Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations and select needs one.
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations
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Q. 1. Give the significance of Article 370 of our constitution.
Ans : Article 370 of Indian Constitution gives special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Under Article 370 Jammu and Kashmir is given greater autonomy compared to other states of India. The special status has provoked two opposite reactions. There is a section of people outside of Jammu and Kashmir that believes that the special status of the state conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the state with India. This section feels that Article 370 should therefore be revoked and Jammu and Kashmir should be like any other state in India.
Q. 2. Give a brief description of Jammu and Kashmir.
Ans : Jammu and Kashmir is the most violent issue between the relationship of India and Pakistan since Independence. It has resulted in the loss of many lives and the displacement of many families. It involves the issue Kashmiri identity known as Kashmiriyat and the aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir for political autonomy. The political situation in the state has many dimensions like external and internal. Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political regions like – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The heart of the Kashmir region is the Kashmir valley. The people are Kashmire speaking and mostly Muslim with a small Kashmiri speaking Hindu minority.
Q. 3. How does regionalism come in the way of bringing about unity in diversity ?
Ans : It is absolutely correct that Regionalism comes in the way of bringing about unity in diversity. India is a multicultural and multilingual country, There are many ethnic groups who live within India. The state as well central government will definitely face problems to satisfy each and every cultural group. Nation building is an ongoing process. Expression of regional issues is not an aberration oran abnormal phenomenon. It produced a reconciliation which reduced the tensions existing in many regions. The example of Mizoram shows how political settlement can resolve the problem of separatism effectively. The second lesson is that the best way to respond to regional aspiration is through suppression.
Q. 4. discuss the nature of the Dravidian Movement.
Ans : ‘Vadakku vaazhkirathu, Therkku Thaeikirathu’ mean the north thrives even as the south decays. This popular slogan sums up the dominant sentiments of one of India’s most effective regional movements, the Dravidian movement, at one point of time. This was one of the first regional movements in Indian politics. It initially aimed for a separate provide nation but this movement did not go for violence. It used democratic means like public debates and the electoral platform to achieve its ends. This strategy paid off as the movement acquired political power in the state and also became influential at the national level.
The Dravidian Movement led to the formation of Dravida Kazhagam (DK) under the leadership of prominent Tamil Social reformer E.V. Ramasamy Periyar. The organisation strongly opposed the Brahmins dominance and affirmed regional pride against the political, economic and cultural domination of the North. Initially the Dravidian movement spoke in terms of the whole South India, however lack of support from other states limited the movement to Tamilnadu.
Q. 5. The Assam movement was combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.
Ans : The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. It is true because the Assam Movement aimed to protect cultural identity of the Assamese people and to bring economic development. Assam has been a backward state and there was an apprehension that the separate socio-cultural identity of Assamese people are in danger. There has been large scale migration of outsides to Assam which has threatened the identity of Assamese people. There was a threat that unless the illegal foreigners are detected and deported the Assamese people will become minority in their own homeland.
Q. 6.List the areas of tension immediately after independence in India.
Ans : Immediately after independence India had to face with many difficult issues like partition displacement, integration of princely states, reorganization of states and so on.
(i) Soon after independence the issue of Jammu and Kashmir came up. It was a question of the political aspirations of the people of Kashmir valley
(ii) Similarly in some parts of the North East, there was no consensus about being a part of India. First Nagaland and then Mizoram witnessed strong movements demanding separation from India.
(iii)In the South, some groups from the Dravid movement briefly toyed with the idea of a separate country.
(iv) The Akali Dal launched a movement on the question of the distribution of water between Punjab and its neighbouring states. Soon the leadership of the movement passed from the moderate Akalis to the extremist elements and took the form of armed insurgency.
Thus all these issues create lot of problems in Independent India.
Q. 7. ‘Regionalism does not imply separatism’. Explain.
Ans : Regionalism doesn’t only uphold separatism. All regional movement need not to lead separatist demands because regional aspirations are very much a part of democratic politics. There are many more examples which shows that regionalism does not only bear separatist tendency with it. In 1966, the Mizo National Front started an armed struggle for independence. This started a long battle between Mizo insurgent and the Indian army. Finally, a peace agreement was signed between Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga.
