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LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY
LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY OLD QUESTION PAPER SOLVED
1. Give very short answer:
(a) What is the ideal of logic?
Ans: The idea of logic is the science of thought. Thought is reasoning.
(b) Is the Conclusion of Analogy Certain?
Ans: Analogical Arguments (or Arguments by Analogy) are a from of Induction where a conclusion is derived from a comparison of similarities between two or more cases. … As a form of induction, Analogical Arguments can only give probable conclusions, never certain ones.
(c) Give an Example of Unscientific Induction.
Ans: “All crows are black” is a general proposition for the subject is about an unlimited number. It is a real proposition as the predicate states a fact about the subject. i) Like scientific induction we have the premises of unscientific induction from experience of particular instances.
(d) On which Law is the Quantitative mark of a cause based?
Ans: Hence, Newton’s second law of motion gives a quantitative measure of force.
(e) What was the hypothesis with the help of which the ‘Law of Gravitation’ discovered?
Ans: Newton’s law of gravitation, statement that any particle of matter in the universe attracts any other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them.
(f) What is the Meaning of the Greek word ‘Ethos’?
Ans: Ethos means “custom” or “character” in Greek. As originally used by Aristotle, it referred to a man’s character or personality, especially in its balance between passion and caution. Today ethos is used to refer to the practices or values that distinguish one person, organization, or society from others.
(g) What according to Indian Philosophy is the Supreme and Ultimate end of human life?
Ans: This realisation is the ultimate liberation of the human soul, which is also commonly known as mukti or moksha. Different schools have laid emphasis on different aspects of human life that lead to achieving this liberation, moksha.
(h) Write the name of the Inductive Method which enables us to proceed from cause to effect and effect to cause.
Ans: The Method of Agreement enables us to proceed from the cause to the effect and from the effect to the cause. As this method is a method of observation.
(i) Give an example of Secondary Quality.
Ans: Secondary qualities are thought to be properties that produce sensations in observers, such as colour, taste, smell, and sound.
(j) Is Ethics a Positive Science?
Ans: Ethics is a normative science: It is mainly concerned with what ought to be done rather than what is the case. It differs from positive science.
(k) Who has defined religion in terms of value?
Ans: Key Points. The sociologist Emile Durkheim defined religion as a “unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things. ” By sacred things he meant things “set apart and forbidden — beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them”.
(l) Which theory of truth does Naive Realism support?
Ans: Naive realism is but one philosophical theory of reality. It states that we perceive material objects exactly as they are, whereas indirect realism suggests our perceptions are clouded by our biases, and idealism suggests the material world does not exist independently of our perceptions.
2. Give an Example of Good Analogy.
Ans: For example, “Life is a box of chocolates.” An analogy is saying something is like something else to make some sort of explanatory point. For example, “Life is like a box of chocolates—you never know what you’re gonna get.” You can use metaphors and similes when creating an analogy.
3. What is ‘Hypothesis concerning Agent’?
Ans: hypothesis is framed with a supposition that a being or some agent is responsible for the occurrence of the event, it is considered as the hypothesis concerning agent.
4. Give an Example of ‘Plurality of Causes’.
Ans: Plurality of causes means that the same effect may be produced by different causes in different cases. J.S. Mill and some other-Logicians mention that invariability of connection is in one direction only. That means the same cause always produces the same effect but the same effect need not always be produced by the same cause. The same effect may be produced by different causes on different occasions. Every event must have a cause. But the effect need not have the same cause in every case. This doctrine is known as plurality of causes.
What do you mean by ‘Conjunction of Causes’?
Ans: Conjunctions of cause and effect are subordinating conjunction that are used to link a dependent clause to an independent clause.
5. Explain the moral Condition of observation.
Ans: In the first sense of “observation,” moral principles can be tested by observation—”That this act is wrong is evidence that causing unnecessary suffering is wrong.” But in the second sense of “observation,” moral principles cannot clearly be tested by observation, since they do not appear to help explain observations.
State two advantage of Simple observation.
