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POLITICAL SCIENCE OLD QUESTION PAPER SOLVED
1. (a) Write the full form of NATO.
Ans: The full form of NATO is North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
(b) _________ initiated the reforms in Soviet Union in 1985. (Fill in the Blank)
Ans: Mikhail Gorbachev.
(c) In Wich year Iraq invaded Kuwait?
Ans: In 1991, Iraq invaded Kuwait.
(d) Which event does ‘9/11’ refer to in the context of Contemporary World Politics?
Ans: On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from a number of Arab countries took control over four american commercial aircraft shortly after tack off and flew them into important building in the US.
(e) What do you mean by ‘Operation Desert Storm’?
Ans: Operation Desert Storm was the first major foreign crisis for the United States after the end of the Cold War.
(f) Where was the First SAARC Summit held?
Ans: Joint Press Release Issued at the Conclusion of the First SAARC Summit in Dhaka on 7-8 December 1985 The President of Bangladesh, the King of Bhutan, the Prime Minister of India, the President of Maldives, Page 3 the King of Nepal, the President of Pakistan and the President of Sri Lanka met in Dhaka on 7 and 8.
2. Write two principles of New International Economic Order.
Ans: The fundamental founding principles of the NIEO were: All nations are sovereign and equal. The people in these nations have a right to self- determination, and no country can interfere in the internal affairs of another nation. There should be peaceful cooperation between all member countries.
3. Why did big powers need to have alliance with smaller countries? Write two reasons.
Ans: Superpowers had military alliances with smaller states who were helpful for them in gaining access to:
1. Vital resources as oil and minerals.
2. Territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops.
4. Write two causes of disintegration of Soviet Union.
Ans: Economic weakness, and the growth of nationalism were the causes for the disintegration of the Soviet Union or the disintegration of the USSR.
5. Write two constraints on American hegemony.
Ans: Two constraints on American Hegemony:
(i) Institutional architecture of the American State itself.
(ii) A system of division of powers between the three branches of the government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained exercise of America’s military power by executive branch.
6. In which year the World Bank was created? Mention any one activity of the World Bank.
Ans: In 1944, it works for human development, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, infrastructure and governance.
7. What is the difference between traditional and non-traditional security?
Ans: While traditional security involves the prevention and defense from attacks by organized, state- controlled armed forces, non-traditional security encompasses a wide range of threats to national and human security as well as the responses to them.
8. Discuss briefly the causes of conflict between India and Pakistan.
Ans: The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict over the Kashmir region, primarily between India and Pakistan and also between China and India in northeastern portion of the region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entirety of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a dispute over the region that escalated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. India controls approximately 55% of the land area of the region that includes Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, most of Ladakh, the Siachen Glacier,and 70% of its population; Pakistan controls approximately 30% of the land area that includes Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan; and China controls the remaining 15% of the land area that includes the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Trans-Karakoram Tract, and part of the Demchok sector.
9. Discuss briefly about the need of reforms in the United Nations.
Ans: The reform of the United Nations Development System (UNDS) involves a set of far reaching changes in the way the UN development system works to help countries around the world in achieving the Sustainable Development. The reforms is mandated by the General Assembly of the United Nation in Resolution A/RES/72/279 of 31, May 2018, which responded to the vision and proposals of Secretary General Antonio Guterres to reposition the United Nations development system to deliver on the 2030 Agenda.
10. What is the relationship between human security and health? Discuss briefly.
Ans: Security is usually defined as the condition of being protected from, or not exposed to, some danger or threat. Human security includes freedom from want and freedom from fear. This means the absence of hunger
and illness as well as of violence and war. Human security places the individual rather than the state at the centre of security considerations. The United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, marking the point where the concept gained international acceptance.
The UNDP report states that human security consists of two basic pillars: the freedom from want and the freedom from fear. This means the absence of hunger and illness as well as of violence and war. Considered further, possible threats to human security were categorised into seven main categories: economic, food, health, environmental, per- sonal, community, and political security.
11. What is the relationship between the rights of indigenous people and environment? Discuss briefly.
Ans: Respecting and protecting their traditional knowledge and practices in relation to the conservation and sustainable use of their lands, territories and resources; Ensuring that they fairly and equitably share the benefits from activities relating to their lands, territories or resources’.
