# Class 12 AHSEC 2020 Logic and Philosophy Question Paper Solved English Medium

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## Class 12 AHSEC 2020 Logic and Philosophy Question Paper Solved English Medium

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### LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY

2020

LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY OLD QUESTION PAPER SOLVED

1. Give very short answers:

(a) What is the assence of Induction?

Ans:- “Inductive leap or hazard” is the very essence of induction.

(b) Does Analogy depend on Law of Causation?

Ans:- yes.

(c) What kind of proposition does Scientific Induction establish?

Ans:- Scientific Induction established general real proposition.

(d) ‘The ground of the Induction is the result of Induction’ – Who made this statement?

Ans:- Donald Cary Williams.

(e) Name the hypothesis with the help of which the planet Neptune was discovered.

Ans:- Analogical hypothesis.

(f) How many instances are required for the Method of Agreement?

Ans:- Two or more instance required of the method of agreement.

(g) Who is the Propounder of Scientific Realism?

Ans:- British Philosopher John Locke.

(h) Give an example of Primary Quality.

Ans:- Size is a primary quality.

(i) Give an example of Non-Moral action.

Ans:- Hurricanes.

(j) What is the ideal of Ethics?

Ans:- Wearing socks with sandals/Eating or not eating fruit.

(k) “Religion is morality touched with emotion” – Who said this?

Ans:- Kant, Martineau.

(l) What is meaning of the Latin word ‘Religare’?

Ans:- The word Religare means ‘bond’.

2. Give the definition of Unscientific Induction.

Ans:- Unscientific Induction: – Unscientific induction is the establishment of a common real proposition, which is done on the basis of uniform or uncontrolled experience without any attempt to clarify the reason.

3. What is ‘material cause’? Give an example.

Ans:- The material or substance from which a thing is made is called the material cause. For a table, that case may be of wood;

4. Define ‘Plurality of Causes’ with a suitable example.

Ans:- The doctrine, originally propounded by J. S. Mill, that the same phenomenon may have many different causes. In one sense this is obviously true: the same type of event (e.g. a death).

Or

Mention two points of difference between Observation and Experiment.

Ans:- Two points of difference between Observation and Experiment:

(i) Experiments enable us to multiply our examples indefinitely. If an experiment does not enable us to satisfactorily observe the phenomenon under investigation, we may try again and again. But in observation we wait for opportunities.

(ii) Experiments often enable us to isolate the phenomena we have studied. In the experiment, it is possible to remove the probe from the effect of all agents, except for the effect we wish to observe.

5. Why is Ethics called Normative Science?

Ans:- Ethics tries to find the moral ideal, but does not resort to rules or means to achieve it. It does not teach us how to live an ethical life. As McKenzie states, morality gives us knowledge of the guiding principles of life, but does not tell us how to apply them. Thus, ethics is an ideal science and not a practical science.

6. Give Mill’s definition of Method of Residue.

Ans:- a method of scientific induction devised by J. S. Mill according to which if one subtracts from a phenomenon the part known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents the remaining part of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents

Or

Give a concreate example of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference.

Ans:- This situation is an example of Mills Joint Method of Agreement and Difference: The first four students are evidence that someone who had become ill had eaten Coleslaw, and the four matching pairs are proof that only The sick who ate the coleslave. It is a powerful combination of the first two methods. Since this supports our belief that actual causes are necessary and there are sufficient conditions for their effects.

7. Mention any two conditions of a valid hypothesis.

Ans:- The conditions of valid hypothesis are as follows:

(1) The most essential condition for a valid hypothesis is that it should be capable of empirical verification, so that it has to be ultimately confirmed or refuted. Otherwise it will remain a proposition only. Therefore it should be formulated in such a way that it is possible to deduce certain inferences which in turn can be tested by observation in the field. It should not be a mere moral judgement.

(2) Hypothesis must be specific and predictions indicated should be spelled out. A general hypothesis has limited scope in the sense that it may only serve as an indicator of an area of investigation rather than serving the hypothesis. A hypothesis of grandiose scope is simply not amenable to test. Narrower hypothesis involves a degree of humility and specific hypothesis is of any real use. A hypothesis must provide answer to the problem which initiated enquiry.