Ans: Advantages of Observation Method Very minimal technical knowledge is required, and even though scientifically controlled observations require some technical skills, it is still more accessible and more straightforward than other methods. It is easier because every day, everyone observes different things in their lives.
6. Give a concrete example of the join Method of Agreement and Difference.
Ans: The Method of Agreement enables us to proceed from the cause to the effect and from the effect to the cause. As this method is a method of observation. So, we can move from cause to its effect and from effect to its cause to find out the causal connection.
7. Mention any two characteristics of Scientific Realism.
Ans: Scientific realism is a positive epistemic attitude toward the content of our best theories and models, recommending belief in both observable and unobservable aspects of the world described by the sciences.
1. The Miracle Argument.
8. What do you mean by ‘moral obligation’?
Ans: A moral obligation is the requirement to pursue what we believe is right and act accordingly. Unfortunately, while we would like to believe there are universal truths, there is no one system of morality among humans. Moral obligations differ according to one’s morality.
What is Voluntary action?
Ans: Voluntary action is an anticipated goal-oriented movement. The concept of voluntary action arises in many areas of study, including cognitive psychology, operant conditioning, philosophy, neurology, criminology, and others. Additionally, voluntary action has various meanings depending on the context in which it is used. For example, operant psychology uses the term to refer to the actions that are modifiable by their consequences. A more cognitive account may refer to voluntary action as involving the identification of a desired outcome together with the action necessary to achieve that outcome.
9. Give a concrete example of Inverse Variation.
Ans: For two quantities with inverse variation, as one quantity increases, the other quantity decreases. For example, when you travel to a particular location, as your speed increases, the time it takes to arrive at that location decreases.
10. Why is the idealism of Leibnitz called ‘Pluralistic Idealism’?
Ans: Unlike absolute idealism, pluralistic idealism does not assume the existence of a single ultimate mental reality or “Absolute”. Leibniz’ form of idealism, known as Panpsychism, views “monads” as the true atoms of the universe and as entities having perception.
‘Esse Est Percipi’ ― What is the meaning of this statement?
Ans: of the meaning of “to be” or “to exist.” “To be,” said of the object, means to be perceived; “to be,” said of the subject, means to perceive.
11. State two characteristics of primary Quality.
Ans: (i) Primary qualities are inherent properties of an object. They are the fundamental qualities of an object in the sense that they are the objective qualities and the necessary properties of an object. But, secondary qualities are not fundamental to an object since they depend on the knower’s mind.
(ii) Primary qualities remain unchanged through all the changes of time and place. For example the shape, extension etc. Of an object remain unchanged in all occasions. But secondary qualities may be changed from person to person, from place to place. For example, the taste or smell of an object may vary from person to person.
12. What is ‘Working Hypothesis’?
Ans: A working hypothesis is a hypothesis that is provisionally accepted as a basis for further ongoing research in the hope that a tenable theory will be produced, even if the hypothesis ultimately fails. Like all hypotheses, a working hypothesis is constructed as a statement of expectations, which can be linked to deductive, exploratory research in empirical investigation and is often used as a conceptual framework in qualitative research. The term “working” indicates that the hypothesis is subject to change.
What do you Mean by ‘Vera Cause’?
Ans: the true cause of a natural phenomenon, by an agency whose existence is independently evidenced . Noun. vera causa.
13. Why is habitual action considered as an object of moral judgement?
Ans: Habitual actions are objects of moral judgements, because they are results of repeated voluntary actions. Thus ultimately only voluntary actions are judged to be right or wrong. Whatever is not willed has no normal worth. Voluntary actions imply the freedom of the will.
What is the meaning of ‘intention’ in Ethics?
Ans: In ethics, the intention principle states that whether an action is morally permissible sometimes depends on the agent’s intention for performing this action.
14. What is induction? State two difference between deduction and induction.
Ans: Induction is an opportunity for an organisation to welcome their new recruit, help them settle in and ensure they have the knowledge and support they need to perform their role. For an employer, effective induction may also affect employee turnover, absenteeism and employer brand.
State two difference between deduction and induction.