According to this accord signed in 1986, Mizoram was granted all statehood with special powers and MNF agreed to give up their struggle for secession from the Indian Union. The story of Nagaland is similar to Mizoram. After a period of long insurgency, a section of the Nagas signed an agreement with the government of India, although it was not acceptable to other rebels. Thus all these experience proof that regionalism does not implies only separatist tendency.
Q. 8. Mention any four regional parties of India.
Ans : Four Regional Political Parties of India are – National Conference of Jammu and Kashmir, Assam Gana Parishad of Assam, Akali Dal of Punjab and D.M.K. of Tamilnadu.
Q. 9. Why did Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial ?
Ans : During the period of 1970’s a section of Akali Dal, demanded political autonomy for Punjab.The Akali Dal passed a resolution which asserted autonomy. In 1973, at Anandpur Sahib a conference of Akali Dal was held. In that conference a resolution was taken demanding political autonomy for Punjab. This is known as Anandpur Sahib Resolution. The Anandpur Sahib Resolution was termed as Controversial because it was narrow in its approach. The resolution reflected only the aspirations of Sikh Community. Later on this resolution led to secessionist demand for the creation of “Khalistan.”
Q. 10. All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples.
Ans : It is true that all regional movements do not lead to separatist demands. In 1966, the Mizo National Front (MNF) started an armed struggle for independence. This started a long battle between Mizo insurgents and the Indian army. The MNF fought a guerilla war got support from pakistan and shelter in East Pakistan. (Now Bangladesh). The Indian army even used air force to suppress them. But these measures causes more anger and alienation of the people from India. When insurgency bore no fruit, Laldenga came back from exile in Pakistan and started negotiations with the government of India. Finally, a peace agreement was signed between Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga. According to this accord signed in 1986, Mizoram was granted full statehood with special powers and MNF agreed to give up their struggle for secession from the Indian union. The story of Nagaland is similar to Mizoram. After a period of long insurgency, a section of the Nagas signed an agreement with the government of India, although it was not acceptable to other rebels.
Q. 11.Describe the politics and programmes of Shiromani Akali Dal.
Ans : The Akali Dal is the oldest and the most successful of the regional parties in India. It claims to be the role representative body of the Sikhs. It is openly and publicly committed to promote and protect the interest of the Sikhs through political power. By a skillful manipulation of religious symbols, the language issue and the issue of Sikh subnational identity, the Shiromani Akali Dal has been able to abstract large concession from the British government, then from the Congress party, and after independence from the central government. It has been consistently shifting its stand on the content of the interest of the Sikhs and it has used both agitational and constitutional methods to achieve its goals
The Akali Dal demanded re-distribution of river water between Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, the transfer of Chandigarh to Punjab in lieu of some territory to Haryana and the re-orientation of centre-state relations etc. They demanded all these following the agitational as well as constitutional approach.
|PART – 1
|The Cold War Era
|The End of Bipolarity
|US Hegemony in World Politics
|Alternative Centres Of Power
|Contemporary South Asia
|Security In The Contemporary World
|Environment And Natural Resources
|PART – 2
|Era of One-Party Dominance
|Challenges of Nation Building
|Politics Of Planned Development
|India’s External Relations
|Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
|The Crisis of Democratic Order
|Rise of Popular Movements
|Recent Developments in India Politics
Q. 12. Discuss the Assam Accord.
Ans : After six years of Anti-foreigner Movement, the Rajiv Gandhi led government entered into negotiations with the AASU leaders leading in the signing of an accord in 1985. This is the famous Assam Accord, regarding the issue of outsiders.
The main point of this accard are :
(i) According to this agreement those foreigners who migrated into Assam during and after Bangladesh war and since, were to be identified and deported.
(ii) With the successful completion of the movement, the AASU and the Assam Gana Sangram Parishad (AGP) organised themselves as a regional political party called Asom Gana Parishad (AGP)
(iii) It came to power in 1985 with the promise of resolving the foreign national problem as well as to build a ‘Golden Assam’.
Assam Accord brought peace and changed the face of politics in Aşsam, but as a whole it did not solve the problem of immigration.
Q. 13. Are regional parties necessary in India ? Give any two arguments in support of your answer.
Ans : Yes, regional political parties are necessary in India because of following reasons :
(i) The Regional Political parties will understand the regional issues and local problems much better than the national parties.
(ii) The Regional parties owing to a region can give representation to almost all groups and ethnic tribes of the state. This will prevent regional movements and agitations.
