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NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 11 My Elder Brother
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My Elder Brother
BOOK – I
11.2. LET US UNDERSTAND THE TEXT
11.2.1 PART – 1
I was only a year ……….. could not do likewise.
In life we share relationships of varying intensities with different people both within and outside our family, we have the closest relationship with our family. This story is about two brothers, the narrator Nicky and his elder brother, Valodya. Initially they get along quite well studying and playing together. As they grow up, Nicky starts feeling that Valodya is proud because he believes he is better. Nicky feels quite hurt and thinks that Valodya does not understand his feelings. He resents Valodya’s ability to have different hobbies which he is unable to imitate.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.1
Q.1. The two brothers were not much different in age or built. But the younger brother says, “I was no companion for him.” Give two reason Why Nicky tell so?
Ans. Younger brother says because:
(i) Valodya was better in games.
(ii) He was also better in arguments and manners.
Q.2. What was the effect of this feeling of inadequacy on Nicky’s relationship with his elder brother?
Ans. Due to this feeling Nicky, the narrator felt inferior to his elder brother So he could not have good terms with his brother.
Q.3. Nicky says, “It even seemed to me that Valodya was himself aware of his superiority and was proud of it.”
Do your think Valodya was really proud? Please provide me reason for you response. What made the Nicky feel so?
Ans. No, Valodya was not proudy. He was a men of open heartedness. The narrator felt so because of his own vanity.
Q.4. Nicky was most upset by which aspect of Valodya’s personality?
Ans. Nicky had upsed by each act of Valodya. Valodya had a tucked linen shirt, which Nicky did not have. Whenever Valodya arranged the collor of his shirt, Nicky thought he was doing to show off.
Q.5. Which two qualities of Valodya have been highlighted by the author?
Ans. Valodya was a man of open heartedness and sympathetic attitude.
Q. 6. Choose the right answer to fill in the blanks:
The narrator was ______________.
(i) jealous of his brother.
(ii) angry with his brother.
(iii) critical of his brother’s behaviour.
Ans. (i) jealous of his brother
Q.7. Describe in about 50 words a situation where you were jealous of your friend or sibling. Do you think you were right to feel so? How has it affected your relationship?
Ans. I had a very good friend named Sulekha. We were always together. Once Sulekha was able to get highest marks in maths initially she had failed in maths. This upset me very much. I know this was wrong on my part but I could not resist. Now our relationship has become bad. We hardly talk to each for silly reason I have made the friendship break.
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 11.1
Q. 1. Choose the right answer from the choices given below, which explains the underlined word/phrase.
(a) This idea was inspired by my vanity.
(iii) false pride.
Ans. (iii) false pride.
(b) obtained on the sly.
Ans. (i) secretly.
(c) He was large hearted.
(i) was generous.
(ii) had an enlarged heart.
(ii) was caring.
Ans. (i) was generous.
Q.2. Pick out words from the text which are opposite in meaning to the following words:
Ans. inferiority – superiority.
Ans. nothing – everything.
Ans. misunderstood – understood.
Ans. please – annoy.
Ans. modest – proud.
Ans. selfish – large hearted.
Q.3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences, choosing words from the list given in the box. There is one extra word.
|independent, sensitive, large hearted, impulsive, proud, analytical|
(a) I am _______ to be an Indian.
(b) My friend is so _______ that she keeps changing her mind all the time.
(c) Saira will make a good counsellor as she is _______ to others other’s feelings.
(d) It is good to be _______ about one’s own conduct.
(e) Tasneem is very ________ she does her home work without anybody’s help.
LET US DO 11.1
Given in the box are some describing words/phrases, some applicable to the narrator (Nicky) and some to his brother (Valodya). Put them in the respective columns.
|impulsive, sensitive, fond of reading novels, fond of collecting curios, resentful, vain, analytical, forgiving, generous, proud, well mannered.|
|1. sensitive||1. impulsive|
|2. jealous||2. fond of reading novels|
|3. vain||3. fond of collecting curios|
|4. analytical||4. forgiving|
|5. proud||5. generous|
|6. well mannered|
11.2.2 PART – 2
Once when ………………. we have quarrelled for good.
