Class 12 Geography Chapter 18 Manufacturing Industries of India

Class 12 Geography Chapter 18 Manufacturing Industries of India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 18 Manufacturing Industries of India and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 18 Manufacturing Industries of India

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 18 Manufacturing Industries of India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…


Q.1. Describe the three dimensions of globalization policy. 

Ans :- Various dimensions of business environment are discussed below :

(a) Economic environment : Business cycles, growth of economy, employment, market, demand, supply, capital etc. are various factors of business environment, which are called altogether economic environments. Moreover, economic policies, economic systems etc are also a major part of the economic environment of a country. As for example, there are mainly three economic systems such as capitalist, socialist, mixed economy systems. These three economic systems have different impacts on the economic environment of a country. So the economic environment of the U.S.A (capalalist) is different from India (Mixed).

(b) Social environment : Social factors have high influence on the non-economic environment of business. Social environment includes people’s attitudes, family, ethical aspects, marriage, cultural aspect, Religion, education and social responsibility of business etc. For example, different countries live different habits, customs, beliefs, traditions, values, attitudes, language etc., Which so have a different impact on the environment.

(c) Technology environment : It includes factors relating to scientific improvement and innovations by which new production technology and systems can be made. As for example, the introduction of computers influenced highly on production technology such as speedy, accuracy, modification etc.

(d) Political environment : Political environment implies the impact of mainly three political institutions such as (i) legislature (ii) Executive, (iii) Indiciary. These political institutions differently shape the controlling system of government on business, As for example, declaration of emergency in the country, changes in the form or structure of administration of government etc. can influence in different ways of business environment.

(e) Legal environment : It includes various legislations, court judgement, decisions of various commissions and agencies at every government level.

As for example : Companies Act 1956, Trade union Act 1926, Industrial disputes. Act 1947, Consumer protection act 1986, Factories Act 1948, Foreign exchange management Act 2000 etc., various acts or legislations can impact the business environment differently.

Q.2. Give an account of the industrial regions of India. 

Ans :- Industrial Regions of India : Industrial Regions and Districts :

Major Industrial Regions :

(a) Mumbai-Pune Region

(b) Hugli Region

(c) Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Region

(d) Gujarat Region

(e) Chotanagpur Region

(f) Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region 

(g) Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region and (8)

(h) Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Region. 

Minor Industrial Region :

(a) Ambala-Amritsar

(b) Saharanpur-Muzaffarnagar-Bijnor,

(c) Indore-Dewas-Ujjain

(d) Jaipur-Ajmer

(e) Kolhapur-South Kannada

(f) Northern Malabar

(g) Adilabad-Nizamabad

(h) Allahabad-Varanasi-Mirzapur

(i) Bhojpur-Munger

(j) Durg-Raipur

(k) Bilaspur-Korba nad

(l) Brahmaputra Valley.

Chapter 1Human Geography Nature & Scope
Chapter 2The World Population Distribution, Density & Growth
Chapter 3Population Composition
Chapter 4Human Development
Chapter 5Primary Activities
Chapter 6Secondary Activities
Chapter 7Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Chapter 8Transport and Communication
Chapter 9International Trade
Chapter 10Human Settlement
Chapter 11Population Structure of India
Chapter 12Migration Pattern in India
Chapter 13Human Resources Department
Chapter 14Human Settlement of India
Chapter 15Land Resource and  Agriculture
Chapter 16India’s Water Resources
Chapter 17Mineral and Fuel Resources in India
Chapter 18Manufacturing Industries of India
Chapter 19Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Chapter 20Transport and Communication in India
Chapter 21International Trade
Chapter 22Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective
Chapter 23Assam Geography

Q.3. Considering the basics, how do you classify the industries? 

Ans :- (i) Industries are classified in a number of ways.

(ii) On the basis of size, capital investment and labour force employed, industries are classified as large, medium, small scale, and cottage industries.

(iii) On the basis of ownership, industries are grouped as :

(a) Public sector

(b) Private sector

(c) Joint sector

(d) Cooperative sector

Public sector enterprises are government/ state controlled companies or corporations :

(a) They are funded by governments

(b) Industries of strategic and national importance are in the public sector. 

(iv) Industries are also classified on the basis of the use of their products like :

(a) Basic goods industries

(b) Capital goods industries

(c) Intermediate goods industries and

(d) Consumer goods industries

(v) Another basis of classification of industries is the raw materials used by the like :

(a) Agriculture-based industries

(b) Forest-based industries

(c) Mineral-based industries, and 

(d) Industrially processed raw material based industries.

