NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Co-Operation, Competition And Conflict

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Co-Operation, Competition And Conflict, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Co-Operation, Competition And Conflict and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Co-Operation, Competition And Conflict Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Sociology Notes Paper 331.

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Co-Operation, Competition And Conflict

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Co-Operation, Competition And Conflict, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Co-Operation, Competition And Conflict

Chapter: 10



From the given options choose the right answer by filling the blank or putting a tick (✓) mark:

1. Cooperation involves:

(a) Common end and organized effort.

(b) Differential end and organized effort.

(c) Two ends and one ancient strategy.

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (a) Common end and organized effort.

2. The activity of ……………. characterize cooperation.

(a) Participating in debate.

(b) Building a house.

(c) Appearing in the examination.

(d) Contesting the election.

Ans. (b) Building a house.

3. Celebration of festivals say for e.g. Dussehra, Eid or Janamasthami etc. needs a group effort which symbolise:

(a) Competition.

(b) Conflict.

(c) Co-operation.

Ans. (c) Co-operation.

4. Co-operation is ……………… from of social interaction.

(a) Disjointed.

(b) Goal-oriented.

(c) Culture specific.

Ans. (b) Goal-oriented.

5. Sociologists have classified co-operation into …………….. .

(a) Direct and indirect type.

(b) Primary, secondary and tertiary type.

(c) Both the above (a and b).

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (b) Primary, secondary and tertiary type.

6. In modern society, one comes across more and more of ……………. kind of cooperation.

(a) Indirect.

(b) Straight forward.

(c) Direct.

(d) Only competition.

Ans. (a) Indirect.

7. The principle of division of labour refers to a situation when:

(a) Each individual or a group has its specialized role to play.

(b) All individuals and groups performs the same task.

(c) Both of the above (a and b).

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (a) Each individual or a group has its specialized role to play.


The given options choose the right answer by filling the blank or putting a tick (✔) mark:

1. When the individuals and group try to achieve scarce items for which there are many takers it indicates the ……………… amongst them.

(a) Co-operative behaviour.

(b) Competitiveness.

(c) Adjustment.

(d) Social contact.

Ans. (a) Co-operative behaviour.

2. Whenever the competitors shift their interest from the objects of competition to other competitors it is called ……………… .

(a) Indirect competition.

(b) Treachery.

(c) Rivalry.

(d) Peaceful co-existence.

Ans. (c) rivalry.

3. Members of a society compete with one another when ………….. .

(a) More individuals applying for limited number of jobs.

(b) There are less number of individuals and more number of opportunities.

(c) Both of the above (a and b).

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (a) more individuals applying for limited number of jobs.

4. Competition is regarded as ……………… to progress.

(a) Hindrance.

(b) Conducive.

(c) Closed.

(d) Contradictory.

Ans. (b) Conducive.

5. Competitions is a struggle mainly carried out at ……………… .

(a) Personal level.

(b) Conscious level.

(c) Impersonal level.

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (c) Impersonal level.

6. Interaction without social contact is called:

(a) Co-operation.

(b) Competition.

(c) Conflict.

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (b) Competition.

7. A social process is characterized by:

(a) Only co-operation.

(b) Only competition.

(c) Both the above (a and b).

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (c) Both the above (a and b).


State True or False against each statement:

(a) Conflict arises when the norms and values of one group comes in clash or struggle with others.

Ans. True.

(b) In competition, the rules are observed but in conflict there are no rules.

Ans. True.

(c) Conflict never leads to violence or threat to peace.

Ans. False.

(d) Conflict never leads to social change.

Ans. False.

(e) The process of cooperation, competition and conflict lie at the basis of all forms of social interaction.

Ans. True.


Q.1. Explain the concept and meaning of social process. (V. Imp.)

Ans. The concept and meaning of social process: 

1. Society is not static. It is ever changing. Changes came through interaction among of society. The interaction reflects in the activities of human being in society through contact and communication.

In this context, there are certain mechanisms by which individuals and groups carry out activities according to their needs and requirements, which are known as ‘social process’.

Thus “social process mean various modes of interaction between individuals or groups including cooperation and conflict, social differentiation and integration, development, arrest and decay.” In other words, “social process is a manner in which the relations of the members of a group, once brought together acquire a certain distinctive character.”

2. Cooperation, competition and conflict mark the basic principles of various types of activities performed by the individuals in a given social context.

3. Social process has a wider connotation. It comprises of events that took place in the past. It is also based on traditions, mores, morals and instincts. These may be abstract and unconscious in nature, where as social interaction is concrete, based on reciprocity, real and social contact situation. 

4. Social process is concerned with different changes in life of the group. It depends upon the nature of interaction, which may be include the historical, cultural, political and economic, religious and social aspects. Interaction refers to an action done in response to another action. It becomes social process when interaction is repeated.

5. When a husband and wife help each other out of love, affection and sympathy, it assumes the form of co-operation and it becomes a social process.

Q.2. Describe the characteristics of competitions. (V. Imp.)

Ans. Characteristics of Competition:

(i) Competition is impersonal struggle. Competition is never personalised. According to some sociologist competition refers to interactions without social contact. It is usually not directed against any individual or group in particular.

(ii) Competition is mainly an unconscious activity but at times conscious competition also takes place. Whenever the competitions shift their interest from the objects of competition to other competitors, it is called rivalry or personal competition. Personal competition or rivalry is a conscious activity.