8. Define voluntary action. How many stages are there in a voluntary action?

Ans. Voluntary actions are actions performed by an agent deliberately and intentionally in order to realize some foreseen ends. They are actions performed by the self with volition or will. Habits are the results of repeated voluntary actions. So, Habitual action is voluntary.

A voluntary action has three stages viz., the mental stage, the bodily stage and external stage of consequence.

(1) The Mental Stage: Every voluntary action as actuated by a spring of action. It is feeling of want, actual or ideal. It is either an instinct or an appetite, or an intellectual, moral, or aesthetic craving. A feeling of want is always painful and generates an impulse. But it is usually mingled with pleasure which arises from the anticipation of satisfaction of the want in future. Thus the painful feeling of want is mixed with an agreeable feeling of ideal satisfaction. But the disagreeable feelings predominates over the agreeable feeling. The feeling of want e.g. an appetite leads the rational agent to think out some appropriate object which is necessary to relieve the want. The object itself to remove the want, is said to be the end of the action. The idea of thought of the object which excites the state of desire for its attainment is called the motive.

The spring of action or the feeling of want is converted into a desire. Desire is a craving to satisfy a feeling of want by attaining its proper object. In desire there is the idea of the object or end or motive which will satisfy the feeling of want. There is also the idea of the means for realizing the end.

In complex action many wants demand satisfaction. If one is satisfied, the other has to be rejected altogether. Thus, there arises in the mind a competition, rivalry or conflict between the different motives and desires.

When there is a conflict of motive, the self arrests action and deliberates upon the merits and demerits by different motives. The self weights them in the balance and considers the pros and cons. This is called deliberation.

After deliberation, the self choose a particular motive and identifies itself with it. It chooses a particulars course of action and rejects the rest. This act of selection of one motive to exclusion of others is called choice or decision.

(2) Bodily stage: When choice or resolution has been made and kept by resolution, it is converted into bodily action. The idea of movement attended to carries itself out into actual movement by its impulsive character of the idea of movement. This explanation is offered by William James.

(3) External Stage of consequence: The bodily action produces changes in the external world. These are called consequences which included the following realization of the chosen and intended means, desirable, or undesirable or both, certain foreseen consequences and certain unforeseen, unintended, accidental consequences.

9. Give two points of differences between Primary Quality and Secondary Quality.

Ans:- The qualities which are independent of the knowing mind or the qualities which are objective properties of an object are called primary quality. Primary qualities are the fundamental qualities do an object in the sense they objective quality and necessary factor of an object. These qualities remain unchanged through all the changes or time places.

The two points of difference between primary qualities and secondary qualities are–

(a) Primary qualities are the fundamental qualities for the human being. But secondary qualities are not fundamental qualities for human being.

(b) External objects are main shelter of primary qualities. But both external objects and knower’s mind is the main shelter of secondary qualities.

10. Give an example of ‘hypothesis concerning law’.

Ans:- Sometimes agent is known but the law or plan, according to which it acts, is not known. We frame a hypothesis as to the way in which the agent acts. The Law of Gravitation was established by a hypothesis of this kind.

To take an example from science. Newton knew the agents, the Sun, the Moon, the Earth and other planets. But the way all these agents acted on each other was not known. Therefore, Newton believed that his motives might be due to attracting each other in a particular way, and on the basis of this suppression he finally discovered the law of operation i.e. the law of gravity.

Or

Define working hypotheses.

Ans:- Sometimes it may be that there is some phenomenon to be explained but it is of such an unfamiliar kind that we are not able to make any supposition at all as to its cause or low of operation. But some provisional supposition is necessary in order that we may study its nature and attributes in such case we take the help of working hypothesis.

11. Mention the ‘Canon of Elimination’ on which the Method of Difference is established.

Ans:- Combined method is based on the following elimination-

Mill’s canon for the method of difference is this: “If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance in common save one, that one occurring in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ, is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.”

12. Mention two characteristics of Native Realism.

Ans:- Two features of Native realism :

(i) The object of knowledge is independent of the mind of the knower. The existence of an external object does not depend on its knowledge by any knower.

(ii) We gain knowledge of the outer world by perception. The nature of the outside world is exactly the way a preacher believes it.

Or

Write two criticisms of Native Realism.