1. Inductive reasoning is a bottom-up approach, while deductive reasoning is top-down.
2. Inductive reasoning takes you from the specific to the general, while in deductive reasoning, you make inferences by going from general premises to specific conclusions.
Write any four characteristics of Unscientific Induction.
Ans: (a) Unscientific induction establishes general real propositions. Induction establishes proposition. A proposition states a relation between two terms. We seek to prove a connection between two terms and establish a proposition. But the proposition which we derive in the conclusion are general propositions.
As we know, general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. But the general proposition, which induction established are not verbal. They are real propositions. A verbal proposition merely states the connection or a part of the connotation of a term. But a real proposition, does not merely analyses the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.
(b) The conclusion of unscientific induction is based on mere uniform or Uncontradicted experience. Unscientific induction draws its conclusion on the ground of mere enumeration or counting instances. So far as our experience goes, we have never come across any contradictory cases. On the strength of this uniform or uncontradicted experience, we arrive at the general proposition.
(c) In unscientific induction, there is no knowledge of any causal connection. Hence, the conclusions are merely probable. Probability is a matter of degrees, ranging from zero to what very nearly approaches scientific certainty. But however high the degree of probability, unscientific induction can never reach the certainty of scientific induction.
(d) We seek to prove a connection between two terms and establish a proposition. But the proposition which we derive in the conclusion are general propositions.
15. State the advantage of Experiment.
Ans: The four advantages of experiment over observation are:
(i) Experiment enables us to multiply our instances indefinitely.
If one Experiment does not enable us to observe the phenomenon under investigation satisfactorily, we may try again and again. But in observation we wait for opportunities.
(ii) Experiment often enables us to isolate the phenomenon we are studying.
In experiment, it is possible to remove the phenomenon under investigation from the influence of all agents except that the influence of which we desire to observe. But in observation, nature presents a phenomenon in complex surroundings
(iii) Experiment enables us to vary the surrounding circumstances indefinitely.
In Experiment we examine different sets of circumstances under which the phenomenon under investigation occurs. But in observation, we have to depend on the bounty of nature for the supply of a suitable variety of instances.
(iv) Experiment is possible only when some knowledge already has been acquired by observation. But by previous observation unless we know what we are to expect, adequate preparation are not possible.
What, according to Aristotle, are the different kinds of cause? ― Discuss briefly.
Ans: Aristotle’s “Four Causes”
Aristotle sought to explain the World as logical, as a result of causes and purposes, The “Four Causes” are his answers to the question Why: “We do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause.” “Cause” is the traditional translation of the Greek aitia (αἰτία), which has a technical sense better translated as “explanation”.
Aristotle argued that there are four kinds of answers to “Why” questions (Physics II:3, and Metaphysics V:2). Cause results in change.
Matter: a material cause is determined by the matter that composes the changing things. For a table, that matter might be wood; for a statue, it might be bronze or marble.
Form: a formal cause is due to the arrangement, shape, or appearance of the thing changing. Numerical relationships are of this nature: I and II form III.
Agency or Efficiency: an efficient cause consists of things apart from the thing being changed, which interact so as to be an agency of the change. For example, the efficient cause of a table is a carpenter acting on wood. In the natural world, the efficient cause of a child is a father.
End or Purpose: a final cause is that for the sake of which a thing is changing. A seed’s end is an adult plant. A sailboat’s purpose is sailing. A ball at the top of a ramp will finally come to rest at the bottom.
For example: the cause or explanation of a table is that it is solid and grained because it is made of wood (material), it does not collapse because of its design with four legs of equal length (formal), it occurs as it does because a carpenter made it from wood (agency, or efficiency), and it has particular dimensions because of is intended to support objects (purpose).
In English, the addition of the suffix “-al” turns a noun into an adjective. For example, the tropics are tropical. In Aristotelian Greek, the two forms are both nouns. To understand Aristotle’s system, look for the original noun. Thus, “ideal” means “pertaining to ideas” rather than “perfect”, “material” means “pertaining to matter” rather than “stuff”, “formal” means “pertaining to form” rather than “proper”, and “final” means “pertaining to ends” rather than the end itself.
