Class 12 AHSEC 2022 Political Science Question Paper Solved English Medium

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Class 12 AHSEC 2022 Political Science Question Paper Solved English Medium

Class 12 AHSEC 2022 Political Science Question Paper Solved English Medium

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(Contemporary World Politics)

(a) Write the full form of NIEO 

Ans: NIEO full form is The New International Economic Order.

(b) The collapse of which country is known as the collapse of the “Second World”?

Ans: The powerful economies of the West are still sometimes described as “First World”, but the term “Second World” became largely obsolete following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

(c) In which year Iraq invaded Kuwait?

Ans: August 2, 1990, a force of one hundred thousand Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and overran the country in a matter of hours.

(d) Write the full form of SAFTA.

Ans: SAFTA full form is Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area.

(e) Earth Summit was held in the year_______. (Fill in the blank)

Ans: 14 June 1992.

(f) The World Council of Indigenous people was formed in the year 1974/1975/1976. (Choose the correct answer)

Ans: 1975.

2. Mention to reforms Mikhail Gorbachev initiated in the Soviet Union.

Ans: The then President of Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev came up with two policies: 

1. Glasnost. and 

2. Perestroika. 

“Glasnost” is the Russian word meaning “openness”. “Perestroika”, the Russian word meaning “restructuring”.

3. Write down the names of the Permanent member states of Security Council of United Nations Organization.

Ans: The Security Council consists of ten elected members, and five permanent members:

1. China.

2. The United States.

3. France.

4. The United Kingdom. and 

5. The Russian Federation. 

4. Write the names of two non-governmental organisations which were concerned with Protection of Human Rights all over the world.

Ans: Most self-professed “human rights organisations” tend to be engaged in the protection of civil and political rights. The best known of such organisations, at least on the international stage, include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the International Federation for Human Rights, Human Rights First and Interights.

5. Name the principal organs of United Nations Organisation. 

Ans: The United Nations (UN) has six main organs. Five of them — the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat — are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

6. Mention two sources of threats to human being. 

Ans: 1. Population explosion. and 

2. Environmental pollution.

Environmental pollution are the two major factors for the threat to the existence of human being on earth.

It is necessary that both the protection of people from critical and pervasive type threats and provide power to people to take charge of their own and to protect themselves.

Protection is meant the norms, policies, and institutions necessary to guard people and imply a comprehensive approach’.

7. Write two causes of Water Pollution.

Ans: Main Causes of Water Pollution: 

  1. Global warming.
  1. Deforestation.

8. Why did big powers need to have alliance with smaller countries? Write four reasons.

Ans: Alliances with smaller countries enabled the superpowers to mobilise troops and launch weapons against their adversaries. In this regard, we may cite the example of how Pakistan became a member of CENTO and SEATO, and was used as a base to counter Soviet threat.

Super powers had military alliances with smaller states who were helpful for them in gaining access to: 

1. Vital resources as oil and minerals. 

2. Territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops. 

3. Locations from where they could spy on each other. 

4. Economic support to pay their military expenses.

9. Discuss briefly about the constraints on U.S. hegemony.

Ans: Hegemony as a term refers to an international system which tends to be dominated by a single superpower or hyper-power only. This word means the predominance or leadership of a state over others via virtue of its economic, cultural superiority, military and political power. Soviet Union’s collapse led to the domination of the world by a sole superpower, the United States of America, which led the entire world by its military, economic, cultural superiority as well as political power.

The two constraints acting upon American hegemony are as follows:

(i) The institutional architecture of the American state tends to be the initial constraint. Within America, there exists a system of division of powers between branches of government. Because of this division of power, limitations are applied on the executive branch upon exercising American military power.

(ii) Another constraint stems from the open property of American society which is basically domestic in nature. Individuals’ participation in the context of deep questioning of working of government is observed. This factor is one huge constraint on the United States military actions overseas.

10. Discuss briefly about the recent relationship between India and Pakistan.

Ans: India Pakistan relations from the beginning are marked belligerently and with mutual suspicion. This is often best manifested by the frequency of wars both countries have fought against one another.