Ans:- According to Naive Realism, primary qualities vary under different conditions. But secondary qualities also vary under similar conditions. The size of a thing varies from different distances. A thing appears heavy to one appears light to another.

Two points of criticism against this type of realism :

(i) Naive emphasizes the notion of realism.

(ii) Naive Realism cannot explain error, confusion, hallucinations etc.

13. What is the theory of ‘pre-established harmony’?

Ans:- Pre-established harmony is a philosophical theory about work-cause under which each ‘substance’ itself influences it, but still all the substances of the world appear to work with each other because they are God. Are already sorted by ‘Synergy with each other’.

14. Write four characteristics of Scientific Realism.

Ans:- The characteristics of scientific realism are–

(a) We cannot see an object. We can see only the copies or images of the object.

(b) Like other forms of realism, scientific realism also asserts that the object of knowledge is independent of the knower’s mind.

(c) We cannot know an object directly. We can know it by its qualities primary qualities are independent of the knower’s mind on the contrary secondary qualities are mind dependent.

(d) Like other forms of realism, scientific realism also states that the object of knowledge is independent of the mind of the knower.

15. What are the four stages of hypothesis? Discuss

Ans:- There are four different phases of the hypothesis :

(i) Overview of facts.

(ii) Formation of hypothesis.

(iii) Application of the deductive method, and

(iv) Verification.

16. Give four characteristics of Hegel’s Objective Idealism.

Ans:- Four features of objective idealism :

(i) The final thought, according to Hegel, is the ultimate reality. The Absolute manifests its ideas through finite ideas.

(ii) The relation between absolute thought and the world of things and mind is that one cannot exist without the other.

(iii) Hegel’s entire reality is alive as well as dynamic. It manifests its existence through the diversity of this world.

(iv) Hegel’s idealism accepts the reality of the world. It seeks to assimilate idealism and realism so that it can recognize the proper statues of the world. This is the real expression of the absolute.

17. Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of the Method of Residue.

Ans:- The two advantages and two disadvantages of the Method of Residues are :

(i) This method is used is advanced stage of scientific analysis. When in scientific analysis the data are collected by experiment the method of residues helps in ascertaing a causal relationship between two phenomena.

(ii) It follows the method of experiment. So its finding is highly probable. It has the advantages of experiment.

The disadvantages of the Method of Residues are :

(i) Without previous knowledge of causal relation the method of residues cannot be applied.

(ii) If the complex effect cannot be reduced or analyzed, then this method cannot be applied.

Or

What is the ‘Characteristic Imperfection’ of Method of Agreement? How can the problem be overcome?

Ans:- The failure of the Method of Agreement due to the plurality of causes can be removed by the multiplication of instances. If we take a large number of instance and find that one circumstance is present in all of them, our conclusion becomes highly probable. We can also apply the Joint Method to overcome the difficulties of Plurality of causes.

Again, the problem of Practical Imperfection can be overcome only to some extent by the multiplication of instances. If we take large number of instances into account the chances of overcoming the difficulty will be high.

When you face a particular challenge, take a step away from your feelings to make a plan. While it’s important to still feel your feelings, when deciding how to act, you want to be objective as possible.

Ultimately, we tend to exist in our comfort zones. So, when something new happens or is presented, we may feel like it’s hard to deal with. By practicing gratitude, you can reframe your definition of a challenge. You will also be happier overall in your present moment.

18. Write any four characteristics of Analogy.

Ans:- Analogy is a kind of inference in which on the basis of observation of resemblance in some particular properties between two things. Analogy does not conclusively prove a causal connection but is most fruitful source of hypothesis. When we find two things resemble each other in certain attributes we frame hypothesis that they will possible resemble each other.

Characteristics of Analogy are as follows:

(a) Analogy is not based on causal connections. So its conclusion is probable and not certain.

(b) Analogy is based on resemblance of certain properties between two things. This resemblance or similarity is imperfect.

(c) An analogy is a kind of induction because analogy is an inductive leap. In the inductive leap, we pass from known truth to unknown truth.

(d) An analogy is a type of ingestion in which we pass from special to not special but from special to general.

19. ‘Positive and Negative conditions both taken together produce the effect’. – Explain the statement

Ans:- The acting of multiple causes together, creating a combined effect, is called a combination of causes, and a combination of their separate effects.

