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SOCIOLOGY OLD QUESTION PAPER SOLVED
1. Answer the following questions:
(a) What do you mean by dependency ratio?
Ans: Dependency ratio is a measure that compares the share of the population made up of dependents i.e., elderly people,
(b) Write the full form of AIDS.
Ans: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
(c) Write the name of the smallest tribe in terms of population in India.
(d) What is the meaning of ‘Laissez-Faire’?
Ans: Laissez-faire is a French phrase meaning ‘leave it alone’ or ‘let it be’. Adam Smith supported the idea of a free market.
(e) Who first coined the concept of ‘Status Symbol’s?
Ans: Max Weber.
(f) Write the sociological meaning of ‘Minority Group’.
Ans: The concept of minority usually includes a sense of relative disadvantage. Minority usually means a relatively small but also disadvantaged group.
(g) When did Tea cultivation start in India?
(h) Who first coined the concept of “Sanskritization’?
Ans: M. N. Srinivas.
(i) What is ‘Ryotwari System”?
Ans: The word “Ryotwari” is derived from the Telugu word ‘Raiyat’, which means cultivator.
(j) What do you mean by ‘Green Revolution’?
Ans: Green Revolution was a government program of agricultural modernization. It was largely funded by international agencies based on hybrid seeds with pesticides, fertilizers etc.
(k) Who was the leader of Jharkhand movement?
Ans: Birsha Munda.
(l) Where did the Tebhaga Movement held in?
2. Mention two impacts of colonialism on caste institution of India.
Ans: The two impacts of colonialism on the caste institution of India are as follows :
(i) Under British rule, untouchables and low caste Indians enjoyed an improvement in their social status. For example, with wealth and education, they could pass as members of the upper castes from a distant region.
(ii) The traditional Indian society began to break down in the western class system. An emerging strong middle class with a high sense of Indian nationalism evolved out of the caste system, which allowed men from the lower castes to ascend to higher positions and positions of power that were previously closed to them.
3. What are the names designated by Mahatma Gandhi on Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes?
Ans: Untouchables are known by various names. Gandhi called them ‘Harijans’ (children of God).
The pre-untouchable communities and their leaders coined the term ‘Dalit’ which has now become a generally accepted term in reference to the untouchables. The term came into widespread use during the caste riots in Mumbai in the early 1970s.
4. Write the difference between social demography and Formal demography.
Ans: Formal demography is the systematic approach to study population whereas social demography is the newer approach. Formal demography is narrow because it does not study the social characteristics that affect a population, but social demography is broad because it also analyzes those social characteristics in the study of the population.
5. What are the types of Kinship System?
Ans: Kinship is divided into two major types.
These are :
(i) Affinal Kinship
(ii) Homologous kinship.
Write two characteristics of social class.
Ans: Characteristics of Social Class :
(i) It refers to social stratification.
(ii) It also shows social status.
6. Why inequality and exclusion is called social?
Ans: It is true that hard work counts and so does individual ability. First, social inequality and exclusion are social because they are not about individuals but about groups. Second, they are social in the sense that they are not economic, however, there is usually a strong link between social and economic inequality.
7. Who are Dalits?
Ans: Broadly speaking, the ‘Untouchables’ of the Hindu caste system are officially known as Scheduled Castes. The castes of this category are also called Harijans, Lord M.K. Gandhi in 1933. However, the word Harijan has now acquired a synonymous meaning. The members of these castes like to be called dalits, oppressed.
8. Write the names of two Regional Parties of India.
Ans: DMK and Shiv Sena.
Write the two factors for emergence of regionalism.
Ans: The two factors for emergence of regionalism are:-
(i) Geographical Component
(ii) Historico – Cultural Component,
9. Mention the names of any two leaders associated with their social reform organization of India.
Ans: (1) B. R. Ambedkar. and
(2) Mahatma Gandhi.
10. What do you mean by “Structural Change?
Ans: The changes that take place in our social relations and social institutions are known as structural changes. Changes in family, marriage etc. are also a part of structural change.
11. Write two characteristics of Democracy.
Ans: Democracy has two characteristics :
(i) To take decisions by surrender of majority and minority in implementing them.