India demands friendly, peaceful, and cooperative relations with Pakistan. However, violence and terror are the biggest hindrances that hamper the smooth relationship between India and Pakistan. The relations between the two countries worsened in February 2021 when they issued a joint statement announcing that they would observe the 2003 ceasefire along the LoC.

The recent developments in India Pakistan relations are as follows:

  • In Feb 2020, India stood by its Neighbourhood First Policy and desired a terror-free and non-violent relationship with Pakistan.
  • Article 370 of the constitution of India gave a special status to Jammu and Kashmir. However, this Article was scrapped in 2019. After this, the relationship between India and Pakistan faced a severe blow. Pakistan suspended land and air links, trade, and railway services with India.
  • India withdrew the Status of Most Favoured Nation to Pakistan on February 15, 2019.

11. Write briefly about Global Poverty.

Ans: Global poverty is defined as the number of people worldwide who live on less than $2.15 a day. A person surviving on less than $2.15 a day lives in extreme poverty, as defined by the World Bank. More than 736 million people – or one out of every ten people on the planet – currently live below this poverty threshhold,1 and children, a highly vulnerable segment of society, account for more than half of the world’s poorest citizens.

12. Discuss briefly about the Political Consequences of Globalization.

Ans: Consequences of Globalisation:

  • Globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity i.e. by reducing the ability of government to do what they want to do.
  • It gives way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order, and the security of its citizens.
  • In place of the state the market becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
  • Globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be unchallenged basis of political community.
  • State capacity has received boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disnosal of the state to collect information about its citizens.

13. Why did Soviet Union disintegrate? Discuss three reasons.

Ans: The Russian Empire was brought to an end by the 1917 Russian Revolution. This was followed by the Russian Civil War, which led to the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or the Soviet Union in 1922. While the Cold War dragged on, flaws started to develop in the façade of the Soviet Union.

In this article, we discuss the disintegration of the Soviet Union and how it resulted at the end of communism and political, economic, and sociological transformations. This led to significant conflict and change both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, among other places.

The fall of the Berlin Wall started a series of events that led to the Disintegration of the Soviet Union. 

1. Economic weakness. 

2. Political stubbornness. and 

3. The growth of nationalism.


Discuss elaborately the US hegemony as an Economic Super Power.

Ans: Discuss elaborately the US hegemony as an economic super power:

The world was left only with single superpower the US and came to be known as the US Hegemony to show the superiority of its military power. The US hegemony also shaped the world economy and emerged in the form of military domination, economic order, political clout and cultural superiority.

The US Hegemony as a structural power:

(i) Hegemony as a structural power is the role played by the US in the world economy and existence in providing global public goods – such as the sea lanes of communication (SLOCs)

(ii) The naval power of the hegemony is another reason for its structural power.

(iii) The internet is the direct outcome of a US military research project that began in 1950. Even today, the Internet relies on a global network of satellites, most of which are owned by the US government.

(iv) The US is present in all parts of the world, in all sectors of the world economy and in all areas of technology.

(v) The US share of the world economy remains an enormous 28 per cent. The US also accounts for 15 per cent of world trade. There is not a single sector of the world economy in which an American firm does not feature in the “top three” lists.

(vi) It is important to remember that the economic preponderance of the US is inseparable from its structural power, which is the power to shape the global economy in a particular way.

14. What are the main pillars of ASEAN ? Discuss elaborately.

Ans: In 2003, the ASEAN established the ASEAN Community, which aimed at extending its area of cooperation beyond economic and social spheres and ensuring security of all members in the region. 

It constituted three important pillars:

(a) The ASEAN Political-Security,The ASEAN Economic Community The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

The main objectives of the ASEAN Community are as follows:

(a) To accelerate economic development in the ASEAN region.

(b) To establish a single market and production base for the ASEAN countries.

(c) To ensure equitable economic growth and prosperity of the region.

(d) To bring about full integration of the ASEAN economy with that of the global economy.

(e) To develop a sense of unification and solidarity among the people of the region.

(f) To encourage greater cooperation in the field of education, culture, art, etc., as well as on issues of environment and human rights.

(g) To promote mutual cooperation and provide assistance, training and resources to the people of the region To collectively work towards sustainable development.

(h) To encourage peaceful resolution of conflicts

(i) To uphold the principles of peace, cooperation and neutrality To ensure respect for each other’s territorial integrity.


