Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations and select needs one.
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations
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Q.1. What were the main provisions of Punjab Accord ? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between the Punjab states ?
Ans : The decade of 1980’s witnessed major developments in the state of Punjab. The social composition of the state changed first with partition and d later on after the carving out of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. While the rest of the country was reorganized on linguistic lines in 1950s, Punjab had to wait till 1966 for the creation of a Punjabi speaking state. The Akali Dal, which was formed in 1920 as the political wing of the Sikhs, had led the movement for the formation of a ‘Punjab Suba’. The Sikhs were now a majority in the truncated state of punjab.
After the reorganisation, the Akalis came to power in 1967 and them in 1977. On both the occasions it was a coalition government. The Akalis discovered that despite the redrawing of the boundaries, their political Position remained precarious. Further, their government was dismissed by the centre mid-way through its term. The Sikhs community, like all other religious communities, was internally differentiated on caste and class lines. The congress got more support among the Dalits, whether Hindu or Sikhs, than the Akalis.
Soon, the leadership of the Akali movement passed from the moderate Akalis to extremist elements and took the form of armed insurgency. A large proportion of sikhs in India and abroad saw the military operation as an attack on their faith and this gave further impetus to militant and extremist groups. The militants made their headquarters inside the Sikh holy shrine, the Golden Temple in Amritsar and turned it into an armed fortress. In June 1984, the government of India carried out ‘Operation Blue Star’ code name for army action in the Golden Temple. In this if operation, the government could successfully flush out the militants, but it also damaged the historic temple and deeply hurt the sentiments of the Win Sikhs.
Still more tragic target turn of events complicated the Punjab problem further. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 october 1984 outside her residence by her body guards. Both the assassins were Sikhs and wanted to take revenge for Operation Blue star. The entire country was shocked by this development but in delhi and other parts of northern India violence broke out against the Sikh community.
The violence against the Sikhs continued for almost a week. More than two thousand Sikhs were killed in the national capital, the area worst affected by this violence. Hundreds of sikhs were killed in other parts of the country, PF especially in UP and Bihar. Many Sikhs families last their male members Are and thus suffered great emotional and financial loss.
What hurt the Sikhs most was that the government took a long time in restoring normalcy and po that the perpetrators of this violence were not effectively punished. Twenty years later, speaking in the parliament’ in 2005, Prime Minister Manmohan singh expressed regret over these killings and apologized to) the nation for the anti sikh violence.
Q. 2. Discuss the role of Congress in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir.
Ans : During most of the period between 1953 and 1974 the congress exercised a lot of influence on the politics of Jammu and Kashmir.
These influences can be mention like following ways :
(i) The National Conference is a dominant force in the Kashmir valley, congress has a corresponding position in the Jammu region. while Both have pockets of influence in each other’s areas of strength.
(ii) A truncated National Conference (minus Sheikh Abdullah) remained in power with the active support of congress for some time but later it merged with the congress. The congress conference alliance, and the establishment of the alliance rule in Kashmir, with Farooq Abdullah as Chief Minister of the state. Thus congress gained direct control over the government in the state.
(iii) The congress party also made several attempts to reach an agreement between Sheikh Abdullah and the government of India.
(iv) Finally in 1974 Indira Gandhi reached an agreement with Sheikh and he became the Chief Minister of the state.
(v) Some of the activities of the National Conference feel that their party has virtually been reduced to a “rubber stamp” in the hands of the congress. They resent being treated like junior partners by the centre. The National conference act like “stooges” of the congress leadership.
Q. 3. What was the tragic turn which complicated the Punjab problem further ?
Ans : The assassination of the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 31st October 1984 outside her residence by her body guards who were Sikhs bought the entire nation under a state of Shock and complicated the Punjab problem further.
(i) In Delhi and in many parts of Northern India violence broke out against the Sikh community and continued for almost a week.
(ii) More than two thousand Sikhs were killed in the national capital, the area worst affected by this violence.
(iii). Hundreds of Sikhs were killed in other part of the country, especially in places like Kanpur, Bokaro and Chas,
(iv) Many Sikh families lost their male members and thus suffered great emotional and heavy financial loss.
