NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 25 The Cold War Era And Its Politics

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 25 The Cold War Era And Its Politics, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 25 The Cold War Era And Its Politics and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 25 The Cold War Era And Its Politics Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 25 The Cold War Era And Its Politics

Join Telegram channel

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 25 The Cold War Era And Its Politics, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

The Cold War Era And Its Politics

Chapter: 25




Q. 1. Which two ideologies clashed in the cold war?

Ans: The two ideologies that clashed in the cold war were:

(i) Political and economic liberation. 

(ii) Marxism-Leninism.

Q. 2. Which were the news services set-up by the USA and the USSR? 

Ans: Voice of America and Radio Moscow.


Q. 1. Which countries formed the part of the Axis power?

Ans: Germany, Italy, Japan.

Q. 2. Which countries formed the part of the Allies’ power?

Ans: Britain and France (also later on USA and USSR)

Q. 3. Which parts of Europe were influenced by the USA and the USSR?

Ans: Parts of Western Europe were influenced by USA. Parts of Eastern Europe were influenced by USSR.


Q. 1. Which Country’s future was discussed at Yalta Conference?

Ans: Poland.

Q. 2. Which leader coined the famous term ‘Iron Curtain’? 

Ans: Winston Churchill.

Q. 3. What was the aim of the Truman Doctrine?.

Ans: The aim of the Truman Doctrine was containment of influence of communism.

Q. 4. What does NATO stand for?

Ans: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.


Q. 1. Which Soviet leader initiated the policy of relaxation of tension on Europe and suppression of anti-Soviet leaders and ideas at the same time?

Ans: Nikita Khrushchev.

Q. 2. What does PRC stand for?

Ans: Republic of China. 

Q. 3. When did Berlin Wall collapse?

Ans: In 1989-90.


Q. 1. What was Detente? Who was its author? 

Ans: ‘Detente’ was a term used for relaxation in east-west conflict. President Nixon of America was its author.

Q. 2. What was NPT?

Ans: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Q. 3. What was SALT-I?

Ans: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty-I. 

Q. 4. What was the policy of ostpolitik?

Ans: It was a policy of West Germany which meant policy for the East.


Q. 1. What was SDI?

Ans: Strategic Defense Initiative.

Q.2. What was glasnost and perestroika? 

Ans: Glasnost means openness and perestroika means restructuring.

Q. 3. Which symbol symbolised the end of the Cold War?

Ans: Collapse of the Berlin Wall.


Q. 1. What do you understand by Cold War? In what ways was it different from an open war?

Ans: (i) Cold War was a diplomatic war and not an armed conflict among the superpowers and was based on ideological hatred and political distrust. 

(ii) It is defined by Flemming as ‘a war that is fought not in the battlefield, but in the minds of men; one tries to control the mind of others’.

(iii) The Cold War was very different from an open war where the enemies are well known and the war is fought in the open. In the Cold War, war was never declared and diplomatic relations were maintained among the countries.

(iv) The Cold War did involve some military confrontation and loss of life, but it was also a psychological warfare aimed at reducing the enemy’s area of influence and increasing the number of one’s camp followers.

Q. 2. Mention some of the factors responsible for the Cold War.

Ans: Factors responsible for the Cold War were as follows:

(i) After World War II, the USA and the USSR, the two superpowers, wanted to establish the supremacy of their position and ideology, and this conflict became the focal point of international relations.

(ii) There had been a long period of suspicion and distrust between the Soviet Union and the Western countries. The Soviet Union could never forget that Western states (Britain, France and the USA) had tried to undo the Bolshevik Revolution and intervened (alongwith Japan) in the Civil War. The western countries also did not forget that the declared objective of the Soviet Union was the overthrowing of capitalism worldwide. The mutual suspicion increased further during the World War II. 

(iii) During the war, both the sides encouraged opposite elements in the countries liberated form the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and a few smaller states).

Q.3. Discuss the issue of Poland during the first phase of the Cold War.

Ans: (i) In the early phase the fate of Poland turned out to be a crucial issue. All the countries had a special interest in Poland.