Explanation: The indigenous right to environmental self-determination includes indigenous peoples’ “right to survive as a distinct people and the right to restrain national governments from undertaking policies that would jeopardize their continued physical or cultural survival.”
12. Write two arguments in favour of and two arguments against Globalization.
Ans: Arguments Against Globalization: The critics criticize globalisation as the corporate agenda—the agenda of the big business and the ideology the developed countries to dominate and control the international economic system in a bigger, deeper and more subtle and intensive manner.
1. Gains of Globalisation for Rich at the Cost of Poor: Under the process of Globalisation, big business has done well despite the slackened productivity growth. Globalisation has helped the corporate elites to keep wages down, to skim off a large fraction of the reduced productivity gains, thereby permitting elite incomes and stock market values to rise rapidly.
As against it for the majority of countries, globalisation has not been productive of good and beneficial results. Income inequality has been rising markedly both within and between countries. The gap in incomes between the 20 per cent of the world’s population in the richest and the poorest countries grew from 30 to in 1960 to 82 to in 1995, and the Third World countries suffered deterioration in several aspects.
13. Discuss the consequences of disintegration of Soviet Union.
Ans: The disintegration of the Soviet Union and collapse of the Socialist system in East European countries had major consequences on World Politics:
(a) End of Cold War: The collapse of the Soviet Union brought an end to the Cold War politics. It ended the mutual suspension, fear, tensions and hostilities that existed between the two blocs, that is, the US and the USSR. The dispute that had triggered off a massive arms race and formation of military alliances between the two superpowers was no longer in existence.
(b) Capitalism emerged as a dominant ideology: The collapse of the Soviet Union also revealed the weaknesses of the communist system and represented the defeat of the socialist model of economy and governance, with liberal democratic capitalist system emerging as the dominant ideology. Following the collapse of the socialist model, many countries including India adopted more liberal economic policies endorsing liberalisation, privatisation, opening up the economy to foreign investors, etc.
(c) Change in power equation: The disintegration of the Soviet Union ended the bipolarity that had characterised world politics after the Second World War. It opened the options of a unipolar world, where one country would dominate the world affairs, or a multipolar world, where a number of powerful countries would influence world politics.
(d) Emergence of a unipolar world: The fall of the Soviet Union resulted in the shift of power towards the US, which emerged as a superpower dominating and influencing global politics. The world witnessed the rise of the US as a hegemon, with its largest military base, dominant capitalist economic system and profound cultural influence over other countries, including India. In this regard, we may cite the example of India’s rethink on its policies with the US after the disintegration.
(e) Emergence of new countries: The fall of the Soviet Union resulted in the rise of many new countries. The 15 Union Republics of the former Soviet Union became independent countries with their own distinct identity and political aspirations. While many of these countries chose to become members of the EU and NATO, others maintained close ties with Russia. Thus, we saw the rise of many new players in international politics.
The disintegration had its profound implications on countries like India which had to redefine its own foreign policy. Financial aid from the Soviet Union almost came to an end, bringing India into the brink of an economic crisis that compelled the country to open its economy to private players.
Discuss the latest trend in Indo-U.S. relationship.
Ans: Arvind Kumar narrates the course of the Indo-US dialogue held until now and points out that “the need of the hour is to enhance strategic and nuclear co-operation between the two countries for mutual benefit.”
1. The need to improve Indo-US relations was felt immediately after the nuclear tests conducted by India last summer. There have been eight rounds of talks between India and the US since then.
2. The crux of the debate is where do the Indo-US talks stand now? Is India a good negotiator? The general feeling in India after the tests was that it would be in a better position to negotiate on a number of important themes, and the that United States would consider India ’s concerns seriously. But, this particular feeling is diminishing day by day domestically.
3. The main goal of the Clinton administration is to prevent an escalation of nuclear and missile competition in the subcontinent, strengthen the global non-proliferation regime and promote a dialogue between India and Pakistan for improving their relations.
4. The United States expects India to initiate the following steps to reduce tensions on the subcontinent: It must sign and ratify the CTBT, declare a unilateral moratorium on the production of fissile materials, place 5. restraints on its nuclear and missile capabilities, tighten its export controls and bring them up to international standards and it talk to Pakistan on the major issues of disagreement between them, including Kashmir.
6. India responded by saying that the ongoing talks with the United States are based on the premise that India will define its own nuclear requirements. With regard to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), India is moving closer to signing it; it is hoped that India may sign before September 1999. This development can be attributed to the outcome of the Indo-US dialogue. Ironically, the US signed the CTBT in September 1996 but has not ratified it until now.