(v) What hurt the Sikhs most was that the government took a time in restoring normalcy and that the perpetrators of this violence were not effectively punished.
Twenty years later speaking in the Parliament in 2005, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh expressed regret over these killings and apologised to the nation for the anti-sikh violence.
Q. 4. Which Prime Minister expressed regret over the violence against Sikhs after Indira Gandhi’s death ?
Ans : After twenty years later, speaking in the Parliament in 2005, Prime Minister of India Dr. Monmohan Singh expressed regret over the killings of Sikhs during the violence in the after math of Indira Gandhi’s assassination. He also apologised to the nation for the anti Sikh violence.
Q. 5. What are the factors that fuel the fires of separatism in India ?
Ans : Separatist politics which surfaced in Kashmir from 1989 had taken different forms and is made up of various strands.
(i) By 1989, the state had come in the grip of a militant movement mobilised around the cause of a separate Kashmiri nation. The insurgents got moral, material and military support from Pakistan.
(ii) Regional differences in the process of development also fuel the fires of separatism in India. If some states remain poor and develop rapidly. It creates separatist tendency among the underdeveloped states or regions.
(iii) Lack of significance power sharing also lead to separatism. It is not sufficient to have a formal democratic structure. Besides that, groups and parties from the region need to be given share in power at the state level, If regions are not given a share in the national level decision making the feeling of injustice and alienation car spread
(iv) It is the best way to respond to regional aspiration is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression suppression led to negative result.
Q. 6. How the problem of regionalism can be solved ?
Ans : Most of the regional problems can be solved through negotiated settlements or accords between the central government and the groups leading the movement for autonomy. The best way to respond all these problems through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression. The question of diversity in India followed the path of democracy. Democratic politics thus strengthen regional aspirations and problems get adequate attention and accommodation in the policy making process.
Q. 7. Identify one similarity and one difference between the crisis in Punjab ans Assam during the 1980s.
Ans : One similarity between crisis in Punjab and Assam during the 1980’s is that both are related with some kind of development crisis in Punjab occurs due to the formation of a ‘Punjab Suba’ and crisis in Assam occurs due to illegal migration or outsiders from Bangladesh.
One difference between these two so called crisis is that in Punjab, the social composition of the state changed first with partition and later on after the carving out of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. On the other hand Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness.
Q. 8. What lessons we draw from the chapter Regional Aspiration.
Ans : From the chapter Regional Aspiration we can draw some valuable lesson like :
(i) First and the most elementary lesson is that regional aspirations are very much a part of democratic politics. Expression of regional issues is not an aberration or an abnormal phenomenon. A large and diverse democracy like India must deal with regional aspirations on a regular basis. Nation building is an ongoing process.
(ii) The second lesson is that the best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression, This produced a reconciliation which reduced the tensions existing in many regions.
(iii) The third lesson is about the significance of power sharing. It is not sufficient to have a formal democratic structure. Besides that, groups and parties from the region need to be given share in power at the state level. The regions together form the nation. So, the regions must have a share in deciding the density of the nation.
(iv) The fourth lesson is that regional imbalance in economic development contributed to the feeling of regional discrimination. Regional imbalance is a fact of India’s development experience. Naturally, backward states or backward regions in some states feel that their backwardness should be addressed on priority basis and that the politics of the Indian government have caused this imbalance. If some states remain poor and others develop rapidly, it leads to regional imbalance and inter-regional migrations.
Q. 9. Discuss the factors responsible for the emergence of regional parties in India.
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 18. (Long Answer)
Q. 10. Do you think think that regionalism is good for indian democracy ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 13. (Long Answer)
Q. 11. How does regionalism come in the way of bringing about unity in diversity ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 3. (Long Answer)
Q. 12. Correct and rewrite the following :
(a) The Assam Movement was led by religious leaders who demanded the expulsion of non-Hindus from Assam.
Ans : The Assam Movement led by the student leaders who demanded the expulsion of Non-Hindus from Assam.
(b) The basic principle of India’s approach to diversity is : “The Indian nation shall not tolerate the rights of different regional and linguistic groups to retain their own culture.
Ans : The basic principle of India’s approach is diversity is: “The Indian Nation shall tolerate the rights of different regional and linguistic groups to retain their own culture
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