# Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 3 Hypothesis

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### Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 3 Hypothesis

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C) Short type answers :- 3 marks each.

1) Define hypothesis concerning law with an example.

Ans:- Suppose the agent is known but the law or plan according to which it acts, is not known. We frame a hypothesis concerning law.

To take an example from science. Newton knew the agents viz, the Sun, the Moon, the Earth and other planets. But the way in which all these agents acted upon each other was not known. So, Newton supposed that their motions might be due to their attracting one another in a particular way and on the basis of this supposition he finally discovered the law of operation i.e. the law of Gravitation.

2) What is an analogical hypothesis ?

Ans:- An Analogical hypothesis means a hypothesis that what is true of one set of phenomenon may be true of another set as both the sets possess in common certain formal properties.

3) Mention three characteristics of a hypothesis ?

Ans:- Three characteristic of hypothesis are :-

a) Observation presents some fact to be explained. There is an eclipse of the sun or moon. But there should be some explanation for this event.

b) Hypothesis or a supposition is made to explain the facts which call for an explanation. At this stage, the material supplied by observation are insufficient, but we must make some supposition.

c) The provisional supposition is made under the idea that if we deduce conclusions from the supposition, and find that the conclusions tally with facts, the hypothesis is true, if not, the supposition must be discarded in favour of another provisional supposition. Thus hypothesis involves Deduction and Verification.

4) Write short notes on vera cause.

Ans:- If the hypothesis refers to an agent or cause, it should be a vera cause. The term ‘vera cause’ literally means a true cause. It should not be taken to mean merely a cause, which is actually known to exist, or something which is directly perceptiable by the senses. So, vera cause is a cause which alone avoids contradiction in our thought, that is which alone enables us to think the phenomena as a part of systematic reality. For example, a child, when missing must not be supposed to have been carried away be an angel. Here the angel is non existent, it is not a true cause.

5) Write any three conditions of a valid hypothesis.

Ans:- The conditions of valid hypothesis are as follows :-

i) The hypothesis must not be self contradictory or absurd but should be conceivable and finite.

ii) The hypothesis must be free from conflict with establish truths. That means the supposition should not violate a law of which we have positive evidence.

iii) The hypothesis must be based on facts and must have for its object a real cause or vera cause.

6) Define hypothesis concerning agent with example.

Ans:- The Law may be known but it may be that the particular agent which is to operate according to this known law may be unknown. In such case we frame a Hypothesis concerning Agent.

To take an example from science. Adams and Leverrier discovered the planet Neptune with the help of this kind of hypothesis. It was calculated by these two scientists that the planet Uranus should move in a particular orbit due to the attractions of the then known planet. But it was observed that in reality, the planet was deviating from the calculated path. Adams and Leverrier then made the supposition that there was some unknown agent influencing the planet Uranus to cause theis deviation. The unknown agent was subsequently discovered to be the planet Neptune.

7) What is analogical hypothesis ? Give example.

Ans:- Analogical hypothesis is a development of descriptive hypothesis. An analogical hypothesis means a hypothesis, that what is true of one set of phenomenon may be true of another set as both sets possess in common certain formal properties. For example, Maxwell established his famous electro – magnetic theory on the basis of resemblance between gravitation and electrostatics.

D) Long type answers :- 4 marks each.

1) What are the four stages of a hypothesis ? Describe briefly.

Ans:- Hypothesis involves the following four stages :-

a) Observation of facts is the first stage of hypothesis. Observation presents before us some facts to be explained. Through observation we come in contact with the facts. As a result of this contact, question arises in our mind about the event which call for explanation.

b) Formation of hypothesis is the second stage of hypothesis. Since we have to explain the cause behind a phenomenon and the real explanation is not known to us, we frame a provisional hypothesis in order to explain the phenomenon. As the date at our disposal are insufficient, so we frame a provisional supposition, otherwise the real explanation will be difficult to make.

c) Application of deducative method is the third stage of hypothesis. In this stage from the tentative supposition, certain conclusions are deduced.

d) Verification is the fourth stage of hypothesis. At this stage, the conclusions deduced from the hypothesis are verified. Such verification is made under the idea that if the conclusion which we deduce from the hypothesis tallies with facts, the hypothesis is true. If not, the hypothesis is discard in favour of another provisional supposition.