Contraindications of effects. Thus the conjugation of causes leads to the interplay of effects. There are two types of effects. Homogeneous and Veterinarian. When two or more causes act together so that the combined effect is of the same kind, the combination effect with different effects is called homogeneous interindividual effect. For example – if there are two 50 candle electric bulbs in a room, the combined effect is 100 c.p. Light. When two or more causes act together, so that the combined effect is different from the separate effect, the combination of effects is called Heteropathic intermixing of effects. For example – hydrogen and oxygen are mixed together in certain proportions and an electric current is passed, the combined effect being water.

20. “Esse Est Percipi” – Explain briefly the statement.

Ans:- “As such Percipi” means that an object is believed to exist. Berkeley believes that as all knowledge comes from experience, we know nothing but the thoughts of our mind. Because what we experience is a thought of the mind. Thus the conception of extra psychosis is a dogmatic and superficial notion. The external world does not exist and as a result, the primary and secondary qualities are subjective thoughts of the mind. Berkeley considers the existence of finite mind and God or infinite mind alone. His theory is known as subjective idealism.

Or

Define Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism. Is Berkeley a Solipsist?

Ans:- Berkeley’s idealism can be considered subjective and psychological. Because the external world is appropriate by personal consciousness. Therefore, the physical world will lose its existence and unity when it is unaffected by the other mind. There is no objective existence and unity when it is unaffected by the other mind. There is no objective existence of the body outside the mind. Berkeley’s idealism can be combined with uniformity. But such an approach creates difficulties in many ways. First of all, when a man does not experience an object, will it not exist? Secondly, it is impossible for any person to understand all things at one time.

The word Solipsism has been derived from two Latin words ‘solus’ and ‘ipse’, meaning “myself alone.” According to Solipsism, I and my ideas alone exist. That is, I am certain of my own existence and of my ideas which are real. I do not know anything beyond myself and my ideas. “Each person is shut up to himself alone, solus ipse.”

The question has been raised : whether Berkeley was a solipsist ? It is true that Berkeley affirms that all that is real is mental. But from this we cannot say that he is a solipsist. Berkeley is not a solipsist. He believes that

experience is a result of an external activity, and not of our own solely. He depends on God to escape from the magic circle of the self. He holds that the sensations in our mind depend on God. God is the cause of all our

sensations. Berkeley recognizes the existence of finite spirits and God.

The sensations are excited in the finite minds by God – according to certain fixed laws. Again, certain sensations are produced in us by other finite spirits; and our belief in their existence and our communion with them are guaranteed by our faith in God. Thus the conception of God saves Berkeley’s philosophy from lapsing into Solipsism.

21. Is Ethics a practical science? Explain.

Ans:- No, morality cannot be called a practical science. A practical science deals with the means for the attainment of a definite end. For example, medical science is a practical science, because it does not seek to determine the ideal of health, but rather indicates the means by which a person can be healthy. In this sense, ethics cannot be considered a practical science. Ethics only seeks to explore the moral ideal, but does not resort to rules or means to achieve it. It does not teach us how to live an ethical life. According to McKenzie, morality gives us knowledge of the guiding principles of life, but does not tell us how to apply them. It tells us what is virtue, but it cannot make us a saint. Thus, ethics is not a practical science.

22. ‘Religion is the source of Morality’. – Explain the statement.

Ans:- Religion is the source of morality: According to Marlineau morality leads to religio. Our consciousness or moral faculty gives us an institution of right and wrong and of the obligatoriness of right conduct. It is obligatory upon up to do what is right. Obligation means obligation to some higher authority. I am not the source of this moral obligation. If I were so, I could annual my sense of obligation at my pleasure. The society or state also cannot be source of my moral obligation because it cannot take cognizance of all my action, motives and intentions. So God who is omniscient and omniscient must be the ultimate source of moral authority of when we are responsible for our action. So Martineau holds that moral obligation and responsibility necessarily lead to the idea of god. Then, our conscience or moral faculty gives us ideal moral excellence. This ideal of excellence was realized in God. Therefore, according to Marlineau, morality gives rise to a belief in God as a source of moral authority and to be an ideal.

23. Write four characteristics of Religion.

Ans:- Religion is generally defined as consisting believe in god, a creator sustainer, moral governor of the world together with the feelings, love trust and the acts of divorce, dedication and worship.