(ii) Dominance of motivating, coordinating and compromising methods, non-violence, non-violence, non-violence.
12. What is the meaning of Liberalisation?
Ans: Liberalization is a process by which the state control over economic activities is relaxed and the market forces are left to decide. Liberalization includes policies like privatization of public sector enterprises, loosening of government. Regulation on capital, labour, trade etc.
13. Write the difference between social change and social mobility.
Ans: Social change creates community-based responses that address underlying social problems at an individual, institutional, community, national and international level. Social change can change attitudes, attitudes, laws, poetry and institutions for the better, reflecting the values of inclusion, fairness, diversity and opportunity. Social change involves the collective action of the individual who is closest to the social problems to solve the social problems.
But social mobility refers to the ability to change status within a social stratification system. When people improve or decrease their economic status in a way that affects the social class, they experience social mobility.
14. Write a note on Population Policy of India.
Ans: Following are some of the demographic achievements of India :
(i) India reduced the birth rate from 40.8 in 1951 to 24.1 in 2004.
(ii) India reduced the infant mortality rate from 146 per 1000 live births in 1951 to 58 per 1000 live births in 2004.
(iii) The death rate of crude oil decreased from 25 in 1951 to 7.5 in 2004.
(iv) Life expectancy increased from 37 years to 62 years.
(v) The total fertility rate fell from 6.0 in 1951 to 3.0 in 2004.
15. What is Demography? Write about the importance of study of social demography.
Ans: ‘Demography’ is a combination of two Greek words, ‘demo’ meaning people and ‘graphy’ meaning science. Thus, demography is the science of people. In the mid-nineteenth century, in 1855, the term ‘demographics’ was used for the first time by a French writer, Achille Gillard.
Although the term “population studies” is more popular, the term ‘demographics’ is in wider use these days. It is considered to be an important topic which is able to throw light on the nature of population education.
Scope of Demographics :
The scope of demographics is very wide. It involves the subject of demography, is it a micro or a macro study? science or art? These are complex questions about the scope of demographics, about which the authors are not unanimous on demographics. We discuss them as follows:
(i) Subject of Demography: The subject of demography has become very broad in recent years.
The study of demography includes the following :
(a) Population size and shape: Generally, population size generally means the total number of individuals living in a certain area at a given point of time.
(b) Aspects related to birth rate and death rate: Birth rate and death rate are the deciding factors that affect the size and shape of a population and hence their importance in population studies.
(c) Composition and Density of Population: The study of population structure and density is important in the subject of demography.
(ii) Distribution of Population:
Population study includes the following :
(a) How are people distributed between and within continents, world regions and developed and underdeveloped countries?
(b) How do their numbers and ratios change?
(c) What political, social and economic factors bring about changes in the distribution of population.
(iii) Theoretical Models: Population studies have broad theoretical aspects including various theories of population and theories of migration and urbanization propounded by sociologists, biologists, demographers and economists.
(iv) Practical Aspects: The practical aspects of population studies are related to various methods of measuring population change such as census methods, age pyramid, population estimation etc.
16. Analyse market as a Social Institution.
Ans: Sociologists read markets as social establishments that square measure made in culturally specific ways in which. for instance, markets square measure typically controlled or organized by specific social teams or categories and have specific ties to different establishments, social processes, and structures. so, the market may be a social establishment.
It is a financial set-up during which the costs of resources square measure determined on the premise of provide and demand. In follow most countries have some limits on the liberty of the market. free enterprise is that the main feature of a free enterprise. free enterprise as an establishment may be a product of the economic Revolution. this kind of economic organization is outlined by non-public possession and management of the economic means that of production. to arrange economic activities to earn profit. A market structure that controls this activity. Appropriation of profits by the house owners of capital. Provision of labor by staff WHO square measure free agents. With the event of manufacture free enterprise has developed and swollen to dominate economic life, though some options were to be found within the business sphere of pre-industrial European economy.
Write on the Constitutional measures taken by the Government for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes.
Ans: For the welfare of the tribal people, especially after independence, the Government of India has taken various steps, which have already changed the socio economic and political status of the tribal people. The constitution provided reservation policy for the upliftment of the tribes.
