Class 11 Geography Chapter 15 Life on the Earth

Class 11 Geography Chapter 15 Life on the Earth The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Geography Chapter 15 Life on the Earth and select need one.

Class 11 Geography Chapter 15 Life on the Earth

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 11 Geography Chapter 15 Life on the Earth Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Life on the Earth

Chapter: 15




Q.1. Which one of the following is included in the biosphere? 

(i) Only plants

(ii) All living and nonliving organisms

(iii) Only animals

(iv) All living organisms

Ans: (iv) All living organisms.

Q.2. Tropical grasslands are also known as- 

(i) The prairies

(ii) The savannas

(iii) The steppes

(iv) None of the above 

Ans: (ii) The savannas.

3. Oxygen combines with iron found in the rocks to form- 

(i) iron carbonate 

(ii) iron nitrites

(iii) iron oxide

(iv) iron sulphate 

Ans:(iii) iron oxide.

Q.4. During photosynthesis carbon dioxide combines with water in the presence of sunlight to form- 

(i) Proteins

(ii) Amino acids 

(iii) Carbohydrates

(iv) Vitamins

Ans: (iii) Carbohydrates.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words

Q.1. What do you understand by the term ‘ecology’? 

Ans: The term ecology is derived from the Greek word ‘oikos’ meaning house, combined with the word ‘logy’ meaning the science of or the study of. In other words, ecology is the study of the earth as a household of plants, human beings, animals and microorganisms. They all live together as interdependent components.

Q.2. What is an ecological system? Identify the major types of ecosystems in the world.

Ans: The interactions of a particular group of organisms with biotic factors within a particular habitat resulting in clearly defined energy flows and materials cycles on land, water and air are called ecological systems.

The major types of ecological systems in the world are: 

(a) Terrestrial ecosystem

(b) Aquatic ecosystem

Q.3. What is a food chain? Give one example of a grazing food chain identifying the various levels.

Ans: Organisms of ecosystems are linked together through a food chain. The sequence of eating and being eaten and the resultant transfer of energy from one level to another is known as the food chain.

Example: The plants and grass are eaten by a deer and the deer is being eaten by lions. In other words in a grazing food chain the first level starts with plants as producers and ends with carnivores(lions etc). as consumers at the last level, with the herbivores (deer etc.) being at the intermediate level.

Q.4. What do you understand by the term food web? Give examples.

Ans: In some food chains, food chains get interlocked with one another the interlocking network of species is known as the food web.

Example: A mouse feeding on grain may be eaten by different secondary consumers (carnivores) and these carnivores may be eaten by other different tertiary consumers (top carnivores). In such situations, each of the carnivores may consume more than one type of prey, which is an example of a food chain.

Q.5. What is a biome? 

Ans: A biome is a plant and animal community that covers a large geographical area. In other words, a biome can be defined as the total assemblage of plant and animal species interacting within specific conditions.

Answer the following questions in about 150 words

Q.1. What are biogeochemical cycles? Explain how nitrogen is fixed in the atmosphere.

Ans: The cyclic movements of chemical elements of the biosphere between the organisms and the environment are referred to be a biogeochemical cycles. Where, bio-means living organisms and geo refers the rocks, soil, air and water of the earth.

Nitrogen is a major constituent of the atmosphere, which comprises about seventy nine per cent of the atmospheric gases. It is also an essential constituent of different organic compounds such as the amino acids, nucleic acids, proteins, vitamins and pigments. Generally nitrogen is usable only after it is fixed. Ninety percent of fixed nitrogen is biological. 

The principal source of free nitrogen is the action of soil microorganisms and associated plant roots on atmospheric nitrogen found in pore spaces of the soil. Nitrogen can also be fixed in the atmosphere by lightning and cosmic radiation.

Chapter 1Geography As A Discipline
Chapter 2The Origin and Evolution of the Earth
Chapter 3Interior of the Earth
Chapter 4Distribution of Oceans And Continents
Chapter 5Minerals and Rocks
Chapter 6Geomorphic Processes
Chapter 7Landforms and Their Evolution
Chapter 8Composition and Structure of Atmosphere
Chapter 9Solar Radiation, Heat balance, and Temperature
Chapter 10Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
Chapter 11Water in the Atmosphere
Chapter 12World Climate and Climate Change
Chapter 13Water (Oceans)
Chapter 14Movements of Ocean Water
Chapter 15Life on the Earth
Chapter 16Biodiversity And Conservation
Chapter 17Indian Location
Chapter 18Structure and Physiography
Chapter 19Drainage System
Chapter 20Climate
Chapter 21Natural Vegetation
Chapter 22Soils
Chapter 23Natural Hazards and Disasters

Q.2. What is an ecological balance? Discuss the important measures needed to prevent ecological imbalances.

Ans: Ecological balance is a state of dynamic equilibrium within a community of organisms in a habitat or ecosystem. It can happen when the diversity of living organisms remains relatively stable. Gradual changes do take place but that happens only through natural succession. It can also be explained as a stable balance in the numbers of each species in an ecosystem.

Ecological balance may be distributed due to the introduction of new species, natural hazards or human causes. Human interference has affected the balance or created imbalance of plant communities leading to disturbances in the ecosystems.Important measures to prevent ecological imbalances: 

The following measures can be taken to prevent the ecological imbalances: 

1. Human interference on nature should be rational.

2. Deforestation should be stopped or in other words afforestation should be made.

3. Important efforts should be made to preserve all types of species, especially those that are endangered.

4. Human Population should be controlled.

5. More emphasis should be given on renewable resources.

6. We must be educated  properly. 

7. Proper planning and management should be implemented to preserve the ecological balance.

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