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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Acculturation, Assimilation And Integration
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Acculturation, Assimilation And Integration
MODULE 1: SOCIOLOGY – BASIC CONCEPTS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.1
Fill in the blanks with appropriate terms:
(a) Acculturation is a process of ……………. .
Ans. Culture change.
(b) Acculturation is a ………………. .
(c) It results due to mutual ……………… .
(d) Culture contact is facilitated by …………….. and …………….. .
Ans. Transport and Communication.
(e) Acculturation means ……………… of cultural elements from one social group to another.
(f) Acculturation is …………….. and ………………. process.
Ans. Universal and Continous.
(g) Acculturation is a pre condition to ………….. and …………….. .
Ans. Assimilation and Integration.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.2
Q.1. Which of the following statement is not True:
(a) Assimilation is a temporary form of acculturation.
(b) Assimilation is a slow process.
(c) Assimilation is unconscious.
(d) Assimilation is a product of acculturation.
Ans. (a) assimilation is a temporary form of acculturation.
Q.2. Which of the following factors is a hindrance to assimilation?
(b) Economic equality with cultural homogeneity.
(c) Negative reciprocity with sharp cultural differences.
(d) None of these.
Ans. (c) negative reciprocity with sharp cultural differences.
Q.3. Assimilation is a process of ………………. (fusion, fission, cultural disjunction, integration)
Q.4. In assimilation:
(a) Cultures involved are always equal.
(b) Cultures involved are characterized by homogenous social organization.
(c) One culture is dominant and the other culture is either numerically small or marginal.
(d) All of these.
Ans. (c) one culture is dominant and the other culture is either numerically small or marginal.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.3
Mark the following as True or False:
(i) Group integration refers to social relationships between members of groups at different levels of integration. (True/False)
(ii) Acceptance and observation of various norms set by the group is not a factor. (True/False)
(iii) The size of a group affects its integration. (True/False)
(iv) The secondary group has greater potentiality as compared to primary group, to integrate. (True/False)
(v) Integration is referred to as the process of organisation. (True/False)
Write answer in 100-200 words:
Q.1. Explain the concept and meaning of:
(b) Integration. and
Ans. (a) Acculturation: Acculturation means transmission of cultural elements from one social group to another.
Acculturation is a process of culture change, which results due to contact between communities belonging to different culture.
In case of acculturation both the cultures get mutually affected as the culture traits of one culture move into the other culture and vice-versa culture contact operates in all societies and groups. It is possible only when people are desirous of accepting the new traits and continue to follow old traits.
Definition: A sociologist has defined the term “Acculturation” in the following words:
“Acculturation is the process by which a dominant group imposes its culture so effectively on subordinate groups that they becomes virtually indistinguishable from the dominant culture. It is called a acculturation.
Culture is not inborn. After birth an individual learns cultural values, practices traditions and norms while growing up in the given physical and social environment. On the other hand there is nothing called pure or pristine culture. Cultural insulation in an absolute sense is not possible. No culture can survive in isolation. A culture is a dynamic process characterized by continuity and change.
Culture contact is facilitated by modern means of transport and communication. Such contacts between members of two different cultures help in mutual borrowing of different cultural traits. For example, the areas affected are art and artifacts dress and food habits, language and literature, practices and rituals in the economic, social and religions life at. Such borrowing is visible more in materials culture and values, which are more or less common. Mostly in the process acculturation, borrowing of such cultural traits reflects influence of dominant culture on those which are either numerically smaller or are new comers or immigrant. Acculturation means transmission of cultural elements from one social group another. Sometimes it could also be the other way round.
(b) Integration: Integration is a process of integration into a single unit, out of separate parts.
Integration, therefore, brings members to remain together and forces the members to remain in one group. Thus integration bring and stability in a group. It acts as a process of organisation. It is opposite to social isolation and a process of alienation and segregation. Group integration refers to group cohesion or group solidarity.
Integration is a group process and is mainly concerned with individuals living in groups or in the presence of other groups. It is, therefore, important to understand the needs and ways of forming groups. This knowledge will help us in understanding the degree and extent of cohesion in these groups.
In order to keep the members together and maintain the solidarity of the group integration is the binding force. The group stability depends up integration. It is this process, which compels the members to remain united in the grow. Integration is a process to join together the members of a group and keep them in a single unit.
Group integration refers to social relationship between members of groups at different levels of integration. Such social relationships vary in degree and intensity and these may be referred to as highly integrated, loosely integrated or moderately integrated.
(i) Assimilation again is the result of culture contact. It is a common belief that more the persons interact, the more they are apt to like each other. The more they interact, the more alike they tend to become.
(ii) There is a general belief that the more we know about others, the better we like them. Assimilation means that a person or group has acquired the values of another group to such an extent that it identity.
(iii) Assimilation is a process where close contact of persons of dissimilar cultures always results in fusion of cultural traits although borrowing may not be so pronounced in one direction as in the case of the other.
(iv) Assimilation is also conceived as a natural and unassisted process and practice. Assimilation is considered akin to the theory of “like mindedness”. This idea was partly an outcome of the popular notion that similarities and homogeneity are identical with unity. The idea of assimilation was conceived to be that of feeling thinking and acting a like.
(v) Another meaning of assimilation is that the immigrant has contributed in the past and may be expected to contribute something of his own temperament, culture and philosophy to the future. This conception has its origin among the immigrants and has been formulated and interpreted by persons who are in close contact with them.