Causes account for both artificial (constructed) and natural (living) things. In modern Biology, we understand “natural” as “pertaining to nature” rather than “non-artificial”. Thus “Natural Selection” is differential survival & reproduction as it occurs in Nature, in contrast to “Artificial Selection”, for example by pigeon breeders. Natural Selection can be understand as an efficient cause, by which organic evolution occurs. Both worldviews use similar vocabularies, with contrasted implications. Especially in evolutionary biology, we avoid explanations of phenomena expressed in terms of end results or purposefulness. The habit can be a hard one to break.
For example: a textbook statement such as “Reptiles have dermal scales in order to prevent desiccation on land” tacitly assumes a formal cause, that Nature arranges things functionally, and a final cause, that scales exist for osmoregulation. In fact, we know as matters of historical fact that the evolution of scales long preceded the origin of terrestrial animal life, that modern amphibian classes lost their ancestral scales (which assists in dermal respiration), and that reptilian scales are of multiple origin and function.
16. Write any four Characteristics of Naive Realism.
Ans: According to Naive Realism, our ideas are exact copies of external real things and their qualities. All the qualities of matter are real objective. They exist in things themselves. Thus colour, taste, smell, heat and cold are absolute and objective as extension, impenetrability, motion, rest etc.
17. Explain briefly the nature of ‘Monad’ as depicted by Leibnitz.
Ans: monad, (from Greek monas “unit”), an elementary individual substance that reflects the order of the world and from which material properties are derived. The term was first used by the Pythagoreans as the name of the beginning number of a series, from which all following numbers derived. Giordano Bruno in De monade, numero et figura liber (1591; “On the Monad, Number, and Figure”) described three fundamental types: God, souls, and atoms. The idea of monads was popularized by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in Monadologia (1714). In Leibniz’s system of metaphysics, monads are basic substances that make up the universe but lack spatial extension and hence are immaterial. Each monad is a unique, indestructible, dynamic, soullike entity whose properties are a function of its perceptions and appetites. Monads have no true causal relation with other monads, but all are perfectly synchronized with each other by God in a preestablished harmony. The objects of the material world are simply appearances of collections of monads.
What is the essence of Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism?
Ans: Subjective idealism is a fusion of phenomenalism or empiricism, which confers special status upon the immediately perceived, with idealism, which confers special status upon the mental. Idealism denies the knowability or existence of the non-mental, while phenomenalism serves to restrict the mental to the empirical. Subjective idealism thus identifies its mental reality with the world of ordinary experience, and does not comment on whether this reality is “divine” in some way as pantheism does, nor comment on whether this reality is a fundamentally unified whole as does absolute idealism. This form of idealism is “subjective” not because it denies that there is an objective reality, but because it asserts that this reality is completely dependent upon the minds of the subjects that perceive it.
The earliest thinkers identifiable as subjective idealists were certain members of the Yogācāra school of Indian Buddhism, who reduced the world of experience to a stream of subjective perceptions. Subjective idealism made its mark in Europe in the 18th-century writings of George Berkeley, who argued that the idea of mind-independent reality is incoherent, concluding that the world consists of the minds of humans and of God. Subsequent writers have continuously grappled with Berkeley’s sceptical arguments. Immanuel Kant responded by rejecting Berkeley’s immaterialism and replacing it with transcendental idealism, which views the mind-independent world as existent but incognizable in itself. Since Kant, true immaterialism has remained a rarity, but is survived by partly overlapping movements such as phenomenalism, subjectivism, and perspectivism.
18. Write a brief note on Non-moral action.
Ans: ‘non – moral’ action means action which is devoid of moral quality. For example, the phenomena of nature i.e. hurricanes, floods, famines etc, the actions of animals, actions of children insane persons and idiots etc. are non – moral actions. Non – moral action means action which is devoid of moral quality. The Phenomena of nature i.e. hurricanes, floods, famines etc. and the action of animal are two example of non – moral action.
