Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India

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Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India and select needs one.

Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Q.13: Outline the pattern of rainfall distribution in India .

Ans: The spatial distribution of rainfall in India is uneven. However,we many broadly divide India into four regions according to rainfall :

(i) Region of heavy rainfall: Here minimum rainfall is 300 cm. This includes Himalayan foothills of the North-eastern region,southern parts of the Meghalaya plateau and the western slopes of the western ghats. Along the Himalayan ranges of Arunachal Pradesh,there is a highest rainfall of 400 cm average.

(ii) Region of moderate rainfall : Here rainfall is between 100 to 200 cm. It includes northern plains of India including the Brahmaputra plains.

(iii) Region of low rainfall: Here rainfall is below 50 cm. It includes Thar desert,Kutch,and western Rajasthan. Sometimes the Thar desert recives rainfall of less than 20cm.

Q.14: Write about the types of the vegetations of India.

Ans: The different types of vegetations found in India are:

(i) Evergreen vegetation : Evergreen vegetation is found in regions having an average annual rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature between 25℃ and 27℃. The trees of evergreen forests are characterised by great height upto 45 m. Besides tall trees,cane,bamboo,ferms and various kinds of creepers are commonly seen here. The leaves of these trees do not shed in any part of the year. Hence,these are called evergreen forests. The valuable trees of this type of forests are sisum,sandal,rubber,etc. Evergreen forests are found in the western slopes of the western ghats, Himalayan foothills of Arunachal Pradesh,Upper Assam region,hills of Manipur and Mizoram and in the Andaman islands.

(ii) Monsoonal vegetation : The most prevalent type of vegetation found in India is the monsoonal vegetation. This type of vegetation. This type of vegetation is found in regions having an average annual rainfall between 100 cm and 200 cm and temperature of around 27℃. Most trees of this type shed their leaves in winter as the rainfall and temperature decrease and the soil becomes dry in winter. The important trees of monsoonal forests are sal,teak,siris, sisu,simul and varieties of bamboo,etc. This type of forests are found in Assam,west Bengal,Bihar,Uttar Pradesh,some parts of Haryana,Madhya Pradesh,Tamil Nadu,western ghats,eastern ghats and the eastern parts of the Deccan plateau,humid areas of the south Indian states,the Andaman and Nicobar Islands,etc.

(iii) Dry thorny vegetation : Dry thorny vegetations grows in the regions where average annual rainfall is less than 50 cm and  temperature is normally high. Since the soil is sandy and water content in soil is less,the trees have thorny leaves to check evapo-transpriration. The western part of the Thar desert of Rajasthan and south-western parts of Punjab have this type of vegetation. The major trees of drylands and desert regions include acacia, different varieties of cactus,date palm,etc.

(iv) Grassland vegetation: Extensive grasslands like Prairie of North America and Savanna of Africa are not found in India. However,small grasslands having short grasses and thorny bushes are found in areas having an average annual rainfall between 50 cm and 100 cm. Such grasslands are found in Punjab,eastern part of Rajasthan,plains of Uttar Pradesh, central parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and some parts of Maharashtra.Vegetation such as thatch,cane,reed,etc.can also be found in the wet and waterlogged areas of the Terai region of the Himalayan foothills. Some of the trees grown in this region are khair,simul,etc.

(v) Mangrove vegetation: Mangrove vegetation is found in the coastal Delta regions. The vegetation is supported by the salty sea water,the sediments carried and deposited by tides and the river. This type of vegetation is found mainly in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Kutch,Sundarbans of west Bengal (the delta regions of the Ganga-Brahmaputra),in the delta regions of Muhandi,Godavari,Krishna and Kaveri rivers. The main trees  found in this region are sundari,date,palm,coconut and bushy plants.

(vi) Mountain vegetation: Hilltops and mountains have different types of vegetation. There are varieties of vegetation at different heights of the mountains due to variations in rainfall, temperature,soil quality,etc. The Himalayan foothills having an average elevation of 1,000 m are covered with thick monsoonal forests,which include bamboos,sal and other valuable trees,etc. To the north of the monsoonal forests, evergreen trees like oak and coniferous tress are seen which are found between 1,000m and 2,000m. Such forests are found in the Himalayan regions of Kashmir,Himachal Pradesh,Uttar Pradesh,North-eastern hilly regions,etc. In Darjeeling and Sikkim,at the altitudes between 1600 m and 3000m,many varieties of coniferous trees,viz. deodar,etc.are found. Beyond this elevation,the regions have alpine types of forests.

