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NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 17 Universal Adult Franchise And The Methods Of Representation
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Universal Adult Franchise And The Methods Of Representation
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
NTEXT QUESTIONS 17.1
1. Universal Adult Franchise means the enjoyment of the right to vote by:
(a) all adults – both men and women.
(b) only men.
(c) only women.
Ans. all adults-both men and women.
2. Who among the following do not have the right to vote?
(c) persons who are of unsound mind / lunatics.
(d) all the above.
Ans. all the above.
3. The minimum age for voting in India is
(a) 16 years.
(b) 18 years.
(c) 21 years.
(d) 25 years.
Ans. 18 years.
4. Switzerland introduced Universal Adult Franchise in the year
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.2
Fill in the blanks:
1. The first-past-the-post system is commonly known as ………….
Ans. Simple Majority System.
2. The multi-member constituency is also known as the …………. system.
Ans. General Ticket.
3. In India, the elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies are held on the basis of ……….. system.
4. The methods by which proportional representation is secured are …………. and …………..
Ans. Single transferable vote system and list system.
5. Electoral methods to ensure adequate representation to the minority groups in the legislature are ……….. called and ………….
Ans. Cummulative vote system and limited vote plan.
Q. 1. Explain the meaning and significance of Universal Adult Franchise.
Ans. Meaning and significance of Universal Adult Franchise:
(i) Meaning: The right of the people to vote and elect their representatives is called franchise. The word franchise is derived from the French word ‘franc’ which means ‘free’. It means free exercise of the right to choose one’s representatives. Adult franchise means that the right to vote should be given to all adult citizens without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or sex.
(a) It is based on equality is a basic principle of democracy. It demands that the right to vote should be equally available among all. To deny any class of persons from exercising this right is to this is to violate their right to equality. In fact, the spirit of democracy can be maintained only if the people are given the right to vote without any discrimination.
(b) The exercise of right to vote adds to the individual’s self-respect, dignity, sense of responsibility, and political and civic education. In other words, the system of adult franchise is the bedrock of a democratic system.
(c) People are called political sovereigns because they possess the right to vote a government into power, or to vote a government) out of power. That is why democracy has) sometimes been described as a mode of appointing, controlling and dismissing) governments by the people.
(d) As provided for, in the Constitution of the level, the citizen cast their votes at regular | intervals to elect their representative to the Parliament, to the Legislative Assemblies, and such other institutions are essential organs of political power in a democracy.
Q. 2. What is a simple majority system? Explain.
Ans. Meaning and Explanation of a Simple Majority System:
1. Simple majority system means that in case of a single member constituency, the person or the candidate getting the highest number of votes is declared elected. The result is decided by the majority of votes secured by a candidate.
2. Many a time in this system, there is multi-cornered contest, as the number 01 candidates is more than two. There are cases where four or five or even more than five candidates contest. In such a situation, a candidate with even less than 50 percent of the total votes gets elected. Such cases are very often found in India, and elsewhere.
3. The system of simple majority system is prevalent in Britain, USA, Canada and also in some other countries.
4. This simple majority system is also called the first past, the post system. Members of our Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies are elected by this system.
Q. 3. Describe the system of proportional representation. What are the two methods of ensuring proportional representation?
Ans. I. Description of the system of Proportional Representation:
1. The system of proportional representation is an electoral device to ensure representation of all sections of the people more or less in proportion to their voting strength. Under this system any group, whether it is a political party or interest group will secure representation in proportion to the popular votes it obtains.
2. This system ensures that the number of seats a political party gets in the legislature should be in proportion to the support of the popular votes. Sometimes in the simple majority system it is seen that a party gets more seats in the legislature even though it receives less percentage of votes or a candidate with even less than 50 percent of votes is declared elected.
3. Example: In India, in 1971 Lok Sabha elections, Congress polled only 46 percent votes yet it managed 351 seats out of 522. That is, even with less than 50 percent votes, Congress won 68 percent of the seats in the Lok Sabha. This limitation of the first-past-the-post system may be removed through proportional representation system. There are two methods by which proportional representation is secured.
1. The Single Transferable Vote System: It is also called the Hare system or the Andrae Scheme. According to the single transferable vote system each voter can cast only one vote which can be transferred to other candidates, if necessary, according to the preference of the voter. Therefore, this system is also called the preferential system.