A non-moral action is one that does not require morality and is acted out according to the prevailing conventions. If an action is performed without the intention of doing good, or with the intention of an ulterior motive, then it is a non-moral action. If an action has the potential to help or harm another person or yourself, then that action is of moral concern. If the action has no potential to help or harm another person or yourself, then that action is a nonmoral issue.
19. What is ‘Crucial instance’? Give an example of crucial instance obtained by experiment.
Ans: A crucial instance is an instance which can only be explained one of the contending hypothesis and not by the other. It may be obtained by simple observation or by experiment.
Example: include Eddington’s observation of the bending of light rays by the sun during the eclipse of 1919, held to decisively uphold general relativity against Newtonian mechanics, or the observation of weight gain during combustion, held to decide for the theory that combustion is oxidation and against the view that it consists in loss of phlogiston. In practice experiments require a great deal of scene-setting and agreement on what would count as an ad hoc hypothesis before they play such a decisive role, so that rational disagreement on whether one or another rival is really refuted is both possible in theory and often found in practice.
20. Write any four definition of Religion.
Ans: 1. “[Religion is] the feelings, acts, and experiences of individual men in their solitude, so far as they apprehend themselves to stand in relation to whatever they may consider the divine.” (William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience)
2. “A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden – beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them.” (b) [Religion is] “the self-validation of a society by means of myth and ritual.” (Émile Durkeim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life)
3. “[Religion is] “the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern, a concern which qualifies all other concerns as preliminary, and a concern that in itself provides the answer to the question of the meaning of our existence.” (Paul Tillich) and
4. “[Religion is] a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, persuasive, and long lasting moods and motivations…. by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.” (Clifford Geertz, “Religion as a Cultural System”)
Write four Characteristics of Religion.
Ans: The four Characteristics of Religion.
Belief System: Several beliefs fit together into a fairly complete and systematic interpretation of the universe and the human beings place in it. (Also called a worldview)
Community: The belief system is shared, and its ideals are practised by a group.
Central myths: Stories that express the religious beliefs of a group are retold and often reenacted.
Ethics: Rules about human behaviour are established. Often viewed as having been revealed from a supernatural realm (socially generated guidelines)
21. What is ‘Practical imperfection’ of the Method of Agreement?
Ans: Because, the Method of Agreement suggests but cannot prove the cause effect relation. Only the Joint Method can confirm the cause effect relation very effectively because the negative set of instances plays a vital role in it.
Mill’s methods are attempts to isolate a cause from a complex event sequence. Method of agreement: Two or more instances of an event (effect) are compared to see what they have in common. That commonality is identified as the cause.
Mention two advantages and two disadvantage of the Method of Difference.
Ans: The two advantages of the Method of Difference are:
(a) The application of the Method of Difference is very simple. Because, the two instances require to determine the cause effect relation are sufficient.
(b) The Method of Difference can prove causal connection. So, it is considered as the best method of experimental enquiry.
The two disadvantage of the Method of Difference are:
(a) Because it is often based on a hypothesis, the research can be quite dependent on the results you get, and it can be disappointing when you look for a phenomenon that is just not there.
(b) Because you are using human participants, the ethics procedure can be longer and more complicated.
22. ‘Idealism is best expressed in Hegel’s Idealism.’― Explain.
Ans: Idealism for Hegel meant that the finite world is a reflection of mind, which alone is truly real. He held that limited being (that which comes to be and passes away) presupposes infinite unlimited being, within which the finite is a dependent element. In this view, truth becomes the relationship of harmony or coherence between thoughts, rather than a correspondence between thoughts and external realities.
As one proceeds from the confusing world of sense experience to the more complex and coherent categories of science, the Absolute Idea, of which all other abstract ideas are merely a part, is approached. Hegel also held that this increasing clarity is evident in the fact that later philosophy presupposes and advances from earlier philosophy, ultimately approaching that to which all things are related and which is nevertheless self-contained—i.e., the Absolute Idea.