Q.15: What are the characteristics of the evergreen vegetation of India ?

Ans: Refer to answer of question no.14 [point no.(i)]

Q.16: Write about the characteristics of the mountain vegetation of India.

Ans: Refer  to answer of question no. 14 [point no.(vi)]

Q.17: What are the different types of migration ?

Ans: The different types of migration are :

(i) Internal migration: When migration takes place within a country,it is called internal migration. It can be further classified as :

(a) Inter-state migration: Migration which takes place among the states of the country.

(b) Intra-state migration: Migration which takes place among the districts or regions of a state.

(ii) International or external migration: When migration takes place from one country to another,it is called international or external migration.

Q.19: What are the impacts of migration in India ?

Ans: The impact of migration in India is as follows :

(i) Growth of diversified cultures due to variations in communities, religions and languages of the immigrants.

(ii) Advancement of the economic sector and of trade and  commerce.

(iii) Change in the demographic structure,i.e. population growth,density of population and  literacy rate of a region.

(iv) Increased pressure on land,thereby affecting forest and wetland ecosystem.

(v) Rise of serious social,religious and economic problems.

(vi) Growth of slums in the urban areas leading to unhygienic conditions and pollution and the urban environment.

(vii) Change in the political situation of the country and/ or of states.

(viii) Added population pressure has created problems in health, education and employment sectors.

(ix) Sometimes problems related to language,religion,culture and economy arise, especially in areas where number of migrants outnumber the indigenous people.

Q.20: Write down the main features of Indian economy.

Ans: The main features of Indian economy are :

(i) Low per capita income : Per capita income is the result of total income divided by total population,i.e. the average annual income of a person. The per capita income of India in 2008-09 was ₹ 31,801 and in 2009-10 it was ₹ 33,731,i.e. recording an increase of ₹ 1930. Such an increase in per capita income is very low. The per capita income is very low compared to the expenditure of a person on basic needs. As a result,the volume of investment has decreased and no development activity could take place.

(ii) High population : The population of India was 350 million in 1947 which has increased to 1210 million in 2011. Such a rapid growth of population has increased the volume of output but the output is swallowed up by the increased population,thereby leading to problems of food, clothing and shelter.

(iii) Poverty: One-third of the total poor people in the world lives in India. According to the census of 2011,30 crore people in India are poor,out of which 22 crore live in villages and the rest in urban areas.

(iv) Agriculture: The majority of the population of India depends on the agricultural sector. As per the census of 1951,70% of the total population of India was engaged in this sector. With the expansion of sectors like industry,commerce,etc.,this figure has fallen down to 60% in 2011.

(v) Unemployment: The high growth of population has created the problem of mass unemployment in India. India is facing a large and growing volume of unemployment in urban areas and disguised employment in rural areas. Too many persons are employed in agriculture sector,whose marginal productivity is zero. Such persons who are only superficially employed are dragging the development of the country downward.

(vi) Planning based development: The five year plans have been developed in the country since 1951 for the overall development of the country. Efforts have been made to solve the social, educational and economical problems of the country through economic planning.

Q.21: What are the union territories of India ? 

Ans: The seven union territories of India are :

1. Delhi,(now has a special status of National Capital Territory)

2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands,

3. Chandigarh

4. Dadra and Nagar Haveli,

5. Daman and Diu,

6. Puducherry

Q.22: How many states are there in India at present  and name those.

Ans: There are 29 states in India at present. They are :

1. Andhra Pradesh 

2. Arunachal Pradesh.                   

3. Assam 

4. Bihar                                          

5. Chhatisgarh

6. Goa                                           

7. Gujara                                       

8. Haryana

9. Himachal Pradesh 

10. Jammu and Kashmir


12. Karnataka

13. Kerala                                    

14. Madhya Pradesh

15. Maharashtra.                        

16. Manipur

17. Meghalay                              

18. Mizoram 

19. Nagaland                              

20. Odisha

21. Punjab 

22. Rajasthan

23. Sikkim

24. Tamil Nadu

25. Telangana

26. Tripura

27. Uttar Pradesh

28. Uttarakhand 

29. West Bengal

Q.23: Name the latest state formed in India. Write the area and population of it.

Ans:. The latest state formed in India is Telengana. The area of Telengana is 1,14,840 sq km (approx.) and its population is 3,52,86,757 (approx.).

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