(ii) France and Britain had declared war on Germany when Hitler’s army had crossed the Polish border in September 1939.

(iii) For Russia, Poland had been a historic enemy: on the other hand Polish lands had been the traditional gateway for invasion of Russia from the west. When the Soviets entered Poland in 1944, they formally handed over power to the Lublin government, pro-communist committee of National liberation.

(iv) The future of Poland was discussed at length at the Yalta Conference of Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt. No agreement could be reached on the exact boundary of Poland. But Poland ultimately came into the Soviet camp. The Sovietisation of Poland became a landmark in the origin of the Cold War.

Q.4. What is meant by Berlin Blockade?

Ans: (i) The western allies wanted to introduce monetary reforms in Germany, but the Soviet Union did not and responded by what is known as the Berlin Blockade. The Soviet Union imposed a total ban on all traffic between Berlin and the western zones, be it road, rail or waterways.

(ii) This Blockade was also in protest against the Brussels Pact which was formulated as a mutual defense treaty between Britain, France and Belgium.

(iii) The Pact directed the signatories to extend military assistance to any member state in case of attack by Germany or any third party in Europe. Though the name of the Soviet Union was not mentioned in the text it was mainly aimed against the Soviet Union and not against Germany.

Q. 5. Discuss the Suez Canal crisis during the second phase of the Cold War.

Ans: (i) The British and the French had constructed the Suez Canal in the mid 19th century. The Suez Canal company enjoyed the right to operate the canal and earn profit for a period of 99 years commencing 1869.

(ii) But the Egypt decided to nationalise and made the Suez Canal part of Egyptian national territory in 1956. This decision of the Egypt led to a series of crises.

(iii) Britain, France and Israel decided to initiate a concerted military campaign against Egypt. Though America was against the use of force, Israel attacked Egypt in collision with Britain and France. This forced the USA to condemn its own allies and for the first time since the Cold War, the USA and the Soviet Union came together on this issue.

(iv) Britain and France had to accept a UN peacekeeping force for the canal.

(v) The imperial decline of France, which had tried to remain independent of the USA security bloc, speeded up after the ‘Suez Crisis’.

(vi) Britain too was now generally recognized as being only a second rate power and junior partner of the USA.

Q.6. Discuss the phase of Detente in the Cold War.

Ans: (i) The relationship between the USA and the Soviet Union entered a new phase which has been described as Detente. The term detente was used for relaxation in East-West conflict. The detente was also to take into account China. The relationship between the USA and China had been tense for past few years. The Detente with China was a notable achievement. The Cold War did not end during this period but there were improved levels of understanding.

(ii) Several steps were taken by both the countries to ease the tension. In 1968, a nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) was signed by UK, USA and USSR.

(iii) A major area of conflict between the two superpowers was the two Germanys and Berlin. In 1969, the government of West Germany initiated the policy of Ostpolitik which means a ‘policy for the East’. West Germany renewed normal relations with East European countries. Both the Germanys recognised each other and were recognised as separate and legitimate states by the superpowers; the two Germanys joined the United Nations in 1973.

(iv) In 1972 USA and the Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I).-The agreement failed to reduce the amount of armaments but did slow down the arms race. The then President of the Soviet Union Brezhnev and the President of the USA Nixon met thrice. The USA also started exporting wheat to the Soviet Union.

(v) In July 1975, 35 countries assembled for the Helsinki (Finland) Conference. The signing of its final act was regarded, for the time being, as burying the Cold War. The final act contained ten principles, most important of which was that all the nations were to accept the European frontier which had been drawn after the Second World War. Thus the division of Germany was accepted. The communist countries promised to allow their peoples ‘human rights’ including freedom of speech and freedom to leave the country.

(vi) During the period of detente USA-China relations improved considerably. President Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger made special efforts to ease the tension with China.

(vii) In 1971, China was admitted to the UN and Taiwan was expelled. In 1978 the USA withdrew the recognition of Nationalist China and in 1979 the USA gave recognition the People’s Republic of China, and ambassadors were exchanged. 