(iii) Competition is universal. No society is devoid of competition. However, the magnitude and the degree of competition might vary from society to society. Competition is found in all known human society and culture. 

(iv) Competition is regarded as conducive to progress. Fair competition is conducive to economics as well as social progress and even to general welfare because it spurs individuals and groups to exert their best efforts. It obvious connection with what is called “progress” has led some sociologists to regard it as the essential features of modern civilization. Competition provides the individuals better opportunities to satisfy their desires for new experiences and recognitions.

(v) At times competition can vicious both the individuals and groups. It may create emotional disturbances. Unfair competition has the most disintegrating effects. Both co-operation and competition constitute the underlying essence of most of the social interactions in everyday life. No society is exclusively competitive or exclusively. cooperative.

(vi) Competition refers to both associative and dissociative dimensions of social process.

Q.3. Write short notes on: 

(a) Social interaction.

(b) Primary and Secondary cooperation.

Ans. (a) Social Interaction: Social interaction, as distinguished from social process, is concrete, real and based on communication, social contact and reciprocal relationship. The members of a society, bound together in a system of mutual influence is described as social interaction. It refers mostly to the comtemporary social situation and thus considered as concrete and real. In short, we can say that social interaction is a complex process and comprises three major forms of interaction: co-operation, competition and conflict.

Social interaction and social processes are interrelated. One does not exist without the other.

(b) Primary and Secondary Cooperation: There are many types of cooperation. It can be of direct or indirect type. Corporations can also classified into:

(i) Primary cooperation. 

(ii) Secondary cooperation. and

(iii) Tertiary cooperation.

(i) Primary cooperation: The co-operation found in primary groups such as family and peer groups (friends) is called primary cooperation where people have to choose face to face relations.

In there cases (i.e. family and peer groups) the interests (or selfs) of the individual merge with the interests of the primary group.

(ii) Secondary cooperation: It is found in the secondary group such as:

(a) government.

(b) industrial houses.

(c) voluntary organization. And

(d) trade union etc.

where people cooperate for certain interest.

Q.4. What do you understand by cooperation of goal-oriented and organized? Explain it.

Ans. Meaning of co-operation of goal-oriented and organized: Co-operation generally means working together for a common goal (or objective). We have generally noticed the behaviour of people in our village or neighbourhood, when a community festival like Christmas, Durga-Puja, Janamasthami, or Ram Lila or Krishna-Lila organization or Guru-Purab celebration, or Eid etc. Some volunteers more from home to home, from shop to shop to collect donation (or funds) for the members who belong to their own community, neighbourhood or village. All these donations are pooled together and the members of celebration group decide the manner in which these should be spent.

Celebration of such festivals is not possible unless the members cooperate with one another at every level.

Decoration of the festival place, and sacred observance of the rituals, etc. are example of goal-oriented and organized cooperation.

Such cooperation is regular feature, which takes place every year. The volunteers and organisers might change from year to year but the observance of the activity continues.

Cooperation of goal-oriented can be seen among organized group or political parties for certain purposes. These groups or parties otherwise compete with one another, come together and cooperate with each other for a specific purpose. For example, some political- parties shake hands and accept minimum common programme to form a front and capture power or form government. This type of cooperation may be for a short time span.

Cooperation is a process which is highly essential for the maintenance of social order. Therefore, co-operation is considered as associative social process. It is a universal phenomenon. If we are to live as members of the society, we cannot do without cooperation.

Co-operation is goal-oriented and conscious form of social interaction. It involves two elements:

(i) Common end. and

(ii) organized effort.

All the individual members have a common end, i.e. celebration of the festival. But they can do it only when all members cooperate with one another in an organized manner. This is an example, of cooperation at the level: for example, family, community and nation.

Q.5. State different types of conflict. 

Ans. Different types (or kinds) of conflict: Conflict can be of various types.

They are:

(i) war.

(ii) feud.

(iii) litigation. and 

(iv) conflict of impersonal ideals.

War is a type of group conflict which all of us know. War results from a deep seated antagonistic impulse in man. Feud is an intra-group form of ware caused by some injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another. Litigation is a judicial form of conflict. The best example of the litigation is the court case. Conflict carried out by individuals for an ideal (not for themselves) is called the conflict of impersonal ideas. 

Some sociologists have given various classification of conflicts. We shall discuss some important ones:

(i) Conflict can be either.

(a) manifest (overt). or 

(b) latent/covert.

The manifest type can be observed but the latent conflict primarily remains invisible.

(ii) Conflicts can be either 

(a) corporate. or 

(b) personal. 

Corporate conflict occurs among the groups within a society or between two societies. Communal riots, war between nations, strike by the industrial labourer are the examples of corporate conflict. On the other hand, personal conflict occurs within the group, due to envy, hostility, jealousy or breach of trust.

(iii) Conflict can be purely temporary (ephemeral) or perpetual (enduring). Conflict between individuals on a road side, village shop, city buses for small and petty reasons are, the best examples of ephemeral conflicts. Such conflicts do not last over a long period of time. People generally forget and come back to their normal life. On the other hand, conflict between two rival groups of a village or two feuding clans of a tribe are the examples of the perpetual conflict. In such cases conflict is also not continuous. It is stretched over a long period of time and sometimes extends over several generations. However, there are intermittent periods of peace and social harmony followed with turbulent period of conflict.

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