NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Biomes

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NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Biomes, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Biomes and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Biomes Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Geography Notes Paper 316.

NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Biomes

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Biomes, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Geography Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.


Chapter: 15




Q.1. Answer not more than one sentence:

(i) What is the latitudinal extent of the tropical evergreen forest in the northern and Southern hemisphere?

Ans. 10° North and South.

(ii) During which part of day is most of the rainfall in the tropical evergreen forest occurs?

Ans. Afternoon.

(iii) Name the three levels in which plants species are arranged in tropical evergreen forest biome.

Ans. (a) The canopy or upper level.

(b) The second level or intermediary.

(c) The third or lower level.

(iv) Name any three factors responsible for deforestation in tropical evergreen forest.

Ans. (a) Construction of large dams and reservoirs.

(b) Construction of roads and highways.

(c) Extraction of timber.

(d) Clearance for pastures or crops.

(e) Encroachment and clearance by landless peasants.

(v) What are the two major environmental consequences of deforestation in tropical evergreen forest.

Ans. (a) Green house effect.

(b) Global warming.


Q.1. Fill in the blanks by selecting appropriate words from those given in the brackets.

(a) Mid latitude grasslands of the northern hemisphere are located in the ______ parts of the continents.

Ans. Interior.

(b) The annual precipitation in mid latitude grasslands are very______.

Ans. Low.

(c) In the northern hemisphere grasslands are _______ extensive whereas in the southern hemisphere grasslands are ______ extensive.

Ans. More, less.

(d) Mid-latitude grasslands are known as the _______ of the world.

Ans. Granaries.

Q.2. Match the following:

ContinentsName of the grasslands
(a) South Africa (i) Prairies
(b) Eurasia(ii) Pampas
(c) North America(iii) Veldt
(d) Australia(iv) Stepped
(e) South America(v) Downs


ContinentsName of the grasslands
(a) South Africa (iii) Veldt
(b) Eurasia(iv) Stepped
(c) North America(i) Prairies
(d) Australia(v) Downs
(e) South America(ii) Pampas


Answer the following questions briefly:

(a) Name any three animals of Tundra region.

Ans. (i) Reindeer.

(ii) wolves.

(iii) foxes.

(iv) musk ox.

(v) sial.

(vi) lemmings.

(b) Which are the three important minerals found in these regions.

Ans. (i) Gold.

(ii) iron.

(iii) mineral oil.

(c) Why productivity is low in Tundra region? Give any two reasons.

Ans. (i) Minimum sunlight and insolation.

(ii) Absence of nutrients.

(iii) Poorly developed soil.

(iv) Scarcity of moisture in the soils.

(d) Name any two tribes found in the Tundra region.

Ans. (i) Samoyeds.

(ii) Eskimoes.

(iii) Lapps.

(iv) Finns.

(v) Yakuts.


Q.1. What is a biome? Describe the classification of biomes on the basis of climate and vegetation.

Ans. Biome is a large area with distinct groups of plants and animals. Biomes may be defined as a natural eco-system wherein we study the total assemblage of plant and animal communities. Biomes can be classified on the basis of climate and vegetation.

Note: For classification see summary of the chapter.

Q.2. Explain the location, climate, natural vegetation and animal life in the evergreen rainforest biome.

Ans. Evergreen rainforest biome: 

Location: This biome extends upto 10° latitude on both sides of the equator. It covers the area of Amazon low length of South America, Congo basin of equatorial Africa and South Eastern Asian Islands from Sumatra to new Guinea.

Climate: This area experience high temperature throughout the year with range as little as 2°C.

Rainfall: This area gets heavy rainfall ranging between 150 cm to 250 cm. It is distributed throughout the year.

Vegetation: The variety of plant species can be understood from the fact that one square km may contain as many as about thousand of different types of plant species. Most of the trees are buttressed trunks, shallow roots and large dark evergreen leaves. The evergreen forests arranged in three levels:

(a) The canopy aur upper level where trees are lies between about 20 metres to 50 metres. These are hard wood trees like ebony, mahogany rosewood, sandalwood, cinchona etc.

(b) The second or intermediary level where trees lies between 10 to 20 metres. The important trees are palm and epiphytic and parasitic plants.

(c) The third or lower level lies from surface to about 10 metres of height. Under this category variety of plants and found namely ferns, mosses, herbs, bananas, pineapple etc.

Q.3. Describe various factors responsible for the size, location and character of a biome.

Ans. The word biome is a short form a biological home. Biome may be defined as a large natural ecosystem wherein we study the total assemblage of plant and animal communities. There are various factors which affect the size, location and character of a biome. Important factors are as follow:

(i) Length of day light and darkness. This is a mainly responsible for duration of photo synthesis.

(ii) Mean temperature as well as difference in temperature. Differences (what diurnal an annual) to find out extreme condition.

(iii) Length of growing season.

(iv) Precipitation which includes total amount, variation over time and intensity.

(v) Wind flow that include speed, direction, duration and frequency.

(vi) Soil types

(vii) Slope

(viii) Drainage

(ix) Other plant amd animal species.

Q.4. ‘No other biomes has undergone so much changes as the temperature biomes”. Justify the statement with suitable arguments.

Ans. No other biomes has undergone so much changes as the temperate biomes. This statement is true. This has happened due to the human activities as the climate is not harsh. Due to the human activities majority of the grasslands have been converted into agricultural lands which have now become granaries of the world. Secondly, crucial factor responsible for alteration of these grasslands is pastoralism or domesticated of animals. Large scale hunting of animals has resulted into phenomena decrease of the population of some animals. The introduction of new animal and plant species has all together changes the composition of native vegetation. For example introduction of sheep by the European settlers in Australia have changed the composition of vegetation community which was originally suited to teach native marsupial animals. Like this introduction of few leguminous plants in Australian temperate grasslands suppressed several species of native perennial grasses.

Q.5. Analyse the role of climate on the plants and animals life in the Tundra region.

Ans. The harsh climate of Tundra region has significance role on the plants and animal life. In Tundra climate and atmospheric moisture is scarce and summers are so short and cool that trees are unable to survive. The plant cover consists of a considerable mixture of species. Many of these species are dwarf form such as grasses, mosses, lichens, flowering herbs and scattering low shrubs.

The animal of this biome may be categorised a resistant and migrant. Resident animals like ptarmigan can adjust themselves to the changing climatic conditions. The migratory animals begin to migrate to warm places in the beginning of winter. Example are birds such as water foul, ducks, swans, geese etc. Which leave their places of origin in the first half of autumn and return in the following spring or early summer.

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