Under the reservation policy, seats were reserved not only in government jobs but also in educational institutions. Also, relaxation was provided in terms of cut off marks and upper age limit giving opportunity to the tribal people. They have also been provided attractive scholarship facility. In addition, the government reserved posts and seats in Panchayati Raj institutions through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act.
17. Write about the functions of family.
Ans: Some important social functions of the family are :
(i) It regulates sexual relations.
(ii) It transfers the culture from one generation to another.
(iii) The family acts as the principal agency of social control.
Write the characteristics of Tribe.
Ans: (i) The tribal people did not follow the religion with the written text.
(ii) The tribals did not have the usual type of state or political organization.
(iii) The tribals had no caste and were neither Hindus nor farmers.
(iv) The tribals lived in different geographical locations and followed natural lifestyle according to the geographical location.
18. What do you mean by ethnic identity? Mention the factors for emergence of ethnic identity.
Ans: Ethnic identity is defined as a sense of belonging based on one’s ancestry, cultural heritage, values, traditions, customs and often language and religion. Following are the factors leading to the emergence of ethnic identity:
(i) Family affiliations.
(iv) ethnic pride.
(v) Engaging in cultural activities and traditions.
19. Write briefly on the role of colonialism in the emergence of new market.
Ans: The advent of colonialism in India caused great upheaval in the economy, causing disruption in production, trade and agriculture. A good example is the decline of the handloom industry due to the introduction of cheap manufactured fabrics from England. before the colonization of the British. India was a major supplier of manufactured goods to the market. But after colonization, India became a source of raw materials and rather than a supplier, it became a consumer of manufactured goods mainly for the benefit of the industrialization of England. Taking advantage of the changing economic scenario during the colonial period, many new merchant communities emerged and maintained economic power even after independence. A good example of this process is the Marwari community. It was during the colonial period that the Marwaris became a successful trading community.
20. What is Communalism? What are the causes of emergence of Communalism?
Ans: Communalism is nothing but an ideology that tries to encourage religious views of one religion among people and who are completely against the views of other religious groups.
Following are the causes of communal emergency :
(a) legacy of the past.
(b) Presence of communal parties.
(c) Segregation of Muslims.
(e) Hindu Nationalism.
(f) social causes.
(g) communalization of politics.
(h) cross-border factor.
(i) Failure of the government.
21. What is National Integration? Discuss the disruptive factors for building National Integration of India.
Ans: National integration is the awareness of a common identity among the citizens of a country. This means that although we belong to different races, religions and regions and speak different languages, we recognize the fact that we are all one.
(a) Economic Inequalities: Economic inequalities are creating obstacles in our national integration. There are some people in our country who do not have daily bread. Conversely some have so much money that they don’t know how to spend it. This type of economic inequality is harmful to our democracy.
(b) Lack of competent leadership: Competent leadership is essential for national integration, as it is an able leader who can eliminate the disruptive forces and bring people on the right path. We lack skilled leaders. Now there are very few leaders who are acceptable to the whole country.
(c) Social inequalities: We are facing social inequalities due to caste system, economic inequalities and different religions. People of different castes, classes and religions think about their separate society and in festivals and some celebrations they want to keep themselves apart from others.
(d) Lack of proper education: Education plays a very important role in national integration. But the present system of education is not conducive to national integration. Our education was originally organized by the British. The same may not be appropriate today. There have been some changes in education after independence, but they are not enough.
22. Write a note on the Tea industry of Assam.
Ans: The Assam industry is the largest tea industry in India and the second largest in the world after China. There are about 2500 small tea gardens and the total production of tea in Assam in 2009 was 500 million kg, while in 2008 the state produced 487 million kg of tea.
The tea trade in province is concerning 172 years recent. It occupies a crucial place and plays a awfully helpful role within the economy. parliamentarian Bruce discovered tea plants growing wild within the higher Brahmaputra River vale in 1823.
A garden was started by the govt in 1833 within the then Lakhimpur district. With the arrival of fine quality tea from this garden to London in 1938, the city’s industrial circle took a keen interest within the tea gardens of province and in 1839 shaped an organization referred to as the province Company to handle the experimental holdings Gone.
By that point the Malay Archipelago Company’s administration had gone over the tea gardens established in province. it had been the primary company in India to provide tea commercially and was, in fact, an on the spot successor of the Malay Archipelago Company.