This system works under following conditions:
(a) Every constituency should be a multi member constituency, electing three or more members.
(b) A voter has only single effective vote which may be cast in order of preference – first, second, third or as many preferences as there are candidates. The voter writes 1, 2, 3 and so on against the names of the candidates of his choice.
(c) But the voter cannot cast all his preferences in favour of only one candidate.
(d) In order to be elected, a candidate must secure a certain quota of votes. The quota is determined by dividing the total votes cast by the number of seats in the constituency.
Quota = Total number of votes polled / Total
number of seats in the constituency / + 1
For instance, if the number of seats in a constituency is 3 and total number of votes cast is 20,000. The quota will be
20,000 / 3+1 / +1 =5001
The counting of votes begins with the first preference votes. A candidate securing the prescribed quota on the basis of the first preference votes is declared elected, and his surplus votes, if any, are transferred to the candidates having second preference indicated on the ballot papers and so on.
If one or more seats are left vacant because some candidates do not secure the required quota, the candidates getting least number of votes are eliminated and their votes are transferred according to the preferences of the voters.
This system has been adopted in India for the election of the members of the Rajya Sabha and State Legislative Councils. This method is also followed for the election of President of India.
2. List System:
(a) This is another method of proportional representation. Under this system, large multi member constituencies are formed and many candidates are elected from each constituency. Each political party submits a list of its candidates for election from a particular constituency.
(b) A voter votes not to individuals but to the lists of candidates of different political parties. These votes are indivisible. If 4 representatives are to be elected from the constituency, the voter has no option to cast 2 votes on one list and 2 on the other list. The voter has to select all the four candidates from either of the list.
(c) A quota is determined, and the candidates are declared elected according to the quota of votes secured by political parties. A party entitled to three seats, according to the quota, will declare the first three candidates on its list elected.
(d) There are two forms of list system- the ‘bound list’ and the ‘free list’. In ‘bound list’ a voter has no choice except to endorse or reject the entire list of candidates prepared by a political party. But, in a free list, the voter while selecting the list can give his or her own order of preferences for the candidates. List system is followed for elections in Switzerland.
Q. 4. Explain the methods of securing minority representation other than the proportional representation.
Ans. Explanation of the methods of Securing Minority Representation System other than the Proportional.
Representation: Apart from proportional representation, some other electoral methods adequate I have also been devised to ensure representation to the minority groups in the legislature. These systems of minority representation are as follows:
1. Cumulative Vote System:
(a) According to this system a voter has as many votes as the number of seats in the constituency. The voters has options. He or she can caste vote for all the candidates or concentrate all his or her votes for just one candidate.
(b) Example: If 5 members are to be elected, the voter may give his or her vote to only one candidate or distribute it among a few or all candidates. This system, therefore, may provide an opportunity to a well-organised minority to elect its representative by cumulating all its votes in favour of its own candidate.
2. Limited Vote Plan: (a) This system is adopted in a multi-member constituency from where a minimum of 3 candidates are to be elected. Under this system every voter can vote for more than one candidate, but he or she cannot vote for all the candidates. That is why it is known as the limited vote system.
(b) Example: If there are 6 seats in a constituency, every voter will have right to vote the only for 4 candidates. The voter has to vote for different candidates of his or her choice, but he or she cannot vote for more than 4 candidates.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct answer:
Q.1.The minimum age for voting in India is ………….
(a) 18 years.
(b) 21 years.
(c) 25 years.
(d) 16 years.
Ans. (a) 18 years.
Q. 2. Universal Adult Franchise means the enjoyment of the right to vote by:
(b) Only men.
(c) All adults-men as well as women.
(d) Only women.
Ans. (c) All adults-men as well as women.
Q. 3. Switzerland introduced Universal Adult Franchise in the year .…………..
Ans. (a) 1971.
Q. 4. Who among the following do not have the right to vote in India?
(b) Persons who are of unsound mind / lunatics.
(d) All the above.
Ans. (d) All the above.
Q. 5. The word franchise is derived from ‘france’ which belongs to language:
Ans. (c) French.
Q. 6. The word meaning of the word ‘Franc’ means:
(d) None of the above.
Ans. (a) ‘Free’.