Four characteristics of religion are:

(1) The motive and driving forces which are basic human wants desire that is survival growth well being self realization.

(2) Religion involves belief in supreme power or powers on human beings depend for their well beings.

24. What is Scientific Induction? What are the characteristics of Scientific Induction?

Ans:- Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition based on the observation of particular instances in reliance on the principle of the Uniformity of Nature and the Laws of Causation. But scientific induction and analogy are forms of induction proper.

Characteristics of scientific induction :

(i) Scientific induction establishes a general basic proposition.

(a) Scientific induction establishes a proposal. A proposition is a statement of a definite relation between two words. Scientific signs establish such a proposition and not an idea or concept.

(b) The proposal established by scientific induction is a general proposal.

(c) The general proposition that establishes a scientific induction is a genuine proposition and not a verbal one.

(ii) Scientific induction is based on observation of facts. The axioms are self-evident general propositions, which cannot be proven, but are considered true.

(iii) In Induction Leap or Danger’. According to Mill, induction is a process known from known bans, it is called this the ‘Inductive leap or induction. Motivational Jumps. From observed cases to untrue cases.

(iv) Scientific induction is based on two assumptions, namely the law of work and the principle of uniformity of nature. These two principles are called the formal basis of scientific induction.

Or

State any three similarities and any three dissimilarities between Scientific Induction and Unscientific Induction.

Ans:- Three similarities between scientific inductions and Unscientific Induction are :

(a) Both scientific induction and unscientific induction based on observation.

(b) Both scientific and unscientific inductions are the forms of induction proper. In both there is inductive leap.

(c) In both types of induction, lea is the inductive leap ‘- especially a path from normal to unaided cases. So, both scientific and unscientific inductions are two forms of induction proper.

Three points of dissimilarities between scientific induction and unscientific induction are :

(a) Scientific observation is based on both simple observation and experiment. But unscientific induction is based on simple observation only.

(b) Scientific induction is based on the principle of uniformity of nature and rule of law whereas unscientific induction is based only on homogeneous or uncontrolled experience.

(c) The process of scientific induction is complex but the process of unscientific induction is simple.

25. What is simple Observation? Describe its characteristics.

Ans:- Observations are controlled with a definite purpose in view of facts and circumstances.

Features of the overview are:

(i) Observational perception is: Observation involves perception. In perception, we gain knowledge in observation through our different sensory organs such as the eye, ear, nose, etc., our sense organs are exposed to various things and events and we acquire knowledge directly.

(ii) Observation perception is regulated with a definite purpose: although observation is perception, perception of any kind cannot be observation. Every day, we feel a lot of things and events. But all of them cannot be kept in our mind because without any preparation and interest, we only see them.

(iii) Observation is always selective: In order to make an observation, there must be a definite objective according to the objective and the objective. First, we select the object of perception. The observation is selective in the sense that the observer pays attention to the important things and aspects of things.

(iv) Observation is well organized: In observation, there must be a definite purpose in viewing and according to the objective we choose the purpose of perception. After selecting the object of perception, we focus our attention carefully and radically towards that selected object.

Or

Define ‘Causes’. Write the Qualitative and Quantative marks of ‘Causes’.

Ans:- According to Carveth Reid, the cause of any event is qualitatively, “the immediate, unconditional, irreversible, antecedent of effect” and qualitatively “equal to the effect.”

Qualitative Marks of Cause:

(a) The cause is relative to a given event called an effect. Cause and effect are relative to each other. This means, effect is impossible without cause and impossible without effect. Both are dependent on each other. Again, the same cause can sometimes be a cause and sometimes as an effect.

(b) Cause and effect are always events of time. An event in time means a change in the current state of things. If there is a change in the current state of things, then the question of work-cause will come in our mind, why is there a change? Similarly, we also inquire into floods, wars, political revolutions and so on.

(c) Is inconsistent with the cause effect. Cause and effect are serially related. When two events occur sequentially, the antecedent is called the ‘antecedent’ and the following is called the ‘consequent’.

(d) Is indiscriminate for the cause effect. Every effect has a cause. This cause always precedes the effect. This means that the cause is antecedent, but irregular response to the effect may not be the cause.

