Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres Of Power

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Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres Of Power The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres Of Power and select needs one.

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres Of Power

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres Of Power Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…


Q.1. The European Union has evolved over time from a Economic union to an increasingly political one Elaborate.

Ans : The E.U. has evolved over time from an economic Union to increasingly the political one. The E.U. has started to act more like a nation state it has its own Flag,anthem, founding date and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealing with other Nations. The European Union has right to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members ,especially from the erstwhile Soviet Block.

Q.2. mention four modernisations proposed by Zhou Enlai in China.

Ans : China like Soviet Union faced severe economic crisis due to minimal trade and low per capita income agriculture also did not provide surplus for industry. This crisis lead Chinese to review the policy 1970. In 1972, it ended its economic and political isolation by establishing close relation with the USA premier Zhon Enlai in 1973 proposed for modernisation in the field of agriculture, industry, science, and technology. In 1978, the supreme Chinese leader Deng xiaoping announced Open Door Policy and reforms in China. The aim was to increase productivity by investment of technology and capital from abroad.

Q.3. Briefly discuss about the economic policy adopted by China to end stagnation.

Ans : China followed its own path in introducing a market economy to end stagnation. The Chinese in its policy did not go for “Shock Therapy” but open the economy step by step. The privatisation of agriculture in 1982 was followed of industry in 1998. Trade barriers were eliminated only in Special Economic Zones(SEZ’s) where foreign investors could set up enterprises. In China, the state played and continues to play a central role in setting up a market economy.

The new economic policies helped the Chinese Economy to break from stagnation privatisation of agriculture led to a remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes.

Q.4. Do you think that economic reforms touched everyone in China? Give reasons.

Ans : Although China has grown into a major economic power but the fruits of development has not touch everyone in China. Unemployment has raised in China with nearly hundred million people looking for jobs. female employment and conditions of work are as bad as Europe of the 18 and 19 century. environmental degradation and corruption have increased besides a rise in economics inequality between rural and urban residence and coastal and inland land provinces.

Q.5. what are the components of the ASEAN vision 2020 ?

Ans : (a) The ASEAN vision 2020 builds on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region.

(b) ASEAN has mediated the end of the Cambodian Conflict, the East Timor Crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asian cooperation.

Thus, the components of the ASEAN vision 2020 are:

(i) outward looking role.

(ii) Encouragement to negotiations.

(iii) Mediatory role of ASEAN.

Q.6 write India’s stand and status in ASEAN ?

Ans : ASEAN was established in 1967 by five countries of this region. India supports ASEAN community for the promotion of peace establishment of cooperation and ensure development in Asia. India has maintained States of ASEAN.

Q.7. Who are the members of ASEAN regional forum (ARE) ?

Ans : The members of ASEAN are 

(1) Indonesia.

(2) Malaysia.

(3) Philippines.

(4) Singapore.

(5) Thailand.

Q.8. name the six countries who signed the Treaty of Rome establishing the European economic community (EEC)?

Ans : The Name of six countries who signed treaties of from establishing the European economic community : 

(1) France.

(2) West Germany.

(3) Italy.

(4) Belgium.

(5) Netherland.

(6) Luxembourg.

Q.9 The Chinese US President HU Jintae was in India during November 2006. Write note on the agreement signed during the visit.

Ans : A joint declaration was issued by India and China in New Delhi on 21 November 2006 reflecting the shared vision and mutual objectives of the two countries in a number of important areas.Both sides acknowledged that the relationship between India and China the two biggest developing countries in the world, was a global and strategic significance and that a strong platform for common development existed.

More importantly, they stressed that they were not rivals or competitors but partners for mutual benefit with a responsibility to the developing world. This is a critical message_if the two can truly overcome the differences and work together, a strong partnership between India and China will directly benefit over one-third of the world’s population and position. Asia as the potential leader of the future World order. From the security perspective, both sides where are of the view that great SinoIndian corporation could pave the way for India and China to exercise real influence in the future of global politics and international relations. 

the two countries agree to revitalise and expand the IndiaChina dialogue mechanism on counter_ terrorism and to engage the United Nations in promoting a peaceful world order that ensured balanced representation of developed and developing Nations. To that end, China acknowledged and supported in desperation to have a strong presence in the United Nations but stopped short of supporting India’s bid for permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council. Both leaders committed themselves to a ten_pronged strategy to shape sino-indian relations are signed a series of 13 agreements touching on various areas, including trade, investment,  cultural heritage, education and agriculture.