Do you find it difficult to apologise when you make a mistake? In this unit something similar happens to the narrator. He describes an incident wherein he breaks Valodya’s treasured scent bottle. Nicky realizes that the scent bottle was important for his brother but he pretends to smile in order to show Valodya that he is not bothered about his brother’s. As a result the brothers quarrelled and exchanged heated arguments. They pushed and pulled each other.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.2
Q.1. Who had a passion for ornaments?
Ans. Valodya had passion for ornaments.
Q.2. How did the quarrel between the narrator and his brother start?
Ans. Once the narrator broke Valodya’s scent bottle. He did not apologise but behaved in a casual manner.
Q.3. How did the scent bottle break?
Ans. Nicky broke the scent bottle by accident. It had been just knocked by him.
Q.4. Was the narrator sorry for his behaviour? How do you know?
Ans. The narrator was not sorry for his behaviour. We know this because he said. What does it matter?
Q.5. What annoyed the narrator most?
Ans. The narrator felt most annoyed when Valodya tried to drag him away from the table.
Q.6. What did the narrator do when Valodya dragged him?
Ans. When Valodya dragged the narrator away from the table, narrator got hold of the leg of the table. The table fell over and all the China and glass ornaments crashed to the floor.
Q.7. If you were in the narrator’s place how would you have behave?
Ans. If, I had been in narrator’s place I would have apologised and felt sorry for the action. I would not have hesitated for a moment to think that I was wrong. My apology would have softened my elder brother’s heart.
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 11.2
I. Choose the right answer, which explains the underlined words/phrases.
1. Well, now it is all over between us.
(a) all the problems are over.
(b) everything is finished.
(c) the relationship is broken.
Ans. (c) the relationship is broken.
2. We have quarrelled for good.
(b) for good reasons.
(c) it is very good.
Ans. (a) forever.
II. Find words in the text which mean the opposite of the following words:
Ans. intentionally – accidentally.
Ans. happily – sorrowfully.
Ans. frowned – smiled.
Ans. intelligent – stupid.
Ans. pleasant – disgusting.
III. Fill in the blanks choosing appropriate words the box.
smilingly, sorrowfully, accidentally, disgusted.
1. While preparing tea I ________ put salt into the cup instead of sugar.
2. I feel _______ to see the poor being mistreated.
3. I bade farewell to my friend ________.
4. She always helps people _________.
LET US DO 11.2
Diary/Learning Journal: We grow through our experiences. A diary or a learning journal is a good tool to record our experiences. It can bring back many memories (happy or sad) at a later point in time. It can also help us to realise how our experiences shape our personality over a period of time. We would encourage you also to keep a diary/learning journal to record your experience.
Recall an incident when you helped someone. Record your feelings in your diary/learning journal in about 100 words.
Ans. 1st January, 20XX
I was an eye-witness to a road accident. While I was on the road, a Maruti Car hit a scooterist on the crowded cross road, and slipped away. The scooterist fell down unconscious. I immediately took him up to Parmarth Mission Hospital. He was admitted then and the man came to his senses. I got his telephone number and rang to his parents. They appeared there in an hour. I related them the whole incident. They thanked me and gave me a shawl. I refused but at their reluctance I had to accept it. I was lucky to help a man and thus did a noble deed.
11.2.3 PART – 3
We did not ___________ tears in my eyes.
After the incident of the scent bottle the brothers stop talking to each other. Nicky is very disturbed and feels uncomfortable because he realizes that he is wrong. But Valodya is quite composed and behaves in a normal way. He asks for forgiveness for having upset Nicky Nicky is touched by Valodya’s gesture, with tears in his eyes he shakes hands with Valodya and feels better.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.3
Q.1. How did Nicky feel after the day’s incident?
