NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 16 Science And Scientists Of Medieval Period

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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 16 Science And Scientists Of Medieval Period Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 16 Science And Scientists Of Medieval Period and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 16 Science And Scientists Of Medieval Period Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Notes Paper 223.

NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 16 Science And Scientists Of Medieval Period

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 16 Science And Scientists Of Medieval Period, NIOS Secondary Course Indian Culture and Heritage Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Science And Scientists Of Medieval Period

Chapter: 16

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS

Intext Questions 16.1

Q.1. What subjects were taught in primary schools in the Medieval period?

Ans: Arithmetic, Mensuration, Geometry, Astronomy, Accountancy, Public Administration and Agriculture.

Q.2. The subject ________ was ordered by Akbar to be a compulsory subject of study at primary stage.

Ans: Mathematics.

Q.3. What were the 2 functions of Karkhanas’? 

Ans: (i) Manufacturing agencies.

(ii) Centres for technical and vocational training to young people.

Q.4. Match the following scholars with their words:

Name of ScholarName of Work 
1. Narayana Pandit1. Buddha Vilasini
2. Gangadhar2. Mrga-Paksi-Sastra
3. Ganesa Daivajna3. Ganitakaumudi
4. Hamsadeva4. Lilavati Vyakhya
5. Jahangir5. Tajik
6. Sukracharya6. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri
7. Nilakantha Jyotirvid7. Sukraniti

Ans:

Name of ScholarName of Work 
1. Narayana Pandit1. Ganitakaumudi 
2. Gangadhar2. Lilavati Vyakhya 
3. Ganesa Daivajna3. Buddha Vilasini 
4. Hamsadeva4. Mrga-Paksi-Sastra 
5. Jahangir5. Tuzuk -i-Jahangiri
6. Sukrasharya6. Sukraniti 
7. Nilakantha Jyotirvida 7. Tajik

Q.5. Name 4 please in India during the Medieval period where paper was manufactured.

Ans: Any four out of Kashmir, Sialkot, Zafarabad, Patna, Murshidabad, Ahmedabad, Aurangabad and Mysore.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.2

Q.1. Name the cities where astronomical observatories were set up by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh-II of Jaipur.

Ans: Delhi, Ujjain, Varanasi, Mathura and Jaipur.

Q.2. Name 2 treatises of Ayurveda written during the Medieval period.

Ans: Any two out of Sarangdhara Samhita, Chikitsasamgraha, Yagaratbjara and Bhavaprakas. 

Q.3. What is Firdaus-Hikmat?

Ans: A book written by Ali-bin-Rabban summarised the whole system of Greek medicine as well as the Indian medical knowledge.

Q.4. Which book brings the Arabic, Persian and Ayurvedic medical knowledge together?

Ans: Majiny-e-Diyae.

Q.5. Name 4 crops that were started to be grown in India during the Medieval period.

Ans: Any four out of tobacco, chillies, potato, guava, custard apple, cashew, pineapple.

TERMINAL EXERCISES

Q.1. Describe the education system that developed during the Medieval period.

Ans: (i) The Maktabs and Madrasas came into existence that followed a set curriculum. These institutions used to receive royal partronage. The two brothers, Sheikh Abdullah and Sheikh Azzizullah specialists in Rational Science (Magulat), headed the Madrasas at Sambhal and Agra. Learned men from Arabia, Persian and Central Asia were invited to teach in these madrasas.

(ii) Muslim Sultans and emperors made efforts to improve syllabus of primary schools. Some important subjects like, arithmetic, mensuration, geometry, astronomy, accountancy, public administration and agriculture were included in the course.

(iii) Efforts were made to keep a type of synthesis between the Indian traditional scientific culture and the prevalent approach to science in other countries.

Q.2. Discuss the development in the field of medicine during the Medieval period.

Ans: (i) Efforts were made to develop specialised treatises on different types of diversities, in Medieval period.

(ii) Pulse and urine examinations were conducted for diagnostic purposes.

(iii) The Sarangdhara Samhita recommends use of opium for medicines.

(iv) The rasa chikitsa system, dealth principally with a host of mineral medicines including metallic preparations.

(v) The Tuhfat-ul-Muminin was a Persian treatise written by Muhammad Munin in seventeenth century which discusses the opinions of physicians.

(vi) The Unani Tibb is a significant system of medicine which flourished in India in the medical period.

(vii) Ali-bin-Rabban summarised the whole system of Greek medicine as well as the Indian medical knowledge in his book Firdaus-Hikmat.

(viii) The Unani medicine system came to India along with the Muslims around the eleventh century and soon found a congenital environment for growth.

Q.3. How was irrigation done during this period?

Ans: In the field of irrigation, wells, tanks, canals, rahars, (Persian wheels), charas (bucket made of leather) and dhenkli were used to lift water with the help of yoked oxen, which continued to be the means of irrigation.

Q.4. Write an essay on “Science and Scientists during the Medieval period.” 

Ans: Science and Scientists during Medieval period.

(a) Mathematics in Medieval period:

(i) In the early Medieval period two outstanding works in mathematics were Ganitsara by Sridhara and Lilavati by Bhaskar.

(ii) Ganitsara deals with multiplication, division, numbers, cubes, square roots, mensuration and so on.

(iii) Ganesh Daivajna produced Buddha Vilasini, a commentary on Lilavati, containing a number of illustrations (figures, pictures etc). 

(iv) In 1587 Lilavati was translated in Persian by Faridi.

(v) Bija Ganita was translated by Ataullah Rashidi during Shah Jahan’s reign.

(vi) Nilkantha Jyotirvid, a courtier of Akbar compiled Tajik introducing a large number of per-sian technical teams.

(b) Astronomy in Medieval period:

(i) In astronomy a number of commentaries dealing with the already established astronomical notions appeared. Ujjain, Varanasi, Mathura and Delhi were the main observatories.

(ii) Firoz Shah Tughlaq established observation posts at Delhi.

(iii) Firoz Shah Bahmani under Hakim Gilani and Syed Mohammad Kazimi set up an observatory in Daultabad. Both lunar and solar calendars were in use.

(iv) Mahendra Suri, a court astronomer of Firoz Shah Tughlaq developed an astronomical instrument called Yantraja.

(v) Parameshvare and Mahbhaskariya were famous families of astronomers and almanac-makers.

(vi) Nilkantha Somastuvan produced a commentary on Aryabhatta.

(vii) Kamalakar studied the Islamic ideas on astronomy. He was an authority on Islamic knowledge as well.

(viii) Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II set-up five astronomical observatories in Delhi Ujjain, Varanasi, Mathura and Jaipur.

SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. Who compiled Tajik?

(a) Nilkantha Jyotirvid.

(b) Sridhara.

(c) Bhaskara.

(d) Ganesh Daivajna.

Ans: Nilkantha Jyotirvid. 

2. Buddhivilasini, a commentary on Lilavati was written by:

(a) Nilkantha Jyotirvid.

(b) Sridhara.

(c) Bhaskara.

(d) Ganesh Daivajna.

Ans: Ganesh Daivajna. 

3. Majiny-e-Diyae was a book on:

(a) Mathematics.

(b) Science.

(c) Medicine.

(d) Astronomy.

Ans: Medicine. 

4. Mrga-Pakshi-shastra was compiled by _______

(a) Sheikh Abdullah.

(b) Hamsadeva.

(c) Sheikh Azzizullah.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Hamsadeva. 

5. Mahendra Suri was a court astronomer of _______ who developed an astronomical instrument.

(a) Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

(b) Firoz Shah Bahmani.

(c) Hakim Hussain Gilani.

(d) Parmeshwari.

Ans: Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

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