Discuss India’s Relationship with China

Ans: India China Relations or Sino-Indian relations or Indo China Relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of India. In 1950, India and China officially established diplomatic relations. In these 72 years of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and China, widespread attention has been drawn from the global perspective. Both countries today play a significant role in the entire world. India was the first non-socialist country to establish diplomatic relations with China.

India and China Relations are among the fastest- growing major economies in the world, the most populous countries, and the major regional powers in Asia. Indo-China Relations are a hot topic in international public opinion. India-China Relations is a very important topic for UPSC Prelims and Mains, as India and China International Relations mostly stay in Current Affairs. 

Chinese tech giants have invested billions of dollars into India’s biggest startups. China’s smartphone makers dominate the country’s market. Indian companies have set up IT corridors in China. With its technological edge in electric vehicles and lithium batteries, China could make and sell more electric cars in India than any other manufacturer shortly.

Huawei’s R&D Center in Bengaluru is the largest in the world. Chinese manufacturer Haier has plants in Pune and Noida. Chinese smartphone maker Oppo has its 110-acre super-factory in Noida, employing 10,000 Indians. Whereas Shanghai tops the total investment from India and is home to IT majors, including TCS, Infosys, and NIIT. Zhejiang and Jiangsu are home to manufacturing units, including Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Mahindra & Mahindra, Laxmi Machine Works, Tata Jaguar Land Rover, and Sundram Fasteners.


( Politics in India. Since Independence)

15 (a) In which year first general election was held in India? 

Ans: General elections were held in India between 25 October 1951 and 21 February 1952. 

(b) Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India?

Ans: The first Chief Election Commissioner of India was Sukumar Sen.

(c) Write the full form of NEFA.

Ans: NEFA full form is North-East Frontier Agency

(d) Panchsheel principles was jointly declared by Indian Prime Minister_______and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. (Fill in the blank)

Ans: Jawaharlal Nehru.

(e) Who started “Total Revolution”?

Ans: Narayan called for Indira and the CMs to resign and the military and police to disregard unconstitutional and immoral orders. He advocated a program of social transformation which he termed Sampoorna kranti, “total revolution”. 

(f) What is the full form of MNF?

Ans: MNF The full form is Mizo National Front.

16. When was the Bharatiya Jana Sangh formed? Who was the founder President of Jana Sangh?

Ans: The Bharatiya Jana Sangh formed Was 21 October 1951. The founder President of Jana Sangh Was Syama Prasad Mukherjee.

17. Write the names and symbols of any two National Political Parties in India.


Political Parties NameSymbols
1. Indian National CongressEars of corn and sickle
2. Communist Party of IndiaHand

18. Write to consequences of 1977 Lok Sabha Election.

Ans: The elections took place during the Emergency period, which expired on 21 March 1977, shortly before the final results were announced. The election resulted in a heavy defeat for the Indian National Congress (INC), with the incumbent Prime Minister and INC party leader Indira Gandhi losing her seat in Rae Bareli.

19. Write any two features of Coalition Government in India.

Ans: There are two features of Coalition Government in India:

  • When two parties come together and form a government that is known as coalition government. It is formed when no single party gets a majority in an election.
  • A primary feature of a coalition government is when two political parties ideologies blend together to help people and help in harmony based governance in the country.

20. Write to causes of the emergence of communalism in India.

Ans: Causes of the emergence of communalism in India are:

  • According to the theory of Jinnah “Two Nation”. India got divided. The division of India happened because of all the political games.
  • Media like books, newspapers, and literature have sectarian hue it had dispersed religious emotions among people.

21. Write two causes of origin of regionalism in India.

Ans: There are various reasons for its emergence of Regionalism in Indian Politics such as:

  •    Language.
  •    Religion.

22. Explain briefly about Two-Nation Theory.

Ans: The Two-Nation theory stated that Hindus and Muslims in India are two distinct communities that could not exist within a single state without dominating and discriminating against the other or without constant conflict.

It was the principal reason that led to the partition of India in 1947. The state of India officially rejected the two-nation theory and chose to be a secular state, enshrining the concepts of religious pluralism and composite nationalism in its constitution.