(vi) Classification of industries is also based on the nature of the manufactured products.

Eight classes of industries in this group are :

(a) Metallurgical industries

(b) Mechanical Engineering industries

(c) Chemical and Allied industries

(d) Textile industries

(e) Food Processing industries

(f) Electricity generation

(g) Electronics and

(h) Communication industries

(i) Footloose industries

Footloose industries do not depend on raw material availability, location or on any other factor. They can be located anywhere. 

Q.4. Describe the factors which influence location of industries.

Ans :- Factors Influencing Industrial Location Generally, location of industries is influenced by economic considerations though certain non economic considerations also might influence the location of some industries. Maximisation of profit which also implies cost minimization is the most important goal in their choice of particular places for the location of industries. There are several factors which pull the industry to a particular place.

Some of the major factors influencing location are discussed below :

(a) Availability of raw materials : In determining the location of an industry, nearness to sources of raw material is of vital importance. Nearness to the sources of raw materials would reduce the cost of production of the industry. For most of the major industries, the cost of raw materials for the bulk of the total cost. Therefore, most of the agro-based and forest-based industries are located in the vicinity of the sources of raw material supply.

(b) Availability of Labour : Adequate supply of cheap and skilled labour is necessary for an industry. The attraction of an industry towards labour centres depends on the ratio of labour cost to the total cost of production which Weber calls Labour cost of Index The availability of skilled workers in the interior parts of Bombay region was one of the factors responsible for the initial concentration of cotton textile industry in the region.

(c) Proximity to Markets : Access to markets is an important factor which the entrepreneur must take into consideration. Industries producing perishable or bulky commodities which cannot be transported over long distances are generally located in close proximity to markets. Industries located near the markets could be able to reduce the costs of transport in distributing the finished product as in the case of bread and bakery, ice, tins, cans manufacturing, etc. Accessibility of markets is more important in the case of industries manufacturing consumer goods rather than producer goods.

(d) Transport Facilities : Transport facilities, generally, influence the location of industry. The transportation with its three modes, ie. water, road, and rail collectively plays an important role So the junction points of water-ways, roadways and railways become humming centres of industrial activity, Further, the modes and rates of transport and transport policy of Government considerably affect the location of industrial units. The heavy concentration of the cotton textile industry in Bombay has been due to the cheap and excellent transportation network both in regard to raw materials and markets.

(e) Power : Another factor influencing the location of an industry is the availability of cheap power. Water, wind, coal, gas, oil and electricity are the chief sources of power. Both water and wind power were widely sought at sources of power supply before the invention of the steam engine. During the nineteenth century, nearness to coal-fields became the principal locating influence on the setting up of new industries, particularly, for heavy industries. With the introduction of other sources of power like electricity, gas, oil, etc. the power factor became more flexible leading to dispersal and decentralization of industries.

(f) Site and Services : Existence of public utility services, cheapness of the value of the site, amenities attached to a particular site like level of ground, the nature of vegetation and location of allied activities influence the location of an industry to a certain extent. The government has classified some areas as backward areas where the entrepreneurs would be granted various incentives like subsidies, or provision of finance at concessional rate, or supply of power at cheaper rates and provision of education and training facilities. Some entrepreneurs induced by such incentives may come forward to locate their units in such areas.

(g) Finance : Finance is required for the setting up of an industry, for its running, and also at the time of its expansion. The availability of capital at cheap rates of interest and in adequate amounts is a dominating factor influencing industrial location. For instance, a review of local history of Indian cotton textile industry indicates that concentration of the industry in and around Bombay in the early days was mainly due to the presence of rich and enterprising Parsi and Bhatia merchants, who supplied vast financial resources.

(h) Natural and Climatic Considerations : Natural and climatic considerations include the level of ground, topography of a region, water facilities, drainage facilities, disposal of waste products, etc. These factors sometimes influence the location of industries. For instance, in the case of the cotton textile industry, humid climate provides an added advantage since the frequency of yarn breakage is low The humid climate of Bombay in India and Manchester in Britain offered great scope for the development of the cotton textile industry in those centres.

Q.5. Give a geographical account of the iron and steel industries of India.

Ans :- The iron and steel industry :

(i) Development of the iron and steel industry rapid industrial development in India.

(ii) Almost all sectors of the Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure.

(iii) We cannot make tools to be used in agriculture without iron.