Royce proposed that human minds are fragments of the Absolute yet somehow remain separate selves and persons. He held that individual selves (as parts of the Absolute) are able, through the fundamental virtue of loyalty, to seek their ever increasing and ever widening meaning and identify with it, thus approaching the Absolute.
Hegel’s idealism formed the basis of the Absolute Idealism of many philosophers (including F.H. Bradley and Bernard Bosanquet), who made Absolute Idealism a dominant philosophy of the 19th century.
23. Distinguish between religion and morality.
Ans: Differences Between Religion And Morality: The link between religious perspectives and morals is explored at the intersections of morality and religion. Value frameworks for personal behaviour are ubiquitous in religions, and they serve to help members in identifying what is good and wrong.
Morality and religion are not synonymous. Though religion may be dependent on morality and may even grow alongside morality, morality is not always dependent on religion, despite some people’s “near reflex assumption” to the contrary. Prior to the contemporary age of philosophy, it was widely accepted that religion is the undeniable foundation of morality, indicating that there can be no morality without religion.
This widely held and deeply ingrained belief that religion is a precondition for morality continues to be promoted today by scholars, who claim that “morality is impossible without belief in God,” and, who claim that “declining moral standards are at least partly attributable to the rise of secularism and decline of organized religion.”
Because several other modern and contemporary academics have argued with evidence that many religious ideas and behaviours have failed the test of morality, the argument that religion is neither required nor sufficient for morality no longer appears to be particularly strong.
This viewpoint challenges the long-held belief that morality has a divine origin: either God created man with moral sense or man learned about good and evil, right and wrong via religious teachings. Despite the diversity of various faiths, the moral dilemma that our modern society is experiencing creates a stronger objection to religion’s effect on morality.
If religion has such a strong impact on morality, one could wonder why moral standards are being disregarded in our modern society, despite the extremely loud, clear, and consistent preaching of countless religious denominations in nearly every corner of our modern civilization.
‘Morality is the source of religion’ ― Discuss the View.
Ans: The intersections of morality and religion involve the relationship between religious views and morals. It is common for religions to have value frameworks regarding personal behaviour meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong. These include the Triple Gems of Jainism, Islam’s Sharia, Catholicism’s Catechism, Buddhism’s Eightfold Path, and Zoroastrianism’s “good thoughts, good words, and good deeds” concept, among others. Various sources – such as holy books, oral and written traditions, and religious leaders – may outline and interpret these frameworks. Some religious systems share tenets with secular value-frameworks such as consequentialism, freethought, and utilitarianism.
Religion and morality are not synonymous. Though religion may depend on morality, and even develop alongside morality, morality does not necessarily depend upon religion, despite some making “an almost automatic assumption” to this effect. According to The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics, religion and morality “are to be defined differently and have no definitional connections with each other. Conceptually and in principle, morality and a religious value system are two distinct kinds of value systems or action guides.” In the views of some, morality and religion can overlap. One definition sees morality as an active process which is, “at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason, that is, doing what there are the best reasons for doing, while giving equal consideration to the interests of all those affected by what one does.”
24. What is Scientific Induction? Mention the Characteristics of Scientific Induction.
Ans: Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instance, in reliance on the principle of the uniformity of nature and the law of causation.
The characteristics of scientific induction are as follows:
(i) Scientific Induction establishes general real propositions: A general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. Again, a Real proposition does not merely analyse the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.
(ii) Scientific Induction is based on observation of facts: The general propositions established by Induction are based on an observation of particulars instances. For example – the general proposition “All men are mortal” is based on observation of particular cases of death of persons we have come across.
(iii) In scientific induction, there is an ‘Inductive leap’: ‘Inductive leap’ is the essence of Induction. ‘Inductive leap is the process from known to the unknown. If this characteristic be wanting the process can not be called Induction at all.
(iv) Scientific Induction is based on two presuppositions viz, the Law of causation and the Principle of the Uniformity of nature. The Law of Causation states that every event must have a cause. The principle of uniformity of nature states that under similar conditions, the same cause produces the same effect. These two fundamental principles are called the formal grounds of scientific induction.
Define Analogy with an example. Mention its Characteristics.
