NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 26 Indian Society: Tribal, Rural And Urban

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 26 Indian Society: Tribal, Rural And Urban, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 26 Indian Society: Tribal, Rural And Urban and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 26 Indian Society: Tribal, Rural And Urban Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Sociology Notes Paper 331.

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 26 Indian Society: Tribal, Rural And Urban

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 26 Indian Society: Tribal, Rural And Urban, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Indian Society: Tribal, Rural And Urban

Chapter: 26



Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the brackets:

(i) Tribal communities live mostly in …………… areas (hilly, urban, industrial).

Ans. Hilly.

(ii) Economy of the tribals is found at ………….. level (advanced, backward, developing, primitive).

Ans. Backward.

(iii) Tribals have ……………. religion (their own, Hindu, Christian).

Ans. Their own.

(iv) Tribal society have ……………from of inequality (intensive, little, moderate). 

Ans. Little.


Write short answers:

(i) Name five major tribes of India. 

Ans. (a) Gond.

(b) Bhil.

(c) Santhal.

(d) Mina.

(e) Oraon.

(ii) Name one major tribe who speaks the dravidian language.

Ans. Kond.

(iii) Where are the Onges found?

Ans. Andaman Island.

(iv) Name three tribes of Western region. 

Ans. Mina, Rebari, Dang.


Write short answers:

(i) What is the chief cause of land alienation among tribes? 

Ans. Monentary economy is the chief cause of land alienation among tribes.

(ii) What is shifting cultivation?

Ans. Cultivating without plough in a terrace by clearing the plot is called shifting cultivation. 

(iii) Why the tribals have been interest in formal education? 

Ans. The tribals have less interest in formal education because the syllabi and time is not according to their culture and need. 

(iv) What is the cause of bonded labour among the tribals?

Ans. Lack of money is the cause of bonded labour among the tribals.


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the brackets:

(i) Rural areas are dominated by …………….. occupation (agricultural, industrial, professional). 

Ans. Agricultural.

(ii) Villages have …………… density of population (higher, lower, moderate). 

Ans. Lower.

(iii) Village economy is ………….. (developed, less developed, primitive). 

Ans. less developed.

(iv) Indian villages have …………..  system (caste, class, estate).

Ans. Caste.


Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the brackets:

(i) Urban societies have mostly ……………. occupation (agricultural, priestly, non-agricultural). 

Ans. Non -agricultural.

(ii) ……………. is the important feature of the urban societies (personal contact, anonymity, kinship).

Ans. Anonymity.

(iii) Urban societies have …………….. economy (monetary, agricultural, barter).

Ans. Monetary.

(iv) In urban areas people have cultural …………… (homogeneity, heterogeneity, pluralism).

Ans. Heterogeneity.


Write short answers:

(i) What is the minimum population of a metro?

Ans. 10,00,000 (Ten Lacs). 

(ii) Why some people in urban areas have mental problems?

Ans. Due to breaking down of primary group behaviour.

(iii) What is push factor of migration? 

Ans. Poverty in villages pushes one to town in search of employment.

(iv) What is the cause of unemployment in urban areas? 

Ans. Heavy population.


Q.1. Why tribal societies are called simple societies? (V. Imp.)

Ans. Tribal societies are known as simple societies because their social relationships are primarily based on family and kinship ties. Besides they do not have any rigid social stratification.

Q.2. Describe the major tribal problems in India. (M. Imp.)

Ans. The Major Tribal Problems in India: There are several tribal problems, which are as follows:

(i) Land alienation caused due to the introduction of monetary economy. For every consumption need, the tribals needed money, but did not have any source of earning. They mortgaged land or sold it off land. Besides, outsiders exploited them and grabbed away their land. Further industrialisation also resulted into acquisition of land by the state.

(ii) Indebtedness cropped in case to lack of adequate sources of income. Private money-leaders (like mahajan or sahukar) are readily available in tribal areas. They provided personal loan on heavy rate of interest. The consumption patterns of the tribals include regular consumption of liquor, bride price during marriage and fine for any deviant behaviour. All these require money. Hence they go to the moneylender. In this manner they are heavily in debt.