Quantative Marks of Cause:

According to the law of conservation of matter of energy the cause is equal to the effect. Because the quantity of mater and energy in the world is constant, it never increases or decrease but forms may be changed. So far as matter is concerned the effect is identical with the cause but the forms may be different. When certain quantity of Oxygen is combined with the certain quantity of Hydrogen in the form of water form is changed. But the weight of water is equal to the weight combining substance.

Again so bar as energy is concerned with the quantity of energy is equal to the cause. For example: When a moving body loses its motion it appears that the energy is lose. But actually it is converted into another energy viz. Heat follows so energy is quantity equal to the cause.

26. What is a ‘hypothesis’? Explain the nature of hypothesis.

Ans: – A hypothesis is a leading question put to nature, a guess designed to suggest the sort of inquiry by which an answer might be reached. It is a proposition which seems to explain observed facts and whose truth is assumed tentatively for the purposes of investigation.

Three characteristic of hypothesis are:

1. Its conceptual in nature.

2. It is a verbal statement in a declarative form.

3. It has the empirical referent.

4. It Indicates the tentative relationship between two or more variables.

5. It is a powerful tool of advancement of knowledge, consistent with existing knowledge and conducive to further enquiry.

6. It Can be tested, verifiable or falsifiable.

7. It is not moral or ethical questions.

8. It is neither too specific nor to general.

9. It is a prediction of consequences.

10. It is considered valuable even if proven false.

Or

What are the different kinds of hypothesis according to Stebbing?

Ans:- L.S. Stebbing, a modern logician distinguishes three main types of hypothesis:

(i) Explanatory hypothesis: It is the simplest type of hypothesis. Explanatory hypotheses are designed to explain an event. The purpose of these hypotheses is to account for the occurrence of an event by the interpretation of facts. The relation of Newton’s hypothesis to gravitational attraction is an example of explanatory hypothesis.

(ii) Descriptive hypothesis: This type of hypothesis is usually designed to present a description of a complex phenomenon to give an accurate description that helps in investigating the phenomenon under investigation. Ptolemy’s geocentric hypothesis gave a geometric representation of heavenly bodies. This is a descriptive hypothesis.

(iii) Corresponding hypothesis: This type of hypothesis is the development of a descriptive hypothesis. An analogy hypothesis means a hypothesis that what is true of one set of phenomena may be true for another set because both sets possess some common formal properties. Maxwell established his famous electro-magnetic theory based on the similarity between gravity and electrostatics. This is an example of the analogy hypothesis.

27. State Mill’s canon of the ‘Method of Concomitant Variation’. Explain the limitations of this Method.

Ans:- Method of concomitant variation. The method of concomitant variance states that if in many situations leading to a certain effect, we find a fixed property of the effect that varies with the variance in those factors, then we can consider that factor to be the cause.

Limitations of this method :

(i) This method cannot be applied outside the range of our observation. It is a matter of our observation to see the difference of two phenomena. But when a change occurs beyond the limits of our observation, this method cannot be applied. Therefore, it has a limited scope of application.

(ii) The method of qualitative variation has no application in cases of qualitative variation. The method of concomitant variances is applied to quantitative variations i.e. when two phenomena differ in degree. If however, there is a variation in quality or type, a new condition is introduced and this method is unable to cope with it.

Or

Explain the Method of Difference with examples.

Ans:- According to Mill, “if an instance in which the event under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, is to protect every circumstance in general, that only a circumstance occurring in the former, in which The situation alone is the cause of the event, or the cause, or the unavoidable part, is different. “The method of difference is based on the principle that whatever cannot be eliminated without interfering with the event under investigation later should be properly added. If a circumstance is omitted and the event disappears under investigation, the causal relationship between the two must be the same as everything else is the same. For example- if a bell is sung in a jar filed with air, the sound of the bell is heard, but if the same bell is sung in a jar from where the air has been pumped, no sound is heard. Other circumstances remain the same. So, the presence of air is an essential part of the cause of sound.

It is meant to establish sufficient conditions for a phenomenon. For example, if under one condition, C1, an effect, E1, does not occur, and as C1 is changed to C2 the effect E1 does occur, it may be concluded that C2 is a sufficient cause of E1, and the alternative hypothesis, that C1 causes E1, can be eliminated.

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