2) Distinguish between explanatory hypothesis and descriptive hypothesis.

Ans:- Every supposition of an antecedent circumstances as the real cause of the phenomenon in question, is called an Explanatory hypothesis.

The simplest kind of hypothesis is the Explanatory hypothesis. This kind of hypothesis is framed for explaining an event. Newton’s hypothesis relating to the gravitional attraction is a hypothesis of this kind.

Descriptive hypothesis describes the manner in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs. This kind of Hypothesis is called Descriptive hypothesis.

This kind of hypothesis is generally fromed to offer a description of a complex event with a view to give an accurate description which helps in the investigation of the phenomenon under investigation. Ptolemy’s Geocentric hypothesis offered a geometrical representation of the heavenly bodies. It is a despritive hypothesis.

3) State four conditions of a legitimate hypothesis.

Ans:- The conditions of valid Hypothesis are as follows :-

i) The Hypothesis must not be self contradictory or absurd but should be conceivable and finite.

ii) The Hypothesis must be free from conflict with establish truths. That means the supposition should not violate a law of which we have positive evidence.

iii) The Hypothesis must be based on facts and must have for its object a real cause or vera cause.

iv) Lastly, the Hypothesis must be verifiable.

That means, a legitimate Hypothesis must be capable of either being proved or disproved. A hypothesis from which nothing can be deduced is of no value.

4) Write short note on working hypothesis.

Ans:- Sometimes it may be that there is some phenomenon to be explained but it is of such an unfamiliar kind that we are not able to make any supposition at all as to its cause or law of operation. But some provisional supposition is necessary in order that we may study its nature and attributes. In such case we take the help of working hypothesis.

According to Stebbing, a working hypothesis is a supposition, advanced solely for the purpose of conducting investigation. For example, the hypothesis “Electricity is a fluid” – is a working hypothesis. Scientists were not able to understand the nature of electricity yet they framed the above mentioned hypothesis only to conduct their investigations by comparing electricity to a fluid, though they were fully aware of the differences of electricity from the fluids. A working hypothesis is discarded when the nature of the phenomenon is understood better. Then we have a more reliable and acceptable hypothesis which will replace the previous one.

5) Mention four uses of hypothesis.

Ans:- Hypothesis have the following uses in scientific investigation :-

a) Hypothesis forms the starting points of scientific investigation and makes observation and experiment possible. Scientific Induction aims at the establishment of a causal connection. In order that we must start with a provisional supposition as to what the cause is or how it operates, and this is what is meant by Hypothesis.

b) Hypothesis makes Deduction possible. There are cases where the results of observation are uncertain, and experiment can not be employed, in such cases hypothesis is the only way to prove a causal consequences from it and compare them with actual facts of experience.

c) Hypothesis is an aid to explanation. A phenomenon is explained when its cause or the law of its operation is proved. Hypothesis assumes three forms viz., hypothesis concerning an agent or a collection or the law of the operation of a known agent. In each case the phenomenon is explained when the hypothesis is proved.

d) In our everyday life, we are constantly making hypothesis to explain facts of our experience e.g. on returning home in the evening we find that the glass – pane of the window has been broken. We make a hypothesis that a stone or a cricket ball had been thrown against it from outside. This is a case of ‘popular Hypothesis’.

E) Long type answers :- 5 marks each.

1) What is hypothesis ? Describe the nature of hypothesis.

Ans:- Hypothesis is an attempt at explanation of a provisional supposition made in order to explain scientifically some fact or phenomenon. Whenever we see something striking or unusual, we begin to guess out its explanation. A hypothesis is a provisional supposition which we make in order to explain some fact or phenomenon that needs an explanation. J. S. Mill puts forward a satisfactory definitation as – “A hypothesis is any supposition which we make (either without actual evidence, or on evidence avowedly insufficiently) in order to endeavour to deduce from it conclusions in accordance with facts which are known to be real, under the idea that if the conclusions to which the hypothesis leads are known truths, the hypothesis itself either must be or at least is likely to be true”. To take an example of a scientific hypothesis. Newton saw an apple fall on the ground and supposed that it was due to the attraction of the earth. This supposition or hypothesis was subsequently proved to be true, and the Law of Gravitation was established.

2) What is hypothesis ? What are the uses of hypothesis ?