Ans. After the incident Nicky felt uneasy. He was sorry when he felt he was in the wrong.
Q.2. How was Valodya’s reaction different from that of Nicky?
Ans. Valodya behaved in a very normal way. He did his lessons properly. He even talked with his sisters happily.
Q.3. Why did Nicky feel uncomfortable and ashamed to be alone with his brother?
Ans. Nicky felt uncomfortable because he was guilty his action. He could not face his brother. He was sure that when he was alone, they would fight.
Q.4. How did Valodya show that he was keen to make friends with Nicky in spite of day’s events?
Ans. Valodya did not want Nicky to feel uncomfortable. He went to Nicky and apologised in a natural voice.
Q.5. What does Valodya’s behaviour show about his character?
Ans. Valodya’s behaviour showed that he was very large hearted and forgiving.
Q.6. What do the tears in Nicky’s eyes say about his feelings? Were they fears of joy, sorrow, anger or repentance? Please provide two reasons for you answer.
Ans. Nicky realized the truth. He become emotional. He was moved by his brother’s actions. These were tears of sorrow and repentance in his eyes.
Q.7. What did Nicky do to show that he was sorry for all what he hed done in the morning?
Ans. Nicky was sorry for his action. He squeezed Voldya’s hand. He asked for Valodya’s forgiveness.
Q. 8. Imagine that you had a fight with your friend. How would you try and apologise and become friends again? Hint: It may help if you can recall a real incident.
Ans. Once I and my friend decided to go for picnic. We decided to go to Appu Ghar. There we decided to go for picnic. Here we got on all kinds of swings. After that we got into heated discussion regarding food to be eaten.
Our discussion turned into a fight. Finally we come home without eating. For many days we didn’t talk.
At last my mother intervened, and we were united.
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 11.3
I. Choose the right answer, which explains the underlined phrases:
1. Valodya raised his head and ________ looked me in the face.
(a) looked at my full face.
(b) looked straight into my eyes.
(c) looked only at my face.
Ans. (b) looked straight into my eyes.
2. Our eyes met and I knew that he understood me.
(a) we made eye contact.
(b) we stared at each other.
(c) we banged into each other.
Ans. (a) we made eye contact.
II. Fill in the blanks choosing words from the list given in the box.
uncomfortable, meaningful, natural, contrary.
1. ________ to popular belief many cats dislike milk.
2. Though he didn’t say anything to me his looks were quite ________.
3. My friends speaks in a _______ way even when she is among strangers.
4. I feel very _______ in the company of people who do not respect others.
LET US DO 11.3
1. Read the Hindi story ‘Bade Bhai Sahib’ (Elder Brother) by Munshi Prem Chand. You can find it on internet or in the nearest library. This story is also about two brothers and narrated by the younger brother. The narrator also has some problems with his elder brother. You will find some similarities and differences between bade bhai sahib and Valodya, and between, the younger brother in Prem Chand’s story and Nicky.
2. Compare and contrast the two stories.
LET US TALK 11.1
Read the following dialogue and note the underlined expressions, which we use when we are sorry and want to apologise.
Reema: I’m sorry, Anu I have damaged your watch. I know you treasured it so much. I am really very, sorry.
Anu: You know it was a gift from my father. I wish you were more careful with it.
Reema: Believe me, Anu, I was not at all careless, but while I was returning home started raining. I wanted to protect the watch from the rain and tried taking it off hurriedly. In the haste, the watch slipped from my hand, fell on the ground and got damaged.
Anu: Oh, so. it was an accident. Never mind. Please forgive me for what I said. Let’s forget it now. You don’t have to apologise again and again. I’m sure it can be repaired.
Reema: So nice of you. You are really very large hearted.
LET US DO 11.4
Recall an incident when you may have hurt another person and did not express regret and ask for forgiveness. Enact a role play talking to the person expressing regret and seeking forgiveness. Use the dialogue above as a model
Ans. Mayank: I’m sorry Tanveer for abusing you. I didn’t mean it.