India rejected the demand made by the US to declare a moratorium on the production of fissile material. But, it is keen to participate in the negotiations on the Fissile Materials Cut off Treaty (FMCT). The FMCT aims to end the future production of nuclear materials for military purposes or other nuclear explosive devices. It is absurd to ask any country to declare a unilateral moratorium on the production of fissile material. Approximately, 36,000 nuclear warheads are held by the five nuclear-weapon states recognized by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. They imperil the world but no credible move has been made to eliminate nuclear weapons to which they are pledged.
14. Examine the political and diplomatic influence of European Union.
Ans: The EU also has political and diplomatic influence. France holds permanent seats in the UN Security Council. The EU includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence US policies such as the current position on Iran’s nuclear programme.The major areas influence of European union is Diplomacy , economic investment and negotiation. Explanation: The European Union (EU) acts as an important bloc for intervention in the economic sector in international organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) .Because – <br> Economic Influence: <br> (1) Three times larger share in world trade than the US. <br> (2) Its currency Euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar. <br> (3) The EU functions as an importent bloc in the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
The aims of the European Union within its borders are: promote peace, its values and the well-being of its citizens. offer freedom, security and justice without internal borders, while also taking appropriate measures at its external borders to regulate asylum and immigration and prevent and combat crime.The European Union is set up with the aim of ending the frequent and bloody wars between neighbors, which culminated in the Second World War. With communism and dictatorship on the rise, EU wanted to promote democracy, freedom, human dignity, Rule of law and Human rights.
Describe the aims and achievements of Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Ans: Association of South-East Asian Nations:
Eatablishment: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok by the five original Member Countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined on 8 January 1984, Vietnam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999.
The ASEAN region has a population of about 500 million, a total area of 4.5 million square kilometers, a combined gross domestic product of almost US$ 700 billion, and a total trade of about US$ 850 billion.
Objectives: The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the Association are:
(1) to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region. and
(2) to promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
The ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted by the ASEAN Leaders on the 30th Anniversary of ASEAN, agreed on a shared vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies.
In 2003, the ASEAN Leaders resolved that an ASEAN Community shall be established comprising three pillars, namely, ASEAN Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.
Fundamental Principles Asean: Member Countries have adopted the following fundamental principles in their relations with one another, as contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC):
- Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations.
- The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion.
- Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another.
- Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner.
- Renunciation of the threat or use of force. and
- Effective cooperation among themselves.
Asean Security Community: Through political dialogue and confidence building, no tension has escalated into armed confrontation among ASEAN Member Countries since its establishment more than three decades ago.
To build on what has been constructed over the years in the field of political and security cooperation, the ASEAN Leaders have agreed to establish the ASEAN Security Community (ASC). The ASC shall aim to ensure that countries in the region live at peace with one another and with the world in a just, democratic and harmonious environment.
PART-B (Politics in India since Independence)
15. (a) India has a multi-party system. (Write true or false)
(b) Who was the Chairman of the drafting committee of The Constituent Assembly?
Ans: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee of The Constituent Assembly.
(c) Simla Agreement was signed between India and _______. (Fill in the blank)
(d) Where the first Non-Aligned Summit was held?
Ans: The first summit of the Non-Aligned Movement was held in Belgrade.
(e) Article _______ of the Indian Constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir. (Fill in the blank)
(f) Write the full form of ‘NEDA’.
Ans: NEDA Full Form is The North-East Democratic Alliance.
16. Mention any two Ideologies of Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
Ans: Akhil Bharatiya Jana Sangh:
Ideology: Hindu nationalism Hindutva Integral humanism National conservatism Economic nationalism.
Political position: Right-wing.
17. When was the Election Commission in India formed? Who was the first Election Commissioner of India?
Ans: In india, the election commission was formed in January 1950.
Mr. Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner.
18. Write two consequences of Emergency of 1975.
Ans: 1. The order bestowed upon the Prime Minister the authority to rule by decree, allowing elections to be cancelled and civil liberties to be suspended.