(iii) Bonded labour is a serious problem, which came in due to rampant poverty and lack of stable income. In fact, land alienation, indebtedness; bonded labour and poverty are interrelated problems.

(iv) Lack of money leads of taking loan from moneylender by mortgaging land. The tribal community is unable to repay, hence serves as a bonded labourer.

(v) Shifting cultivation among tribal is a problem since it involves large-scale deforestation. Shifting cultivation is known by various names such as Swidden (slash and burn) cultivation, Jhum (in the North East Tribes), Khallu (among Maler of Bihar), and Podu (among Khonds and Parajas of Orissa).

(vi) Illiteracy among tribals is a major hindrance towards their development. On account of inaccessible habitat among tribals, education has not spread fast among them. The school timings usually clash with the timings of economic and agricultural operations.

(vii) Problem of health and nutrition among the tribals has been found mainly due to lack of proper medical and sanitary facilities and poverty. Their practice of indigenous medicine and magical practices for treatments have been very good in the past. But today things have changed considerably. Disease range between diarrhea, jaundice, small pox, malaria, filaria to AIDS, heart ailments and hypertension etc. They require proper treatment in well-equipped hospitals.

Q.3. What are the main criteria of urban area in India?

Ans. The main criteria of urban area in India: 

(i) Urban society includes the towns, cities and metros with a specificity of life.

(ii) An urban society can be defined as an area having higher density of population, people engaging mostly in occupations other than agriculture and domestication of animals having a distinct ecology and culture different from that of the large society’s culture.

In India the urban area has the following characteristics: 

(a) An area having some urban administrative unit like a Municipality, Metropolitan Council, Notified Area Council or Cantonment Board, etc.

(b) An area having more than 10000 population. 

(c) 75% of population engaging in non-agricultural occupation.

(d) Should have a density of 1000 persons per sq. mile. 

(e) Having some urban amenities like an industrial area, a large housing settlement having centre of entertainment and tourist importance or having some civic amenities. 

Q.4. Describe briefly the changes that have taken place in rural society after independence.

Ans. The changes which have taken place in India’s rural society after independence (i.e. August 1947):

(i) After independence, the community development programme was started in 1952, It meant an all round development of village communities. The involvement and participation of community was the main aim. 

(ii) Later on in 1959 Panchayati Raj (Local Self Govt.) was started. Both the programmes are running successfully even today. 

(iii) Integrated Rural Development Programme has replaced the Community Development Programme in 1979.

(iv) The rural and urban societies have a continuous interaction among them. The villager visits the urban areas and comes into contact with the urban people. Some urban culture enters into the villages. Gradually some sense of heterogeneity becomes imminent in the rural areas by urban influence.

(v) It is said that Indian cities have retained some of the rural characteristics. Primary food and raw material are supplied by the villages to the towns, hence both have relationship of an interdependence.

(vi) Thus it is termed as rural urban continuum (continuous interaction). Construction of roads and transportation have brought about lot of social and economic changes e.g. Caste System is weakening. Now, there is more mobility and it is becoming cash market from barter system etc.

Q.5. Describe briefly urban society problems in India. 

Ans. Urban Social Problems in India: 

(i) Urban society has several social problems such as congestion of population, slums, crime, and acute shortage of resources and facilities (such as water, electricity).

(ii) Certain problems emerge from anonymity in cities, where personal relation and primary group have broken down. It causes tremendous mental pressure and tension. That is way; psychological ailments are numerous in cities. 

(iii) Because of large migration to cities unemployment is found in large number in the urban areas. This happens due to push and pull factors. This cause a lot of frustration among the people.

(iv) Push factor means that lack of employment in the villages pushes the villagers to the towns in search of jobs. Pull factor means the relatives in the town invite their close people and try to give them jobs. Besides, the entertainment aspect of urban life attracts or pulls the people of the towns.

(v) The migrants in the cities do not have a respectable place to stay. They generally settle down as clusters on the outskirts of the cities. These clusters grow into slums. Their conditions deteriorate from bad to worse with the passage of time. 

(vi) There is high incidence of crime in the cities. It is mainly found because of unemployment, and frustration among the youth and also due to the large density of population.



Q.1. In how many categories broadly the Indian society has been divided? Write their means.

Ans. Broadly the Indian society has been divided into three categories.