(iv) Other raw materials besides iron ore and coking coal, required for the iron and steel industry are limestone, dolomite, manganese and fire clay.

(a) All these raw materials are weight-losing. Hence, the best location for the iron and steel plants is near the source of raw materials. 

(b) In India, there is a crescent shaped region which comprises parts of Chhattisgarh, Northern Orissa. Jharkhand and Western West Bengal. 

(c) It is extremely rich in high grade iron one, good quality coking coal and other supplementing raw materials.

(v) Iron and steel industry of India consists of large integrated steel plants as well as mini steel mills.

(a) It also includes secondary producers, rolling mills and ancillary industries.

Integrated Steel Plants : The integrated steel plants are described below :


(i) Tata Iron and Steel plant is located very close to the Mumbai Kolkata railway line.

(ii) It is about 240 km away from Kolkata. Kolkata is the nearest port for the export of steel.

(iii) Rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai provide water to the plant. 

(iv) Iron ore is obtained from Noamundi and Badam Pahar.

(v) Coal is brought from Joda mines in Orissa.

(vi) Coking coal comes from Jharia and West Bokaro coalfields.


(I) Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO) set up its first factory at Hirapur and later on another at Kulti. 

(ii) The plants were taken over by the government in 1972-73 due to sharp fall in their production. 

Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Works Ltd. (VISL) :

(i) Third integrated steel plant is the Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel works

(ii) It was initially called the Mysore Iron and Steel works.

Q.6. Given geographical account of the locational factors of cotton textile industries in India. 

Ans :- The locational factors of cotton textile industries in India are :

(i) Cotton is a pure’ raw material. It does not lose weight in the manufacturing process.

(ii) Other locational factors like, power to drive the looms. Inbour, capital or market determine the location of the industry.

(iii) At present the trend is to locate the industry at or close to markets. as it is the market that decides the kind of cloth to be produced.

(iv) Market for the finished products is extremely variable. Hence, it becomes important to locate the mills close to the market.

Q.7. Give a geographical account of the Sugar industry of India. 

Ans :- Sugar Industry of India :

Introduction :

(i) Sugar industry is the second most important agro-based industry in the country

(ii) India is the largest producer of both sugarcane and cane sugar.

(iii) It contributes about 8 percent of the total sugar production in the world.

(iv) Khandsari and gur or jaggery are also prepared from sugarcane. 

(v) This industry provides employment for more than 4 lakh persons directly and a large number of farmers indirectly.

(vi) Sugar industry is a seasonal industry because of the seasonality of raw materials.

Evolution :

(i) Development of the sugar industry on modern lines dates back to 1903. 

(ii) The first sugar mill was started in Bihar. 

(iii) Afterwards, sugar mills were set up in other parts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

(iv) In 1950-51, 139 factories were in operation. They produced 11.34 lakh tonnes of sugar.

(v) The number of sugar factories rose to 506. They produced 176,99 lakh tonnes of sugar in 2000-01.

(vi) Sugar production reached 184 lakh tonne mark in 2005-06.

Location Factors : 

(i) Sugarcane is a weight-losing crop.

(ii) Ratio of sugar to sugarcane varies between 9 to 12 percent depending on its variety.

(iii) Its sucrose content begins to dry during haulage after it has been harvested from the field. 

(iv) Better recovery of sugar depends upon its being crushed within 24 hours of its harvesting. 

(v) Sugar factories hence, are located in the cane producing regions.

Distribution :

Maharashtra :

(i) Maharashtra has emerged as a leading sugar producer in the country.

(ii) It produces more than 33% of the total production of the sugar in the country.

(iii) There are 119 sugar mills in the state in a narrow belt which extends from man made in the north to Kolhapur in the south.

(iv) Of these 87 mills are in the cooperative sector.

Uttar Pradesh :

(i) Uttar Pradesh is the second largest producer of sugar.

(ii) Sugar mills are located in two belts 

(a) The Ganga-Yamuna doab and

(b) the Terai region.

Tamil Nadu :

(i) In Tamil Nadu, sugar factories are located in Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai Villupuram and Tiruchchirappalli districts.

Karnataka : Belgaum, Bellary, Mandya, Shimoga, Bijapur and Chitradurg district are the major producers in Karnataka.

Andhra Pradesh :

(i) The industry is distributed in the coastal regions.

Other states : Others states which produce sugar are Bihar, Punjab. Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. 

Q.8. Describe the effect of knowledge-based industries on Indian economy and their contribution to GDP.