The web site at Nazira became a forest-free site and remained the headquarters of the corporate till it had been stirred to Kolkata in 1965. The official incorporation of this company took impact in 1845. However, this company didn’t get a lot of prosperity throughout this era. the primary 10 years of its existence. By concerning 1852, beneath the management of St. George Williamson, one among the good pioneers in garden management, its scenario began to enhance, and its success created the prospect of the trade thus promising and remunerative that speculators turned to that.
How Westernization brings about social change in India? Explain.
Ans: The impact of westernization on Indian society is wide and far-reaching. The process of westernization itself indicates the changes in the Indian society in the form of western influence. M.N. Srinivas defined Westernization as “a term encompassing changes in Indian society and culture as a result of more than 150 years of British rule at various levels, technologies, institutions, ideologies and values”.
The way of thinking and living of Indians changed as a result of westernization. As a result of English education Indians came to know about the struggle for freedom and equality in America in Europe. Apart from this, westernization also affected Indian art and literature. Artists like Ravi Varma, Bankim Chandra etc. were influenced by western style and technique.
A part of all this, westernization multiplied the process of industrialization, urbanization and secularisation.
23. Mention four characteristics of globalisation.
Ans: (i) The process of globalization is more economic than political and social. It actually means growing economic inter-relationships across the world.
(ii) The only force behind the process of globalization is scientific and technological development which has happened in a very short span of time. Globalization is fuelled by the rapidity of communication such as the Internet, mobile phones, satellite TV games.
(iii) Globalization calls for liberalization of national trade so that there can be free flow of capital and goods and technology. Therefore, globalization calls for an impartial policy of laissez-faire.
(iv) Privatization is another important feature of globalization. Globalization requires competition in the market, which attempts to sell government companies to private firms to increase their economy and efficiency. Thus, globalization involves the policy of disinvestment.
24. What do you mean by Panchayati Raj System? Discuss the power and responsibilities of Panchayati Raj System in India.
Ans: Panchayati Raj is the system of democratic decentralisation – which aims of taking democracy to the grassroot level.
Constitutionally Panchayats should be given the power and authority to function as institutions of local self-government. The following powers and responsibilities were entrusted to the Panchayats.
(i) To prepare plans and plans for economic development.
(ii) Promote schemes promoting social justice.
(iii) levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls, tees, etc.
(iv) To help in devolution of government responsibilities.
As a unit of local self-government, the Panchayat has to bear certain social welfare responsibilities.
Some such responsibilities are:
(i) Kindling and maintenance of the graveyard.
(ii) Recording the status of births and deaths.
(iii) Promotion of family planning.
(iv) Establishment of child welfare centres.
25. What is Land Reform? Discuss the Land reform policy before and after independence of India.
Ans: Agricultural land is the most important resource in the rural society. But it is not distributed equally among the people living in a particular village or area. In fact, the distribution of land holdings among households is highly unequal in most areas. In most regions of India, women are generally excluded from land ownership due to the prevailing patrilineal kinship system. In most areas of India, the dominant landlocked group are the upper castes. In many areas of India, formerly ‘untouchable’ castes were not allowed to own their land. Under these circumstances, land reforms become necessary to provide land ownership to marginalized backward castes and clans.
Impact of Land Reforms on Indian Agriculture:
The abolition of the zamindari system resulted in the weakening of the high authority of the zamindars as well as their economic and political power in most areas. This law eventually strengthened the position of de facto landholders and tenants at the local level.
Under the Land Ceiling Act, the state was entrusted with the power to occupy additional land near each household and redistribute it to landless families of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
As a result of the initiatives there, the agricultural structure changed significantly, although it is still highly uneven.
26. What is mass media? Discuss the role of mass media in society.
Ans: Mass media refers to the means of communication that reach a mass audience. Thus mass media includes television, newspapers, films, magazines, radio, CDs etc.
Role of media in society :
The word ‘media’ is derived from the word medium, which means mode or carrier. The purpose of media is to reach and address a large target group or audience. The term was first used in relation to books and newspapers.
With the advent of print media and technology, media have now included television, movies, radio and the Internet. In today’s world, media has become as important as our everyday need. Today’s media is playing an excellent role in forming and shaping public opinion and strengthening the society.