Q. 14. Describe the policies and programme of DMK..
Ans : DMK is one of the regional political party of Tamilnadu, which originally sprung from Dravidian movement of the forties which had been anti Brahmin, anti-north and anti-Hindi. Founded in 1949 by C.N. Annadu Mai, the DMK emerged as the first political organ of the movement.
DMK is socialistic and democratic in its outlook. The party committed to the upliftment of the poor and down trodden. They have had incorporated in their programmes such socialistic measures as land ceiling, removal of controls, help to backward communities, slum clearance, provision of drinking water for villagers etc. They have made suitable legislative provisions for the grant of subsidies and loans to the farmers. In the last one decade, there has been a great emphasis on populist social welfare schemes including mid-day meal for children, old age pensions, free distribution of chappals and saris etc.
Q. 15. List the communities who wanted separate states in the North-East region.
Ans : The following communities wanted separate states in NorthEastern region:
(i) The Assamese Community.
(ii) The Naga Community.
(iii) The Mizo Community.
(iv) The Bodo Community.
Q. 16. Discuss the policy and programme of Telegu Desam Party (TDP)
Ans : Telugu Desam Party (TDP) is the ruling party of Andhra Pradesh, came into being in 1982 as a consequence of maladministration in the state and continued insults to the Telugu sense of Pride by the centre. It was a revolt against the denial of state autonomy through the imposition of successive Chief Ministers by the central government. The party was Launched by NT Rama Rao in the 1983 state elections, TDP swept the polls and came into power. After the death of NTR in 1994, TDP under the leadership of NTR’s son in law, Chandrabadu Naidu ruled the state and played an active role in the formation and stability of the centre. In the united front government (1991-98) TDP was a partner. After this, it gave outside support to the BJP led government. It was able to get the past of the Speaker of Lok Sabha in the 12th and 13th Lok Sabha.
Beside the charismatic motivation the party is famous for some social welfare schemes like-cheap, cheap rice, saris, old age pension etc. have been a source of strength for the party. The value of the schemes in the perspective of the state’s overall economic progress and development is no doubt open to question.
Q. 17. Discuss the ideology and electoral performance of National Conference.
Ans : The National Conference of Jammu and Kashmir was build up nearly half a century ago by Sheikh Abdullan with the assistance of a political group of some like minded Kashmiri Hindus and Muslims. The party through its various incarnations has symbolised Kashmiri aspirations for about five decades and banks on its base in the Kashmir valley. The National Conference is a dominant force in the Kashmir valley community wise, the National Conference draws support from Kashmiri particularism which has a strong Islamic component. The Kashmiri Muslim have an emotional attachment with this party described as “home-spun” political organisation of Kashmir by its founder.
In the 1951 election in state N.C. won all the 75 seats of the State Assembly (73 seats unopposed) Sheikh Abdullah’s anti India attitude resulted in his arrest in 1953 and he was released in 1964. Till his death in 1982, he was almost the supreme leader of the NC. After His death the leadership of the NC passed into the hands of his son Dr. Farooq Abdullah. NC stands for autonomy. In 1999, NC joined BJP led government at the centre. In the last Assembly election, it lost power in the state.
Q. 18. Discuss the factors responsible for the emergence of regional parties in India ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 17. (Long Answer)
Q. 19. What are the factors responsible for the development of “Regionalism’ in India ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 5. (Short Answer)
Q. 20. Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness’ , Justify ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No, 5. (Long Answer)
Q. 21. ‘Regionalism is a cures’. How can it be curbed? Give any four suggestions ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No.6. (Very Long Answer).
Q. 22. What are the different forms of separatist politics of Kashmir ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 5. (Very Long Answer)
Q. 23. What do you know about Kazi Lhendup Dorji Khangsarpa ?
Ans : Kazi Lhendeep Dorji Khangsarpa was born in 1904 in Sikkim. He was main leader of democratic movement of Sikkim. He formed Sikkim Praza Mandal and in 1962 he formed Sikkim National Congress and became Chief Minister of Sikkim.
Q. 24. Write short notes on :
(a) E.V. Ramaswami Naicker.
Ans : E.V. Ramaswami Naicker was born in 1879 in Tamilnadu and died in 1973. He was the prime leader of Dravirian movement in Tamilnadu. Dravirian movement was a strong regional movement.
(b) Punjab accord.
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 1.
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