Their names are:

(i) Tribal Society. 

(ii) Rural Society. and

(iii) Urban Society.

Q.2. Write the names of three bases of the division of the broadly divisions of the Indian Society. 

Ans. (i) On the basis of geographical surroundings.

(ii) On the basis of social characteristics. and

(ii) On the basis of cultural characteristics. 

Q.3. Mention the broad features of rural societies of India.

Ans. (i) In India rural societies are village societies.

(ii) Rural societies are mainly based caste, attachment to the past. and

(iii) Rural societies are having agricultural economy.

Q.4. How many tribes are found in India? What is their population percentage? 

Ans. There are about 461 tribes found in India distributed throughout the country. Their population is about 8.1 crores according to the census 2001 of India (constituting to 8.1% of total population).

Q.5. Explain the meaning of the Rural Society. 

Ans. Rural society means society that lives in village, and is dependent on natural environment. Rural economy rests predominantly on agriculture and allied activities. These societies have a low density of population, intimate group relationships and have oral traditions. Rural societies are rich in culture and tradition. However, from the contemporary point of view, they are considered to be socio-economically less developed. Therefore, several development activities have been undertaken in our country to improve their socio-economic conditions.

Q.6. Make clear the meaning of the concept “Urban Society”. (Imp.)

Ans. Meaning of the concept: Urban society includes the towns, cities and metros with a specific of life. An urban society can be defined as an area having higher density of population, people engaging mostly in occupations other than agriculture and domestication of animals, having a distinct ecology and culture different from that of the large society’s culture.


Q.1. Define a tribe. How it has been explained by the Anthropologists?

Ans. A tribe can be defined as a community living in hilly forest or well demarcated areas having its own culture, religion, language, and strong ethnic identity. Anthropologists have explained tribe as a social group with territorial affiliation, endogamous in nature, with no specialization of functions, ruled by tribal chiefs, hereditary or otherwise, united in language or dialect, recognizing social distance with other tribes or castes, following tribal traditions, beliefs and customs, conscious of their ethnic and territorial homogeneity.

Q.2. Discuss the distribution of the tribal population of India, through a table menting in a tabular form.

Ans. The tribal population of India’s distributions can be broadly divided into the following five regions.

RegionMajor Tribes
North East, Sikkim and HimalayasNaga, Mizo, Adi, Lepcha, Gaddi, Khasi, Garo, Jaintia, Raji, Bhotia, Tharu.
WesternSeheria, Bhil, Girisia, Rebari, Dang, Mina, Worli.
CentralMunda, Oraon, Santhal, Gond, Ho, Chenchu, Bhumij, Birhor, Kondh, Saora, Poroja.
SouthIrula, Toda, Badaga, Paliyan, Cholanaicken.
Island CommunitiesGreat Andamanese, Jarawa, Onge Sentinnclose, Shompen, Nicobarese.

Conclusion: Population-wise Gonds are found highest in number (about 8 lakhs), followed by Bhils (about 7.5 lakhs), Santhal (about 5 lakhs), Mina (about 2.2 lakhs) and Oraon (about 2 lakhs). The lowest number among them are the Jarawa (about 50), Onges (about 100), Andamanese (about 150), and Arandan (about 250).

Q.3. Discuss briefly Linguistic classification among Tribes in India.

Ans. Linguistic Classification Among Tribes in India: Most of the tribal communities speak non-Aryan language which are divided into four linguistic families: Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto- Chinese, Dravidian and Indo-European.

Linguistic FamilyMajor Tribal Languages
Austro-AsiaticKhasi, Nicobari, Santhali, Ho, Mundari
Tibeto-ChineseBhotia, Lepcha, Abor, Miri, Dafla, Garo, Naga, Lushai
DravidianKorwa, Badaga, Toda, Kota, Kui (by Kondh), Gondi, Maler, Oraon
Indo-EuropeanHajong, Bhili.

Q.4. Mention major names of types of cities of India along with their nomenclature along with the expected number or total of population.

Ans. Types of cities found in India:

1. Metro10,00,000+
2. Class I City1,00,000+
3. Class II Town50,000+
4. Class III Town20,000+
5. Class IV Town10,000+

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