(vi) This recognition of the diversity in the easements entering into cultural process is not, of course, inconsistent with expectation of an ultimate homogeneity of the product. It has called attention to that fact the process of assimilation is concerned with differences quite as much as with likeness.
Q.2. Compare between acculturation, integration and assimilation.
Ans. A comparison between acculturation, integration and assimilation:
A. Similarities: These three processes have some common points as well as certain variations. Some of the common points are mentioned:
(i) The basic principles of culture contact are acculturation, assimilation and integration.
(ii) These form part and parcel of social processes. In other words, social processes constitute these three processes of social change in different culture and social group.
(iii) Borrowing and acquiring various cultural traits are also common features in all the three.
(iv) Transmission of cultural traits and their acceptance and adoption in different degree and extent is also common characteristic of these three processes.
B. Differences: The differences among acculturation, integration and assimilation could be understood from the following description:
1. Assimilation refers to fusion of culture whereas, acculturation relates to transmission of cultural elements on a bigger scale over a wide areas.
Integration on the other brings member together and maintains cohesiveness and solidarity in the group. It brings unity and stability among various members of the group.
2. Acculturation is a continuous process as against integration, which is referred to as a process of organisation. As distinguished from these two, assimilation is the end product of social contacted interaction.
3. The process of assimilation takes a long period of time for fusion of different cultural values and ethos. As against this, an integration refers to cultural pluralism, voluntary and incomplete assimilation. This takes place in a short period of time. Acculturation at times is apparent, and causes quick social change.
4. Assimilation is also considered as a natural and unassisted process whereas acculturation and integration are social processes and assisted by culture contact and can be promoted directly.
Q.3. Differentiate between the characteristics of Acculturation, Integration and Assimilation.
Ans. I. Characteristics of Acculturation:
1. A conscious or unconscious process: Acculturation could be either a conscious or an unconscious process. People borrowing the culture traits of other groups might be aware of the fact that they are borrowing or they might do it without realizing that these are being borrowed by them.
2. Mutual exchange of cultural traits: Acculturation takes place when two or more communities belonging to different cultures come together and start adopting each others trait. So it is a two way process of culture change. Both the groups involved undergo some change.
3. It is a long process: Acculturation does not take place overnight. It takes a long time before the members borrow the culture traits from other communities. But the time taken for acculturation is definitely shorter than the time taken for assimilation. So in comparison to assimilation, acculturation consumes relatively less time.
4. Through direct and indirect contacts: Acculturation can take either through direct first hand contact through indirect contact from a distance such as through radio, television, newspaper, literature etc.
5. A pie-condition of integration or assimilation: Acculturation is a pre condition of assimilation or integration. Once the situation of culture contact is obtained, it can lead to either assimilation or integration.
II. Characteristics of Integration:
1. A complex process: Integration is at complex social process in comparison to acculturation and assimilation.
2. Requires Adjustment: It is complex because it requires a lot of structural adjustments on the part of the groups involved.
3. Changes and status in institution: The communities of groups undergo changes in terms of some of the institution where as they retain the traditional features and practices in case of other institutions.
4. Process of linking cultures: Integration refers to the process of uniting or linking cultural parts with the whole or mainstream culture.
III. Characteristics of Assimilation:
1. An unconscious process: Assimilation takes place without any deliberate and conscious efforts on the part of the groups involved in the process. Hence assimilation is an unconscious process.
2. A slow process: Usually assimilation takes long time to materialize. When two culture come in contact with one another it is only after a considerable amount of time that one gets merged with the other. Hence, assimilation is a slow process.
3. Role of dominant culture is more powerful: Assimilation occurs when the cultures involved in the process are unequal. Some sort of ranking exists between them. One is the dominant culture and the other one is the subordinate culture. Usually the dominant culture absorbs the smaller cultures into its own fold leading to assimilation.
4. Lasting effects: Assimilation is not a temporary phenomenon. It has lasting effects. The changes taking place in the culture due to assimilation continue for a long time.
Conclusion: The constituent cultures retain their cultural identity and at the same time they share some aspects of the common with which they are integrated.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Mention only the names of social processes, concern with the nature of social interaction between individuals or groups.
Ans. (i) Co-operation.
(v) Assimilation. and
Q.2. Write the names of culture traits which are common to all societies.
Ans. (i) Love and Hate.
(ii) Pride and prejudices.
(iii) Sex and Ceremonies.
Q.3. Where are the cultural differences reflected? Answer in one sentences.
Ans. The cultural differences are reflected in geography, human ingenuity, technology, education, conflict of interest, inherited and tradition backed notions.
Q.4. Is culture inborn? If not than what is its learning time?
Ans. Culture is not inborn. After birth of human being and individual learns cultural values, practices tradition and norms in his family, peer groups, society, environment and community.
Q.5. What is role or importance of social contract for transmission?
Ans. Social contact evern when slight or indirect is sufficient for transmission from one cultural group to another.
Q.6. What is the importance of material cultural traits in cultural integration?
Ans. Adoption of material culture traits can acquire greater magnitude without associated changes in the corresponding non-material dimensions such as ideology, norms and value system.
Q.7. Give some examples of assimilation.
Ans. The ceremonial adoption and initiation of aliens and strangers among primitive peoples are examples of assimilation.