Q. 7. What is New Cold War? In what ways does it differ from the Cold War?

Ans: (i) The process of detente lost its momentum after the Helsinki Conference. Relations between the Soviet Union and the USA became very tense. By 1980 it appeared that Cold War had come back. This new tensions came to be known as the New Cold War.

(ii) The New Cold War was different from the Cold War in the sense that it not based on ideological conflict but on balance of power.

(iii) In the New Cold War a new power bloc, namely the PRC, emerged as a power that could not be defeated or ignored. 

(iv) The New Cold War was marked by the efforts of both the countries to spread their influence mainly outside Europe.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer. 

Q. 1. The cold war was a:

(a) religious war.

(b) cultural war. 

(c) diplomatic war.

(d) none of the above.

Ans: (c) diplomatic war.

Q. 2. The cold war was a bi-polar confrontation between: 

(a) the USSR and the USA.

(b) Britain and the USSR.

(c) the USA and Britain.

(d) France and Germany.

Ans: (a) the USSR and the USA.

Q. 3. After World War II the two superpowers emerged were:

(a) the USSR and Britain.

(b) the USSR and the USA.

(c) the USA and Germany. 

(d) Germany and Holland.

Ans: (b) the USSR and the USA.

Q. 4. What was the declared objective of the Soviet Union?

(a) To overthrow capitalism worldwide.

(b) To overthrow socialism worldwide.

(c) To overthrow autocracy worldwide.

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (a) To overthrow capitalism worldwide.

Q. 5. For Soviet Union, friendly governments meant: 

(a) capitalist governments. 

(b) communist governments.

(c) conservative governments.

(d) autocratic governments.

Ans: (b) communist governments.

Q. 6. The ossification phase was between:

(a) 1914 – 1918 

(b) 1940 – 1945

(c) 1945 – 47

(d) 1947 – 1949

Ans: (c) 1945 – 47

Q. 7. In the early phase the fate of ______ turned out to be a crucial issue.

(a) Germany. 

(b) Poland.

(c) France.

(d) USSR.

Ans: (b) Poland.

Q. 8. Brussels pact was formulated as a mutual defence treaty between:

(a) Britain, France, USA.

(b) Britain, USA, USSR.

(c) Britain, Germany, USA.

(d) Britain, France, Belgium.

Ans: (d) Britain, France, Belgium.

Q. 9. What was the demand of the Soviet Union in Turkey?

(a) Internationalisation of the Bosporus strait.

(b) Internationalisation of the Iran issue.

(c) Withdrawal of the US army from Iran.

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (a) Internationalisation of the Bosporus strait.

Q. 10. The Truman doctrine was a policy of:

(a) waging war.

(b) containment.

(c) aggressive ideological war.

(d) none of the above.

Ans: (b) containment.

Q. 11. The plan for European economic reconstruction is known as: 

(a) Truman Plan.

(b) Brezhneb Plan.

(c) Marshall Plan. 

(d) Henry Plan.

Ans: (c) Marshall Plan. 

Q. 12. The NATO was signed on: 

(a) April 4, 1949

(b) May 4, 1949

(c) June 4, 1949 

(d) July 4, 1949

Ans: (a) April 4, 1949

Q. 13. In Hungary people rose in revolt in:

(a) 1953

(b) 1954 

(c) 1955 

(d) 1956

Ans: (d) 1956

Q. 14. The Berlin wall was broken down in:

(a) 1975 – 76

(b) 1980 – 84

(c) 1989 – 90

(d) 1992

Ans: (c) 1989 – 90

Q. 15. The strategic Arms Limitation Treaty was signed in:

(a) 1972

(b) 1973

(c) 1974

(d) 1975

Ans: (a) 1972

Q. 16. How many countries participated in the Helsinki conference?

(a) 32

(b) 35

(c) 36

(d) 43

Ans: (b) 35

Q. 17. The meaning of the word ‘Perestroika’ means:

(a) openness.

(b) economic control.

(c) economic and social reforms.

(d) none of the above.

Ans: (c) economic and social reforms.

Q. 18. The Soviet Union split into separate republic in:

(a) 1989

(b) 1990

(c) 1991

(d) 1992

Ans: (c) 1991

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top