Tanveer: You acted very rude.
Mayank: I don’t know what got wrong with me.
Tanveer: You should have acted very carefully and in a sensible manner.
Mayank: I shall try to act property and in a thoughtful manner Tanveer: I shall excuse you for the last time.
Mayank: OK fine.
11.3. LET US LEARN GRAMMAR
You have already studied about clauses in Lesson 7 “Shoeshine” Let us revise it.
Read the following sentences:
1. He was better than me.
2. I began to realise that I was no companion for him.
Note the difference between the two sentences. Sentence 1 is a simple sentence. It has a subject and a predicate. Sentence 2 is a complex sentence. It consists of two parts, each part having a subject and a predicate.
A clause is a group of words, which has a subject and a predicate with a finite verb of its own.
For example, in sentence 1 ‘He’ is the subject and ‘was better than me’ is the predicate with the finite verb was.
Read the following simple sentences.
1. Arjun fought many battles.
2. We should love our neighbours.
Note that in sentence 1, the noun ‘Arjun’ is the subject (doer). If we ask the question Arjun fought what, the answer is ‘many battles’ The answer ‘many battles’ is the object (the action done) of the verb fought
In sentence 2, ‘We’ (doer) is the subject and our neighbours is the object of the verb ‘should love’.
Note: The subject (doer) may be a noun (Arjun) or a pronoun (we, I, you, he, she, it, they)
Exercise – 1
Identify the subject and the object in the following sentences.
Hint: To identify the subject ask the question who.
To identify the object ask the question – what.
1. He is reading a novel.
2. My mother teaches English.
3. I love mangoes.
4. Shiela is fond of reading.
5 Shiela plays cricket.
6. The toy car made a loud noise.
You have learnt how to identify the subject and object in a sentence with one clause. Now let us learn about a complex sentence. A complex sentence has more than one clause.
Now read the following sentences from the lesson. Note that each sentence has more that one clause.
1. It even seems to me that Valodya himself was aware of his superiority.
2. I’m sure that I would have felt happier
3. I knew that he understood me.
Independent clauses and dependent clauses.
In sentences which have two or more clauses we can identify:
(a) an independent clause (also called the main clause or principal clause)
(b) a dependent clause (also called the subordinate clause)
An independent clause does not depend on other clauses to make a complete statement.
A subordinate clause cannot stand by itself and depends on the main clause to be meaningful.
Types of subordinate clauses
Subordinate clauses are of three types:
- Noun clause
- Adjective clause
- Adverb clause
Subordinate Noun clause Let us understand the noun clause and its functions.
Look at the following sentences:
1 Nicky realized that he was jealous of Valodya.
2. I was hoping that they would accept my proposal.
3 Nicky always felt that Valodya behaved very well.
In the above sentences the underlined clauses are subordinate noun clauses functioning as object to the verbs realized, was hoping and felt respectively.
Nicky realized (what?) that he was jealous of Valodya.
I was hoping (what?) that they would accept my proposal.
Nicky felt (what?) that Valodya behaved very well.
You would see that the noun clause does the same function in a complex sentence which a noun/pronoun does in a simple sentence.
Exercise – 2
Identify the noun clauses in the following sentences and define their functions:
1. We all know that honesty is the best policy.
Ans. We all know that honesty is the best policy. (what)
2. He told me that he was going to Lucknow next week.
Ans. He told me that he was go to Lucknow next week. (where)
3. Saurav told his mother that he would return late.
Ans. Saurave hold his mother that he would return late. (when)
4. Nicky knew that Valodya was very generous.
Ans. Nicky knew that Valodya was very generous. (What)
5. My brother said that he was working hard.
Ans. My brother said that he was working hard. (What)
6. Jaya Lakshmi told me that she had got an award for bravery.
Ans. Jaya Lakshi told that she had got an award for bravery. (why)
11.5 LET US WRITE
Writing a Diary: Is it very difficult to make up with friends with whom you have fought? How do you feel? At the end of the day Valodya and Nicky became friends again. Nicky, the younger brother writes a page in his diary to record his feelings about his brother’s behaviour. Read it,
14th Sept, 20XX 6 p.m.