2. For much of the Emergency, most of Gandhi’s political opponents were imprisoned and the press was censored.
19. Write any two factors responsible for the emergence of regional political parties in India.
Ans: There are any two factors responsible for the emergence of regional political parties in India:
1. The regional parties know the demand of people residing their area.
2. The regional parties fulfil it for getting votes.
20. Write two recommendations of the Mandal Commission.
Ans: Recommendations of the Mandal Commission:
(i) Land reforms to improve the conditions of the OBCs.
(ii) The Age relaxations given to the OBCs should be similar to the ones give to SCs and STs.
21. Mention two main features of New Economic Policy in India.
Ans: The three principal features of the New Economic Policy are:
1. Liberalisation. and
22. Explain briefly the consequences of Partition of India.
Ans: The partition of India in 1947 had many consequences, some of them are:
- The event led to immense bloodshed in both India and Pakistan due to widespread violence on both the sides.
- Many people lost their livelihoods, houses and even families.
- Communal riots took place due to which masses were murdered on both the sides.
- Majority of the princely states decided to integrate into Indian union.
23. Discuss briefly about India’s Nuclear Policy.
Ans: India’s Nuclear Policy: 1. India advocates no first use and reiterates India’s commitment to global verifiable on non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament loading to a nuclear weapon free world.
2. Pt. Nehru always promoted ’ science and technology to build a modern India, i.e. initiated nuclear programme in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhoba.
3. India was against nuclear weapons, hence pleaded many nuclear disarmament with superpowers.
4. India always considered NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign on it.
5. Even India’s first Nuclear Test in May 1974 was termed as a peaceful explosion and India argued to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes only.
24. Discuss briefly about the controversy relating to Presidential Election of 1969
Ans: The Congress Parliamentary Board met on July 11, 1969, to discuss the presidential candidate. The Syndicate had already decided on nominating Sanjiva Reddy, whose affinity to them was well known. Mrs Gandhi was naturally loath to do so. At the meeting, she suggested nominating the veteran dalit leader, Jagjivan Ram. When this was shot down, she asked that they postpone a decision to allow more time for arriving at a consensus. Nijalingappa, however, forced a vote in the six-member Parliamentary Board. Mrs Gandhi was outvoted four to two.
Even as a brooding Indira Gandhi left for Bangalore, a fresh opening presented itself. The Vice-President V V Giri announced that he would contest the presidential elections as an independent candidate. Mrs Gandhi knew that before she could support Giri against her own party’s nominee, she would have to regain the initiative within the party. This she did first by forcing Morarji Desai out of the Cabinet and then by nationalizing banks. She also went ahead and filed the nomination for Sanjiva Reddy, though she refrained from issuing a whip to Congress MPs.
The Syndicate realized that Mrs Gandhi might yet come out in support of Giri. Nijalingappa took a fatal misstep by approaching the main opposition parties, Swatantra and Jana Sangh, to cast their second preference vote for Reddy (the opposition’s candidate was C D Deshmukh). Mrs Gandhi seized the opportunity to denounce Nijalingappa’s move. Yet, she did not formally reveal her preference until the night before the elections, when she called on her party to ‘vote according to conscience’.
25. Discuss briefly about Chipko Movement.
Ans: The Chipko movement was a non-violent agitation in 1973 that was aimed at protection and conservation of trees, but, perhaps, it is best remembered for the collective mobilisation of women for the cause of preserving forests, which also brought about a change in attitude regarding their own status in society. The uprising against the felling of trees and maintaining the ecological balance originated in Uttar Pradesh’s Chamoli district (now Uttarakhand) in 1973 and in no time spilled onto other states in north India. The name of the movement ‘chipko’ comes from the word ’embrace’, as the villagers hugged the trees and encirled them to prevent being hacked.
26. Discuss briefly the main features of Coalition Govt. in India.
Ans: The features of a Coalition Government are highlighted below:
- Coalition is formed for the sake of reward, material or psychic.
- A coalition implies the existence of a least two partners.
- The underlying principle of a coalition system stands on the simple fact of temporary conjunction of specific interest.
- Coalition politics is not a static but a dynamic affair as coalition players and groups can dissolve and form new ones.
- The keynote of coalition politics is compromise and rigid dogma has no place in it.
- A coalition works on the basis of a minimum programme, which may not be ideal for each partner of the coalition.
- Pragmatism and not ideology is the hall-mark of coalition politics. In making political adjustments, principles may have to be set aside.
- The purpose of a coalition adjustment is to seize power.