Ans: An analogy is a comparison made to show how two things are similar for explanation or clarification. Although the things compared are physically different, the analogy identifies how they are figuratively similar.
Example: Every choice you make is like spinning the wheel of fortune — sometimes you will get the result that you desire, while other times you will end up with something you always hoped to avoid.
Characteristics of analogy:
1. Of synonymy: It occurs when two elements, despite having different names, share the same attributes.
2. Cogeneric: It is established between those things, objects or entities that belong to the same category, that are linked to the same class or concept.
3. Cogeneric: It is established between those things, objects or entities that belong to the same category, that are linked to the same class or concept.
25. Write a note on ‘Paradox of Induction’.
Ans: The paradox of induction is the problem that in all scientific reasoning we form conclusions, called laws, that are of a general nature; however, the evidence we have for those laws is based upon particular experiences. For example, we form the conclusion that all rays of light will be bend as the pass from air into glass, but we have only ever observed a finite number of instances of this law. On further reflection we see that there is no necessary connection between something happening on one occasion and the same thing happening in like circumstances on another occasion. We are not directly acquainted with the “power” behind events that ensures the uniformity of nature throughout space and time.
Another illustration of this might concern the uniformity of space. Imagine that a space mission is about to be sent to the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. People might be queuing up to volunteer to be the first people to witness life on a distant planet. On the other hand, there might be anxious reluctant passengers, desperate not to be dragged on the fool-hardy mission. Why? Because there is no guarantee that the laws of nature operate in the same way in outer space as they do in our solar system. It is entirely conceivable that once the space ship passes beyond the perimeter of our solar system, that entirely different laws of physics will apply, and the space ship could be destroyed by chaotic forces that cannot be anticipated. We have no way at present of being sure that universe is uniform. We have only sampled physical nature in our own limited portion of the universe. We might regard the fear of the passengers as outlandish, but it is not an irrational fear. Just because things have happened at one point of space and at a given time in a certain way is no guarantee that they always will happen that way.
This, then, is the paradox. Every day we reason from particular instances to generalities, and such inference is essential to our way of life; but there is no guarantee that such an inference is valid, and, indeed, very often such inferences prove to be fallacious — as in the case of the chicken that reasoned that its master would always feed it just because its master always has!
A schematic representation of the inductive inference is as follows.
The general law encompasses a potentially infinite number of instances that no amount of observation could possibly affirm. The problem is usually expressed as a problem of inference from past to future, but strictly this is only an instance of the problem; unobserved past events are also subject to the paradox of induction — we can never be sure that any general law has applied uniformly even in the past. No general law can ever be certain.
What do you mean by Experiment? Describe its Characteristics.
Ans: An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy or likelihood of something previously untried. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated.
There are five Characteristics of experiments:
3. Hypothesis Formulation.
4. Methodology. And
1. Observation: We have heard this word many times. Observation is basically the first step towards any scientific research. It is a way for gathering data through observing the subjects. The researcher has to go to the participants’ environment and observe the way they behave, react and respond to the natural phenomenon.
2. Questions: Questions are the important way to gather primary data. Researcher asks questions to the participants about particular topics or points that he wants to cover while studying the research problem.
3. Hypothesis Formulation: When a researcher picks up a topic to research, he formulates a hypothesis. A hypothesis is nothing but an assumption statement that defines the cause-effect relationship between two or more variables. This statement can be proved true or false, depending on the result of the research.
4. Methodology: Once the hypothesis is ready, the next challenge for the researcher is to choose a proper research design method to run the entire study through. This will depend on how he wants his research to be conducted. Whether the research wants his sample to be assigned randomly, or not, whether there are any control variables, matters a lot while selecting an approach for the research.
5. Results: The final component that defines an experimental design is, of course, the results. After the observations, surveys and interviews and running the research process through any one of the above-mentioned types of research design, the researcher will have the result of the hypothesis testing.
26. What are the stages of Hypothesis? ― Explain with examples.
Ans: There are 5 main stages in hypothesis-
Stages 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis.