Media is the sword of democracy. Media acts as a watchdog to protect public interest from malpractices and to create public awareness. Today when politicians are taking full advantage of their positions, the wicked nexus of mafia and crime syndicate is making the life of common man miserable, tax payers money is snatched, above all, for the personal benefit of influential and common people. Audience media is a big responsibility.
As the fourth pillar of democracy along with judiciary, executive and legislature, today’s media has a wider role to play against injustice, oppression, misdeeds and favouritism of our society.
Media has been an integral part of human civilization since ancient times. From the days of Vedas and Upanishads to the orders of kings and emperors like Chandragupta, Ashoka to mediaeval Indian public meetings to modern audio video and print media, media has always played a vital role in shaping our society.
In the days of freedom struggle, newspapers like Tilak’s Maratha, Mahatmaji’s Yuva Bharat acted as a platform to put forth the demands of the common Indian and express consolation with the freedom fighters. In the post-independence era, Indian media has grown at an unprecedented rate and today comprises over 50,000 newspapers, hundreds of television and radio channels.
27. Write briefly on one tribal movement and one ecological movement of India.
Ans: Basically, the tribal movement in India is an account of tribals’ fight against interference in their livelihood, culture, religion and ethos by tribal feudalism or British imperialism. Rebellion by the tribals mainly refers to the opposition to the changes imposed on them in terms of rent, way of livelihood, forest land.
Other movements also reflect the demand for autonomy of the tribals and separate administrative units. The expansionist, repressive and exploitative policies of the princely states and the British Company in general were at the root of all these conflicts. The revolts of the Kol, Bhil, Ahom, Santhal, Naga, Singpo, Gond tribes are some of the major rebellions.
Causes of Tribal Movements in India :
Forest was an essential component for the existence and survival of the tribals. However, the entry of non-tribals into the forest for settled agriculture completely disturbed the lives of the tribal communities. Hunting, gathering, fishing and sustainable agriculture were the main occupations of the tribals.
The tribals also used forest products to build temporary settlements in the forests. But, with the establishment of the Forest Department in 1864, the Government Forest Act in 1865 and the Indian Forest Act in 1878, the government monopoly on forest land was established. The tribal community was denied their rights related to the forest. The new system created tension in the tribal society, which led to the birth of tribal movements in India.
Chipko movement is a good example of ecological movement in the foothills of Himalayas. In this movement villagers joined together some oak and rhododendron forests near their villages. When Govt. A large number of villagers including women, forest contractors who came to cut the trees, hugged the trees to save them from falling. Actually, the Hindi word chipko means long. Thus, the villagers saved the forest on which the villagers depended for firewood, fodder and other daily necessities.
Thus the question of cutting trees was really a question of the essence of the villagers. Therefore, the Chipko movement pitted the livelihood needs of poor villagers against the government’s desire to generate revenue by selling wood. The movement also raised the issue of ecological sustainability. Deforestation was a form of environmental destruction that resulted in devastating floods and landslides in the region. Moreover, this Chipko movement also expressed the displeasure of the hill villagers against a distant government headquarters in the plains, which is quite indifferent to their concerns.
Thus, the Chipko movement outlined economic, ecological and political concerns.
Write about the Women’s movement in independent India.
Ans: Women’s organization developed at the national and local level in the early 20th century. Women’s India Association (WIA, 1917), All India Women’s Conference (AIWC, 1926), National Council for Women in India (NCWI 1925) etc. are some of the prominent women’s organizations of that period. Although many of these organizations were limited in the beginning, their scope expanded over time.
However many sociologists believe that this period of activity did not constitute a social movement, often holding that only educated middle-class women joined the social movement. Women along with men participated in various agricultural sectors like Tebhaga and Telangana movement. Thus, before independence women took an active part in various movements.
The women’s movement in India was renewed in the mid-1970s. Some call it the second phase of the Indian women’s movement. A characteristic feature of the women’s movements of this period was that these movements were autonomous or independent of political parties. It is worth mentioning here that earlier women’s movements were associated with political parties. There new movements focused on new issues like violence against women, land rights issues, sexual harassment and dowry etc.