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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 1 Prospects And Problems of Tourism
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Prospects And Problems of Tourism
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 1.1
Q.1. Give the names of four Vedas.
Ans: (i) Rig Veda.
(ii) Sama Veda.
(iii) Yajur Veda.
(iv) Atharva Veda.
Q.2. Which is the earliest text on Sanskrit Grammar?
Q.3. What are Jatakas?
Ans: Jatakas contain stories of the previous lives of Gautama, the Buddha.
Q.4. What is the language of the south Indian literature called Sangam Literature?
Q.5. What are the Upanishads?
Ans: Upanishads are the last part of the Vedas. They discuss the philosophy of atma and paramatma.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 1.2
Q.1. What is the study of inscriptions called?
Q.2. What are parashatis?
Ans: Inscriptions composed by poets in praise of kings and other patrons are called parashatis.
Q.3. Define palaeography.
Ans: Palaeography is the style of writing.
Q.4. In which script are most of the inscriptions of Ashoka written?
Ans: In Brahmi script.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 1.3
Q.1. What is the study of the coins known as?
Q.2. Name the metals used to make punch – marked coins.
Ans: Silver and copper.
Q.3. Which dynasty issued the first gold coins in India?
INTEXT QUESTIONS 1.4
Q.1. Define archaeology.
Ans: Archaeology is the science of digging to understand the past.
Q.2. What is the use of C14 dating?
Ans: C14 is used in dating the bones or wood found in archaeological excavations.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 1.5
Q.1. Who wrote the Indika?
Ans: The Indika was written by Megasthenes.
Q.2. Name the Chinese travellers who came to India.
Ans: Fa – hsien, Hsuan Tsang.
Q.3. Which Chinese traveller refers to the glory of Nalanda University?
Ans: Hsuan Tsang.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 1.6
Q.1. Describe the trend that developed in history writing after independence.
Ans: After independence, a new trend in history writing took over. There was a shift towards the writing of non-political history with greater emphasis on society and economy. The wonder that was India was one of such pioneering work writing by A.L. Basham. A further shift is evident in D.D. Kosambi’s book, ‘An Introduction to the Study of Indian History’. His treatment follows a socio-economic aspect of ancient Indian history. After him a large number of historians followed the trend and focussed on social, economic and cultural history,Their main stress was on means of production and the social and economic relationship among different groups of people.
Q.1. Write a short note on secular literature of Ancient India.
Ans: Secular Literature of Ancient India: This category of literature does not have religion as its theme. The Dharmashastras or the law-books which prescribe the duties for different social groups belong to this class. They set out punishments for persons guilty of theft, murder, adultery, etc. Manu Smriti is the earliest law book. It was the first book translated by the British and formed the basis of Hindu code of law. Arthasastra of Kautilya provides rich material for the study of Indian economy and polity of the Mauryan period. Ashtadhyayi of Panini is the earliest and the most important work on grammar. Abhijananshakuntalam, Ritusamhara and Meghadutam are excellent works of Kalidasa. Besides being greater creative compositions, they provide us with glimpses of the social and cultural life of the Gupta dynasty. Rajatarangini which explains the history of Kashmir was written by Kalhana (12th AD). Biographies or charitas are very important non-religious texts for writing history. They were written by court poets in praise of their patron rulers. One such important text is Harshacharita, written by Banabhatta in praise of Harshavardhana.
The earliest south Indian literature, Sangram literature, was written in Tamil and is secular in nature. It was produced by poets who joined together in assemblies (Sangams) patronised by chiefs and kings during the first four centuries of the Christian era. This literature consists of short and long poems in praise of various heroes, written probably to be recited in the courts. It also constitutes the epice called Silpadikaram and Manimekalai. The Sangram literature is our major source for the study of south Indian society, economy and polity during BC 300-AD 300.
Q.2. Write five sentences on coins as a source material for reconstructing history.
Ans: (i) Coins provide useful information regarding economic history as they were used as a medium of exchange.
(ii) Some coins were issued by guilds or associations of the merchants and craftsman with the permission of the rulers. This shows the influence of craft and commerce.
(iii) Coins also portray kings and gods, and contain religious symbols, all to which throw light on the art and religion of the time.
(iv) Ancient coins were mostly minted in metals such as copper, silver, gold and lead.
(v) The first gold coins were issued by the Kushanas in first century AD. Some of the most spectacular gold coins were issued by the Gupta rulers.
Q.3. How does archaeology helps us in understanding the past?
Ans: (i) Archaeology is a science that enables us to systematically dig the successive layers of old mounds and to form an idea of the material life of the people of the past on the basis of remains found there. Archaeology is very important to study prehistory i.e., the period before the invention of writing.
(ii) Excavations have brought to light the tools of early humans in India going as back as seven lakh years. The excavated sites belonging to the Harappan period show the layout of the settlements and the form of the houses in which people lived, the type of pottery, tools and implements they used and the kind of cereals they consumed. In south Indian some people were buried along with their tools, weapons, pottery and other belongings under big and heavy stones. By digging them we learn about the life of people who lived in the Deccan and south India before the third century BC.
(iii) The most important method to fix the dates of remains found in excavations is the Radiocarbon or C 14 dating method. By measuring the loss of C 14 content in an ancient object (wood or bone) its age can be determined.
(iv) Although writing was Known in India by 2500 BC in the Indus culture, its script has not so far been deciphered. Thus, though the Harappans knew how to write but the historians have not been able to read it. Their culture is placed in the period called proto-historic phase. The first script to be deciphered was Brahmi which was used in the Ashokan inscriptions and it belongs to the third century BC.
(v) The history of climate and vegetation is known through an examination of plant residues, and especially through pollen analysis. On this basis it is suggested that agriculture was practised in Kashmir and Rajasthan around 7000–6000 BC.
(vi) The nature components of metal arte-facts can also be analysed scientifically, and consequently the mines from which metals were obtained are located and stages in the development of metal technology identified.
Thus, archaeology greatly helps us in understanding the past.