NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Earth’s Interior And Its Material

NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Earth’s Interior And Its Material, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Earth’s Interior And Its Materia and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Earth’s Interior And Its Materia Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Geography Notes Paper 316.

NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Earth’s Interior And Its Materia

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Earth’s Interior And Its Materia, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Geography Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Earth’s Interior And Its Material

Chapter: 2




Q.1. Give the most importance factor limiting direct observation of the earth’s interior to a few kilometers.

Ans. Rapid increase of temperature below the earth’s surface.

Q.2. Name the three layers of the earth.

Ans. (i) Core.

(ii) Mantle.

(iii) Lithosphere or the earth’s crust.

Q.3. Name the innermost layer of the earth.

Ans. Core or Nife.

Q.4. What is the density of core?

Ans. The density range from 9.5 to 14.5.

Q.5. Which layer includes the earth’s crust?

Ans. Lithosphere.

Q.6. Name the thinnest layer of the earth 

Ans. Lithosphere.


Q.1. What is the temperature at the centre of the earth?

Ans. 3000°C to 5000°C.

Q.2. How much is the pressure at the earth’s centre?

Ans. 3 to 4 million times the atmospheric pressure at sea level.

Q.3. Why does the density increase towards the centre of the earth?

Ans. Due to immense pressure of overlying rocks and the pressure of heavier materials.


Q.1. Define the term mineral.

Ans. Mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic substance which possesses physical properties and has a definite chemical composition.

Q.2. Give the names of any three minerals which are found extensively on the earth’s crust.

Ans. Feldspar, quartz, pyroxenes, mica, olivine.

Q.3. Give a term for each of the following:

(i) Deep seated intrusive igneous rocks.

Ans. Plutonic rock.

(ii) A hot sticky molten material erupted on the earth’s surface.

Ans. Lava.

Q.4. How are dykes and sills formed?

Ans. When the magma cools in their sheets in vertical fractures within the earth’s crust dykes are formed.

When it solidifies in horizontal strata it is called a sill.

Q.5. Tick (✓) the correct answer:

(i) Igneous rocks are formed due to-

(a) cooling.

(b) heating.

(c) neither cooling nor heating.

Ans: (a) Cooling.

(ii) Which one of the following is an example of intrusive igneous rock?

(a) Granite.

(b) Basalt.

(c) Gabbro.

Ans: (a) Granite.

(iii) Primary rocks are the result of:

(a) Sedimentation.

(b) Solidification.

(c) Metamorphism.

Ans: (b) Solidification.


Q.1. What are rocks?

Ans. Rocks are aggregates of minerals and are the individual units constituting the crust of the earth.

Q.2. Classify rocks. 

Ans. The rocks are classified as under:

(i) Igneous.

(ii) Sedimentary.

(iii) Metamorphic rocks.

Q.3. Give single term for each of the following:

(i) Process of the formation of metamorphic rock due to pressure.

Ans. Dynamic Metamorphism.

(ii) Rock which contain strata.

Ans. Sedimentary rocks/Stratified rocks.

(iii) Rock formed by the effect of the heat or pressure on sedimentary or igneous rocks.

Ans. Metamorphic rocks.

(iv) Sedimentary rocks deposited in lakes.

Ans. Sedimentation or Lacustrine.

Q.4. Tick (✓) the correct answer:

(i) Marble is:

(a) a sedimentary rock.

(b) an igneous rock.

(c) a metamorphic rock.

(d) a plutonic rock.

Ans. (c) a metamorphic rock.

(ii) An example of sedimentary rock is:

(a) Granite.

(b) Marble.

(c) Sandstone.

(d) Basalt.

Ans. Sandstone.


Q.1. Name three types of weathering.

Ans. (i) Physical weathering.

(ii) Chemical weathering.

(iii) Biotic weathering.

Q.2. In which areas is mechanical weathering more pronounced?

Ans. In dry and very cold regions.

Q.3. Give appropriate technical terms for each of the following statements:

(i) Peeling of successive layers of rocks like the layer of an onion.

Ans. Exfoliation.

(ii) Widening of joints and cracks due to alternative freezing and melting of water in them.

Ans. Frost action.

(iii) Disintegration of rocks without any change in their chemical composition.

Ans. Physical weathering.


Q.1. In which region is chemical weathering more effective?

Ans. In warm and humid regions.

Q.2. Which process is involved when gypsum gets dissolved in water?

Ans. Solution.

Q.3. Which process of chemical weathering causes the rusting of iron?

Ans. Oxidation.

Q.4. Which chemical action is predominant in limestone region?

Ans. Carbonation.


Q.1. Which important matter is formed by weathering?

Ans. Soil.

Q.2. Where does humus in soils come from?

Ans. From msn, animals and plants.

Q.3. Give examples of two activities of man helping in weathering.

Ans. Agriculture and mining.

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