Ans:- A hypothesis is an attempt at explanation of a provisional supposition made in order to explain scientifically some fact or phenomenon.

A hypothesis is an attempt at explanation :- A provisional supposition made in order to explain scientifically some fact or phenomenon. When ever we see something striking or unusual, we begin to guess out its explanation. For example :- If a man be attacked with cholera, we may suppose that he has probably taken impure water. So, we frame hypothesis to explain phenomenon.

The word ‘Induction’ is ambiguous and sometimes means the process and sometimes the product of the general proposition. If we regard Induction as a process of discovering and proving general propositions, we may state that hypothesis is the starting point of induction. Before a general law is discovered and proved, we must start with a provisional supposition as to what it might be and this provisional supposition is hypothesis. In induction as a product of general proposition hypothesis is the first stage, when it is verified, it is raised to the status of induction.

3) What is hypothesis ? What are the conditions of a legitimate hypothesis ?

Ans:- In our day – to – day life, we are constantly making suppositions to explain facts which come to our experience. Whenever we see something unusual, we begin to guess out its explanation. Thus we frame hypothesis to explain phenomenon. But we should remember that hypothesis is a provisional supposition made in order to explain some facts or phenomenon. So, a hypothesis is an attempt at explanation of a provisional supposition made in order to explain scientifically some fact or phenomenon.

The conditions of valid hypothesis are as follows :-

i) The hypothesis must not be self contradictory or absurd but should be conceivable and definite.

ii) The hypothesis must be free from conflict with establish truths. That means the supposition should not violate a law of which we have positive evidence.

iii) The hypothesis must be based on facts and must have for its object a real cause or vera cause.

iv) Lastly, the hypothesis must be vertifiable.

4) What are the different kinds of hypothesis according to stebbing ? Explain each of them with example.

Ans:- L.S. Stebbing, a modern logician distinguishes three main kinds of hypothesis :-

a) Explanatory hypothesis :- This is the simplest kind of hypothesis. Explanatory hypothesis is framed for explaining an event. These hypothesis are intended to account for the occurrence of an event by the interpretation of facts. These facts can be observed by the observer under suitable conditions. The supposed facts are of the same type as the facts that, constitute the data of the problem. Newton’s hypothesis relating to the gravitational attraction is an example of explanatory hypothesis.

b) Descriptive hypothesis :- This kind of hypothesis is generally framed to offer a description of a complex event with a view to give an accurate description which helps in the investigation of the phenomenon under investigation. The main function of a descriptive hypothesis is to symbolise the systematic relation among facts. Ptolemy’s Geo – Centric hypothesis offered a geometrical representation of the heavenly bodies. It is a descriptive hypothesis.

c) Analogical hypothesis :- This kind of hypothesis is a development of descriptive hypothesis. An Analogical hypothesis means a hypothesis that what is true of one set of phenomena may be true of another set as both the sets possess in common certain formal properties. Maxwell established his famous electro – magnetic theory on the basis of resemblance between gravitation and electrostatics. This is an example of analogical hypothesis.

5) What is hypothesis ? What are its different forms ? Explain with example.

Ans:- A hypothesis is an attempt at explanation of a provisional supposition made in order to explain scientifically some fact or phenomenon. When ever we see something striking or unusual, we begin to to guess out its explanation.

For example :- If man be attacked with cholera, we may suppose that he has probably taken impure water. So, we frame hypothesis to explain phenomena.

The forms of hypothesis are as follows :-

i) Hypothesis concerning Law :- Sometimes agent is known but the law or plan, according to which it acts, is not known. We frame a hypothesis as to the way in which the agent acts. The Law of Gravitation was established by a hypothesis of this kind.

ii) Hypothesis concerning Agent :- The law may be known but it may be that the particular agent which is to operate according to this known law may be unknown. In such a case we frame of hypothesis concerning the agent. For example – The planet Neptune was discovered by a hypothesis of this kind.

iii) Hypothesis concerning collocation :- Collocation means an arrangement of circumstances which makes it possible for the effect to occur. If the agents are known but the collocation is not known, then we frame of hypothesis concerning collocation. For example – Earth was regarded as the centre of the universe and the Sun and other planet moves round the Earth. But Copernicus formed a different hypothesis as to Collocation of the heavenly bodies and discovered that the Sun was the centre of the system and all other bodies moved round the sun.

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