Q.10. name the five countries who established ASEAN in 1967.

Ans : (1) Indonesia (2)Malaysia (3) Philippines (4) Singapore (5)Thailand

Q.11. Name the pillars and objectives of the ASEAN community ?

Ans : Indonesia,Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand are the pillars of the ASEAN community.  The objectives of ASEAN where primarily to accelerate economic growth and through that social progress and cultural development. A secondary objective was to promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations character.

Q.12. List of the contributory factors which gave recognition to Chinese economy at the global level ?

Ans : China followed its own path in introducing a market economy to end stagnation. The Chinese in its policy did not go for “Shock Therapy” but opened their economy step by step. The privatization of agriculture in 1982 was followed of industry in 1998.Trade barriers were eliminated only in the special economic zones(SEZ’s) where foreign investors could setup enterprises in China the state played and continues to play a central role in setting up a market economy.

The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation privatization of agriculture led to a remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes.

Q.13. “The European Union is  more a nation state than Economic Union” Justify ?

Ans : Same as Answer of Q.No.11.(Long Answer)

Q.14. What are the odds which limited the ability of European Union ? 

Ans : The European Union has been successful to a great extent in realising its aims and objectives but it is not free from obstruction these are:

(i) As a supranational organisation the European is able to intervene in economic, political, and social areas. But in many areas its member states have their own foreign relations and defence policy  that are often at odds with each other For example, Britain’s  Prime Minister  Tony Blair was America’s partner in the Iraq invasion, and many of the EU’s new member made up the willing where as Germany and France opposed America’s policy.

(ii) There is also a deep seated Euro-skepticism in some parts of Europe about the EU’s integrationist agenda. Thus for example, Britain’s former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher kept the UK out of the European market. Denmark and Sweden have resisted the Maastricht Treaty and the adoption of the Euro. This limits the ability of the European Union to act in matters of foreign relations and defence.

Q.15. How the rise of Chinese economy became the third alternative to the world power ?

Ans : The rise of Chinese economy has made it the third alternative  to the world power. China’s steady economic growth has projected to overtake  the US as the world’s largest economy, China’s economic integration into the region makes it the driver with enormous influence in regional affairs, the strength of its economy together with other factors such as population, land mass, resources, regional location and political influence have added to it power in significant ways and made it the third alternative power in the world.

Q.16. how does geographical proximity influence the formation of Regional organisation ?

Ans : Geographical proximity has a very positive influence on the formation of Regional organisation. A large majority of the people living in a particular area generally have come on religion, language, customs and conventions and culture which  inculcates a feeling of oneness and unity among them. Geographical proximity also encourages economic cooperation and inter__state trade. They  can also form  some security community through which the member countries can settle their mutual disputes without involving in armed conflict. Besides, they can create a common market and production base within the region and can help social and economic  development in the region. Thus, by forming such organisation, member states can uphold peace, cooperation and respect for each other’s sovereignty.

Unit 1 PART – 1
Chapter 1The Cold War Era
Chapter 2The End of Bipolarity
Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
Chapter 4Alternative Centres Of Power
Chapter 5Contemporary South Asia
Chapter 6International Organisations
Chapter 7Security In The Contemporary World
Chapter 8Environment And Natural Resources
Chapter 9Globalisation
Unit 2PART – 2
Chapter 1Era of One-Party Dominance
Chapter 2Challenges of Nation Building
Chapter 3Politics Of Planned Development
Chapter 4India’s External Relations
Chapter 5Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
Chapter 6The Crisis of Democratic Order
Chapter 7Rise of Popular Movements
Chapter 8Regional Aspirations
Chapter 9Recent Developments in India Politics

Q.17. What major challenges arose in Europe after the Second World War ?

Ans : As the Second World War came to an end, many of European leaders gripped with the questions of Europe. Should Europe be allowed to revert to its old rivalries or be reconstructed on principles and institutions that world  contribute to a positive conception of international relations. The Second World War shattered many of the assumptions and structures on which the European states had based their relation. In 1945, the European States confronted the ruin of their economics and the destruction of the institutions, assumption and structures on which Europe had been founded.

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