In India, coalitions have come up before or after elections. The pre-poll coalition is considered advantageous as it provides a common platform for all parties to woo the electorate on the basis of a joint manifesto. A post-election union is intended to enable constituents to share political power and run the government.
27. Discuss the economic and political results of Green Revolution.
Ans: The green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as-
(1) increased area under farming.
(2) double-cropping, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually.
(3) adoption of HYV of seeds.
(4) highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides.
(5) improved irrigation facilities. and
(6) improved farm implements and crop protection measures (Singh, 2000; Brainerd and Menon, 2014) and modifications in farm equipment.
There was a high investment in crop research, infrastructure, market development, and appropriate policy support (Pingali, 2012). Efforts were made to improve the genetic component of traditional crops. This included selection for higher yield potential; wide adaptation to diverse environments; short growth duration; superior grain quality; resistance to biotic stress, insects, and pests; and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought and flooding (Khush, 2001). After the green revolution, the production of cereal crops tripled with only a 30% increase in the land area cultivated.
This came true all over the world, with a few exceptions. In addition, there were significant impacts on poverty reduction and lower food prices. Studies also showed that without the green revolution, caloric availability would have declined by around 11–13%. These efforts benefitted all consumers in the world, particularly the poor.
State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between Industrialisation and Agriculture Development at the time of Second Five Year Plan.
Ans: The model of economic development adopted by our political leadership raised some key issues and points, particularly with regard to industry versus agriculture and that which sector should attract more resources. The Second Five-year Plan, whose main thrust was industrialisation, raised some key points of contention”
(a) Many economists felt that the Second Five-Year Plan lacked agrarian strategy as it laid emphasis on industries and that would affect the countryside, rural development and progress.
(b) Gandhian economists like J. C. Kumarappa called for an alternative plan that would focus on rural industrialisation.
(c) Charan Singh left the Congress and formed the Bharatiya Lok Dal. He wanted agriculture to be kept in control in the country’s planning. He argued in the interest of farmers and rural population whose interests were overlooked in the Second Five-Year Plan.
However, the planners justified their strategy of development and instead argued:
(a) Until the country focuses on industrialisation, the economy will never be able to come out of the clutches of poverty and unemployment.
(b) They argue that the agrarian sector has been duly looked into. A series of land reforms, distribution of resources, community development projects and investment in irrigation projects has been made. These programmes rather require political will and appropriate implementation.
(c) They argued that India is endowed with rich natural human resources that need to be tapped by bringing about the industrial development.
(d) Industrialisation will reduce pressure on land, create employment opportunities for people and shift surplus population to industries.
(e) Rapid industrialisation is essential for agricultural development and advancement.
(f) Industrialisation will ensure modernisation, encourage material growth, prosperity, and further innovation and contribute in country’s GDP.
28. Analyse the lessons India got from emergency.
Ans: The emergency brought out weaknesses and strengths both to India’s democracy:
1. The first lesson was felt that it was extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
2. Secondly it amended that internal emergency could be proclaimed only on the grounds of armed rebellion on the advice of the president to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the council of ministers.
3. Thirdly emergency made everyone more aware of civil liberties as well as courts also took an active role in protecting the civil liberties of individuals.
(4) Extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India. Defeat of Indira Gandhi in 1977 election supports the above fact.
(5) Many ambiguities regarding the emergency provision in constitution that have been rectified. It could not have been misused if there had not been ambiguities.
(6) Emergency made every citizen aware of their rights and civil liberties in a democracy.
Describe about the Politics of the North-East and the demands of autonomy in the region.
Ans: The history of Northeast India is the history of ethnic self-determination whose seeds have been rooted by the crown and the company. The demands for separate geographical space for the native Ethnic community are the outcome of British administrative arrangement which created a exclusive-geographical boundary among the ethnically different communities of northeast India. It was the background on which the entire northeastern states were seen bifurcated in different homelands in post independent period.
The demands have created a vicious cycle among almost all the communities who started demanding for a unique geo-political arrangement which is often an outcome of the reference point they made in terms of other. The state however has recognized the inherent differences among the communities to an extent which resultsinto the creation of northeast that one noticed today. It was again a fact that ethnic contestation often led to a mass violence involving two distinctly different communities which completely jeopardize the process of coexistence among the communities. Therefore, the present paper tries to highlight the demands for autonomy among the hill tribes and plain tribes and their trajectory in different forms and ends.