  • Social and Religious Movements in 19th Century India.
  • Partition of India.
  • Indian Education System During British Rule.

23. Why did India adopt the Policy of Non- Alignment? Discuss briefly.

Ans: For India, the concept of non-alignment began as a policy of non-participation in the military affairs of a bipolar world and in the context of colonialism aimed towards optimum involvement through multi-polar participation towards peace and security. It meant a country should be able to preserve a certain amount of freedom of action internationally. There was no set definition of non-alignment, which meant the term was interpreted differently by different politicians and governments, and varied in different contexts. The overall aims and principles found consensus among the movement members. Non-aligned countries, however, rarely attained the freedom of judgement they desired and their actual behaviour towards the movement’s objectives, such as social justice and human rights, were unfulfilled in many cases. India’s actions often resembled those of aligned countries. 

The response of the non-aligned nations during India’s wars in 1962, 1965 and 1971 revealed non-aligned positions on issues such as secession. The non-aligned nations were unable to fulfil the role of peacekeepers during the Indo-China war of 1962 and the Indo- Pakistan war of 1965 despite meaningful attempts. The non-aligned response to the Bangladesh Liberation War and the following 1971 Indo-Pakistan War showed most of the non-aligned nations prioritised territorial integrity above human rights, which could be explained by the recently attained statehood for the non-aligned.

24. Discuss briefly the causes of decline of the Congress Party.

Ans: Five factors that led to Congress’s decline:

Factor number 1- HR crisis: Their number one problem is talent management or the problem of losing all their big names. Ghulam Nabi Azad, Jyotiraditya Scindia, Sushmita Dev, Jiten Prasada, RPN Singh, Kuldeep Bishnoi, and Kapil Sibal are just some of the people who just felt that Congress didn’t have any future for them or felt neglected. In most of the cases, like in Azad’s, the Congress dismissed the exit as that of someone who had limited influence.

Factor number 2- Leadership issue: One of the people who quit recently is Haryana leader Kuldeep Bishnoi. After quitting, he told reporters that he kept waiting for Rahul Gandhi to give him a call. However, it’s interesting to note why he was expecting Rahul to solve the problem when Sonia Gandhi is the boss. It would be unthinkable to imagine this being a grey area for any other party but here’s why it is.

Factor number 3- Lack of modern tools, methods: Our reporting revealed a great example of this- election strategist Prashant Kishor told the party that in the last general elections, the Congress gave tickets to 170 odd people who had lost elections three times already! Basically, they were candidates who the voters didn’t want. 

Factor number 4- Communication & messaging: Communication is key for any political party because as we know, politics is all about perception. In Congress, Communication gets a poor C. Let me illustrate with the story of how Congress handled the controversy created by a video of Rahul Gandhi emerging on Eid when he was travelling abroad this year.

Factor number 5- Funding: The final reason for the party’s decline is funding. Simply put, the Congress has no money and you need money to give you the resources to fight elections.

25. Discuss briefly the importance of Social Movement.

Ans: social movement, a loosely organized but sustained campaign in support of a social goal, typically either the implementation or the prevention of a change in society’s structure or values. Although social movements differ in size, they are all essentially collective. That is, they result from the more or less spontaneous coming together of people whose relationships are not defined by rules and procedures but who merely share a common outlook on society.

Collective behaviour in crowds, panics, and elementary forms (milling, etc.) are of brief duration or episodic and are guided largely by impulse. When short-lived impulses give way to long-term aims, and when sustained association takes the place of situational groupings of people, the result is a social movement.

26. Explain any two reasons for the emergence of the Coalition Politics in the Indian Democratic System.

Ans: The emergence of coalition governments in India started in the following ways:

(i) In 1967 elections, the opposition parties realised that the division of their votes kept the Congress in power. This led to formation of anti-Congress fronts and rise of ‘non-Congressism’ in Indian politics. This brought the opposition together. As a result of it, coalition governments were formed in eight states which included Punjab, Haryana. UP, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and other states.

(ii) In the elections of Lok Sabha in 1971 and State Assembly elections in 1972, Congress achieved victories, but the Congress under Indira Gandhi did not have the capacity to absorb all tensions and conflicts that the ‘Congress system’ was known for.