Ans : Knowledge-Based Industries : 

Effect on Economy : Advancement in Information Technology has positively influenced the country’s economy.

(i) The Information Technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation. 

(ii) The IT enabled business process outsourcing (ITES-BPO) services continue to be on a robust growth path.

(iii) Indian software industry has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy. 

(iv) Exports of the Indian software and services were Rs. 78,230 crore, in 2004-05 which is approximately 30-32 percent increase from 2003-04.

(v) The software industry has surpassed electronic hardware production.

(vi) Indian government has created a number of software parks in the country.

Contribution in GDP (Gross Domestic Product) :

(i) The IT software and services industry account for almost 2 percent of India’s GDP.

(ii) India’s software industry has achieved a remarkable distinction in providing quality products.

(iii) A large number of Indian software companies have acquired international quality certification. 

(iv) A majority of the multinational companies operating in the area of information technology have either software development centres or research development centres in India. 

(v) In the hardware development sector, India is yet to make a remarkable achievement.

Employment Opportunities :

(i) A major impact of this growth has been on employment creation, which has almost doubled every year. 

(ii) On March 31, 2005 the industry provided more than 10 lakh professionals, which has reached more than one crore as on 31March, 2007.

Q.9. Describe the major features of Mumbai Pune Industrial Region.

Ans :- It extends from Mumbai-Thane to Pune and in adjoining districts of Nashik and Solapur. Industrial development has been rapid in Kolaba, Ahmednagar, Satara, Sangli and Jalgaon districts. Development of this region started with the location of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai. Mumbai, with a cotton hinterland and moist climate favoured the location of the cotton textile industry. Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 provided impetus to the growth of Mumbai port. Machineries were imported through this port. Hydro-electricity was developed in the Western Ghat region to meet the requirements of this industry.

With the development of the cotton textile industry, the chemical industry also developed. Opening of the Mumbai High petroleum field and erection of nuclear energy plants added additional pull to this region.

Besides, engineering goods, petroleum refining, petrochemicals, leather, synthetic and plastic goods, drugs, fertilisers, electrical, shipbuilding, electronics, software, transport equipment and food industries also developed. Important industrial centres are Mumbai, Kolaba, Kalyan, Thane, Trombay, Pune, Pimpri, Nashik, Manmad, Solapur, Kolhapur Ahmednagar, Satara and Sangli.

Q.10. Give a geographical account of Cotton Textile Industry in India.

Ans :- Cotton Textile Industry of India :

As a Cottage Industry :

(i) Cotton textile industry is one of the traditional industries of India 

(ii) In the ancient and medieval times, it was removed as a cottage industry.

(iii) India was famous worldwide for the production of muslin, a very fine cotton cloth, calicos, chintz and other different varieties of fine cotton cloth.

(iv) The industry developed in India due to several factors. 

(a) It is a tropical country and cotton is the most comfortable fabric for a hot and humid climate.

  (b) Large quantities of cotton were grown in India.

(c) Abundant skilled labour required for this industry was available in the country. 

(d) In some areas people were producing cotton textiles for generations and transferred the skill from one generation to the other. In the process they perfected their skills.

Discouragement to the Industry :

(i) In the beginning, the British did not encourage the development of the indigenous cotton textile industry.

(ii) They exported raw cotton to their mills in Manchester and Liverpool.

(iii) They brought back the finished products to be sold in India. 

(iv) This cloth was cheaper because it was produced at mass scale in factories in U.K. in comparison to the cottage based industries of India.

Rise and Fall :

(i) In 1854, the first modern cotton mill was set up in Mumbai. 

(ii) Mumbai had several advantages as a cotton textile manufacturing centre.

(a) It was very close to the cotton producing areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

(b) Raw cotton was brought to Mumbai port to be transported to England. Therefore, cotton was available in Mumbai city itself.

(c) Employment opportunities attracted labour in large numbers. Hence, cheap and abundant labour too was available locally. 

(d) The machinery required for a cotton textile mill was directly imported from England.

(iii) Afterwards, two more mills, the Shahpur mill and the Calico mill were set up in Ahmedabad. 

(iv) Cotton Textile industry gradually recovered and eventually flourished.

(v) In 1998, India had 1782 mills of which 192 mills were in the public sector and 151 mills in the cooperative sector and 1,439 mills were in the private sector.

Two Broad Sectors :

(i) The cotton textile industry in India is broadly divided into two sectors :

(a) The organised sector and

(b) The decentralised sector

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