Example: You want to test whether there is a relationship between gender and height. Based on your knowledge of human physiology, you formulate a hypothesis that men are, on average, taller than women. To test this hypothesis, you restate it as:
1. H0: Men are, on average, not taller than women.
Stages 2: Collect data.
Example: To test differences in average height between men and women, your sample should have an equal proportion of men and women, and cover a variety of socio-economic classes and any other control variables that might influence average height.
Stages 3: Perform a statistical test.
Example: Based on the type of data you collected, you perform a one-tailed t-test to test whether men are in fact taller than women. This test gives you:
1. an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
Stages 4: Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
Example: In your analysis of the difference in average height between men and women, you find that the p-value of 0.002 is below your cutoff of 0.05, so you decide to reject your null hypothesis of no difference.
Stages 5: Present your findings Frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.
Example: In our comparison of mean height between men and women we found an average difference of 13.7 cm and a p-value of 0.002; therefore, we can reject the null hypothesis that men are not taller than women and conclude that there is likely a difference in height between men and women.
What are the conditions of a legitimate or valid hypothesis? Explain any two of them.
Ans: 1. The most essential condition for a valid hypothesis is that it should be capable of empirical verification, so that it has to be ultimately confirmed or refuted. Otherwise it will remain a proposition only. Therefore it should be formulated in such a way that it is possible to deduce certain inferences which in turn can be tested by observation in the field. It should not be a mere moral judgement.
2. Secondly, the hypothesis must be conceptually clear, definite and certain. It should not be vague or ambiguous. It should be properly expressed. The concepts should not only be formally defined in a clear-cut manner, but also operationally. If a hypothesis is loaded with un-defined or ill-defined concepts, it moves beyond empirical test because, understandably, there is no standard basis for cognizing what observable facts would constitute its test.
3. Thirdly, hypothesis must be specific and predictions indicated should be spelled out. A general hypothesis has limited scope in the sense that it may only serve as an indicator of an area of investigation rather than serving the hypothesis. A hypothesis of grandiose scope is simply not amenable to test. Narrower hypothesis involves a degree of humility and specific hypothesis is of any real use. A hypothesis must provide answer to the problem which initiated enquiry.
4. Fourthly, the possibility of actually testing the hypothesis can be approved. A hypothesis should be formulated in such a way that its conceptual content can be easily translated to understand the observable reality. If the hypothesis is not the closest to things observable, it would not be possible to test their accord with empirical facts.
5. Fifthly, the hypothesis should be related to a body of theory and should possess theoretical relevance. It must provide theoretical rationale by seeking answer to question as to what will be the theoretical gains of testing the hypothesis? If the hypothesis is derived from a theory, research will enable to confirm support, correct or refute the theory.
27. Define the Method of Agreement with concrete examples. state two advantages of this method.
Ans: One of philosopher John Stuart Mills’ five methods of induction, intended to illustrate the concept of causation. The method of agreement states: “if two or more instances of the phenomenon have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all instances agree is the cause or effect of the given phenomenon.”
For example: (a) suppose a student took three exams one Friday and got two A’s and one C. The student studied a great deal for the exams on which an A was earned and hardly at all for the one on which a C was received. This makes it look as if a lot of studying is a cause of getting a good grade.
(b) Fallen ill? Mill’s rule of agreement says that if in all cases where an effect occurs, there is a single prior factor C that is common to all those cases, then C is the cause of the effect.
Define the Method of Residues with example. State disadvantages of this method.
Ans: a method of scientific induction devised by J. S. Mill according to which if one subtracts from a phenomenon the part known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents the remaining part of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents.
For example: if the phenomena E1 and E2 occur together having antecedents C1 and C2, and if it is known by prior research or established law that C1 cannot cause E2 but causes E1, one may conclude that C2 is the cause of E2. Also called residue method.
Disadvantages of this method:
1. Without previous knowledge of causal relation the method of residues cannot be applied.
2. If the complex effect cannot be reduced or analyzed, then this method cannot be applied.
3. This method may confuse an irrelevant factor to be the cause.