(iii) The declaration of emergency in 1975 once again brought the opposition together. Janata Party was formed and it came to power in 1977. Janata Party could not remain united. It lacked direction, leadership and a common programme. Congress once again won elections held in 1980 and 1984.The opposition parties too started to rely on Non-Congressism.

(iv) In 1989 elections, the Congress was the largest party but it was in the opposition. The National Front government, an alliance of Janata Dal and some regional parties, was formed. The election of 1989 marked the end of Congress dominance and beginning of coalition governments because after this one or two parties never got most of the votes or seats. No single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha elections. This initiated an era of coalition government at the Centre in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances.

27. Discuss the main controversies around planned development in the early years of India’s Independence.

Ans: The main controversies around planning development in early years of India’s independence which are explained below:

  •  At the time of independence many years were planned from 1951 to 2017 which was from first year plan to twelfth year plan but controversies aroses in five year plan.
  • This was monitored by the planning commission. The commission nominated the deputy chairman Montek singh ahluwalia who holds the rank of a cabinet minister is the last deputy chairman of the commission.
  • Here the controversies regarding the objective which results in providing basic needs to improve people’s living standard.
  • Even after the controversies the actual growth rate was 4.8% which was 0.4% more than the target growth rate.


What do you mean by planned development? Discuss the role of Planning Commission in the development of India.

Ans: A Planned Development (PD), sometimes referred to as a Planned Unit Development (PUD) is a regulatory process which promotes holistic real estate development by segmenting potential development by land use or dwelling types, by clustering uses i.e. residential v. public use and strengthening the collaboration required between developers and municipalities. The goal of this type of regulation is to promote unified planning, sound economics and to protect the interests of all community members.

The Planning Commission was assigned the responsibility of assessing all the resources of the country, enhancing scarce resources, drafting plans for the most productive and balanced usage of resources and ascertaining priorities. Pandit Nehru was the first Chairman of the Planning Commission.

The first Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 and subsequent Five-year plans were formulated till 1965 when a gap occurred due to the war with Pakistan. 2 consecutive years of drought, rupee devaluation, a general hike in prices and depletion of resources derailed the planning process and after Annual Plans from 1966 to 1969, the 4th Five-year plan was started in 1969.

The 8th Plan could not be launched in 1990 due to political situations altering and instabilities at the Centre and the years 1990-91 and 1991-92 received Annual Plans. The 8th Plan was finally kicked off in 1992 after the economic liberalization policies were started by the government. For the first 8 Plans, the focus was on an expanding public sector with massive investments in the heavy and basic industrial sector, but after the launch of the 9th Plan in 1997, the emphasis has shifted from heavy industries and moved on to the thinking that planning should largely be indicative in nature.

28. Discuss the consequences of National Emergency declared on 25th June, 1975.

Ans: The order bestowed upon the Prime Minister the authority to rule by decree, allowing elections to be cancelled and civil liberties to be suspended. For much of the Emergency, most of Gandhi’s political opponents were imprisoned and the press was censored. 

The Consequences were:

(i) According to Shah Commission nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under Preventive detention laws.

(ii) Torture and custodial deaths occurred, arbitrary relocation of poor people and compulsory sterilization.

(iii) Formation of Janata Party and the defeat of congress in most of the states.

(iv) Democratic functioning were suspended and draconian measures were adopted.


Discuss elaborately about the Secessionist Movements of North-East India.

Ans: Causes: Some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India. A famine in 1959 in Mizo hills increased their anger and dissatisfaction which led to formation of Mizo National Front under the leadership of Laldenga.

Activities: They started an armed campaign and fought guerilla war for independence. They got support from Pakistan and secured shelter in then East Pakistan. The Indian security forces countered it with series of repressive measures. The insurgency continued for about two decades.

Outcome: (i) In 1986 a peace agreement was signed between Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga. Mizoram was granted full- fledged statehood with special powers.

(ii) Laldenga took over as the Chief Minister.

(iii) Mizoram is one of the most peaceful states and has taken big strides in literacy and development.

(iv) Under his leadership, his Naga followers declared their independence in 1951

(v) Negotiations failed and there was no way for a settlement.

(vi) Later on, Naga National Council picked up arms for the cause of Naga sovereignty and thus began a violent insurgency.

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