East monsoons: The north-east monsoons, on the other hand blow during winter. This cold wind flows from the central Asia and enters India from north-east direction. This is why, it is called the north-east monsoon. The monsoon. The northern Himalayas mountains stand as a barrier to this cold wind, and so northern India is not affected by severe coldness due to this wind. However, a portion of this wind comes across the Himalayas and enters into India. As it comes from the land areas of central Asia, it is dry and it cannot produce rainfall, But, when this wind flows over the Bay of Bengal, it carries some amount of moisture. This moisture-carrying wind then gets obstructed with the Eastern Ghats and thus rainfall takes place on the east coast, especially along the Coromandel coast.
Q.13: Outline the pattern of rainfall distribution in India.
Ans: The average annual rainfall distribution in India, it can be seen that heavy rainfall (more than 300 cm on annual average) occurs along the Himalayas foothills of the North-Eastern region, southern parts of the Meghalaya plateau and the western slopes of the Western Ghats.
Of course, highest amount of rainfall takes place along the outer Himalayan ranges of Arunachal Pradesh. In this region there occurs more than 400 cm of average annual rainfall.
On the other hand, less than 50 cm of average annual rainfall takes place in the Thar desert and its neighbouring areas. In the Thar desert there are some areas which receive even less than 20 cm of rainfall. The northern and western parts of the Deccan plateau and the areas in the around Gujarat also receive less amount of rainfall. In these areas rainfall occurs in between 50 cm and 100 cm. But, rainfall of medium range between 100 cm and 200 cm on average annual basis is found to occur in the northern plains of India including the Brahmaputra plain.
The monsoons have their direct impact on Indian agriculture. Due to rainfall caused by the monsoons, crops grow well and crop production also increases. In this regard, the impact of south-west monsoons is more important than that of the north-east monsoons. Because, more rainfall takes place during the south-west monsoons. Rainfall is not uniformly distributed over all the places of the country.
Q.14: Write about the types of the vegetations of India.
Ans: Natural vegetation denotes the plant community, which grows naturally without the help of human beings and has been left undisturbed, away from humans for a long time. Cultivated crops and fruits form a part of the vegetation but are not referred to as natural vegetation.
There are different types of climate in different physiographic environments over the surface of the earth. Such differences in climate cause variations in soil types. Again different soil types support different types of vegetations. So, it can be said that the types of vegetations, their growth and distribution mainly depend on climate, physiography and soil.
Types of physiography, elemate and soils differ from place to place in India. So also the types and distribution of vegetations vary within the country.
The vegetations of the country can be broadly classified into six types:
(i) Evergreen vegetations, (ii) Monsoonal vegetations, (iii) Dry thorny vegetations, (iv) Grassland vegetations, (v) Mangrove vegetations, (vi) Mountain vegetation.
Q.15: What are the different types of migration?
Ans: Migration is the movement of people from one place to another, and it is frequently linked to a change of permanent residence.
The different types of migration are:
(i) Internal migration, (ii) International or external migration.
Again, Internal migration are two types: (i) Inter state migration, (ii) Intra state migration.
Q.16: What are the impacts of migration in India?
Ans: The impacts of migration of India are:
(i) Due to migration, variations in communities, religions and languages are increasing and, as a result colorful cultures have grown,
(ii) Changes in the economic sector and expansion of trade and commerce are caused due to migration.
(iii) Migration has changed the demographic structure of the country as well as its different regions. Population growth, density and literacy rates are changing due to migration. In some regions of the country, the numbers of migrants have become more than the numbers of indigenous people, and as a result some problems related to language, religion, culture and economy have emerged.
(iv) Migration contributes directly to the growth of India’s population. A number of problems have arised due to migration. Population pressure on land is increasing and forest and wetland ecosystems are affected. Moreover, problems have arised in the health and education sectors in addition to the problems of employment.
(v) Due to migration, sometimes some serious religious, social and political problems may take place.
(vi) Migrants sometimes suffer from mental pressure as they fail to adjust with the new places as well as new societies.
(vii) Slums generally grow, especially in the urban areas due to migration. The slum areas with unhygienic conditions cause pollution to the urban environment.
(viii) Due to migration, the political situations of the country or the states are on the way to change.
Q.17: Write down the main features of Indian economy.
Ans: The main features of Indian economy are:
(i) Low per capita income, (ii) Slow growth of per capita income, (iii) Excessive pressure of population, (iv) Poverty, (v) Dependence on agriculture, (vi) Growing unemployment problem, (vii) Planning based development.
Q.18: What are the union territories of India?
Ans: The Eight union territories of India are:
2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
4. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu.
Q.19: How many states are there in India at present and name those.
Ans: There are 28 states in India at present. They are:
1. Andhra Pradesh.
2. Arunachal Pradesh.
9. Himachal Pradesh.
13. Madhya Pradesh.
23. Tamil Nadu.
26. Uttar Pradesh.
28. West Bengal.
Q.20: Name the latest state formed in India. Write the area and population of it.
Ans: The latest state formed in India is Telangana. The area of Telengana is 1,14,840 sq km (approx.) and its population is 3,52,86,757 (approx.).
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