It was very strange to see Valodya in my room after the day’s incident when I had broken his scent bottle, most of his curios, China and glass ornaments. I had thought it was all over between us. But he was unusually polite and apologetic. He said sorry. At last he had forgiven me. I was moved by his behaviour. I wonder, what had happened to me! We were both changed persons.
Diary does not have signature.
When Nicky wrote his diary he mentioned:
- the date and time when he recorded his feelings.
- the action of his elder brother, Valodya.
- the event (the quarrel between the two brothers).
- the consequences of the event they parted from each other as if they had quarrelled for ever.
- Valodya’s feelings of regret as well as his own
- he signed the page.
WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT
In this lesson you have learnt:
- The importance of accepting one’s mistakes.
- Seeking forgiveness and moving ahead.
- Forgiving other people’s mistakes.
- We may fight with one another but it is essential that we accept our mistake and apologise.
- We also must be large hearted like Valodya and forgive other
- Forgiveness helps take away the anger and jealousy, and heal the hurt.
Q.1. Do you think Valodya was responsible for the narrator’s mental suffering and pain? (Explain in about 50 words)
Ans. No, Valodya was not responsible for narrator’s mental suffering and pain Infact narrator himself had build air of inferiority around himself. He always thought that he is being neglected. Valodya never wanted to give any mental suffering and pain.
Q.2. After breaking his brother’s scent bottle or dropping the curios off the table Nicky didn’t say sorry because (tick the right choice):
(i) he thought the was not wrong.
(ii) he thought it was a petty matter.
(iii) he wan’t large hearted like his brother.
(iv) he pretended that it was not a mistake.
Ans. (iv) he pretended that it was not a mistake.
Q. 3. Why did Valodya ask his younger brother’s forgiveness? Is it because (tick what you think is true to the story)
(i) he had a large heart and was willing to forgive his younger brother and become friends again.
(ii) he was really in the wrong.
(iii) he thought, to err is human and to forgive divine.
(iv) he wanted to show his superiority.
Ans. (i) he had a large heart and was willing to forgive his younger brother and become friends again.
Q.4. Do you find any change or development in Nicky’s character during the course of the story? Please explain the changes in 100 words.
Ans. From the very young age Nicky felt that he was no companion for him either in age, in interest or in ability. Every act of Valodya made him feel inferior. Nicky felt that Valodya was responsible for his every sorrow and pain. He tried a show that nothing bothered him. He even broke bottle of perfume. But as Valodya expressed his feeling’s Nicky felt different. Now he moved forwards and apologised with tears in Nicky’s eyes. Nicky asked for apology
Q. 5. What do you think brought about this change?
Ans. This changes was brought about by Nicky’s maturity. Now he could understand that elder brother was in no way wrong but had only acted wisely.
PASSAGE FOR COMPREHENSION
Read the passages given below and answer the questions that follow each:
PASSAGE – 1
I was only a year and some months younger than Valodya, we grew up, studied and played together No distinction of elder and younger was made between us. But just about the time I am speaking of I began to realize that I was no companion for him, either in age, in interests or in ability. It even seemed to me that Valodya himself was aware of his superiority and was proud of it.
1. Identify ‘T’ in this passage.
Ans. “I” stands for Nicky.
2. What was Valodya proud of?
Ans. Valodya was proud of his age, interests and ability.
3. What did Nicky begin to realize?
Ans. Nicky had begun to realize that he was no companion for Valodya in age, in interest or in ability.
4. Write the opposite of ‘superior’.
Ans. Superior – inferior.
PASSAGE – 2
He would suddenly develop a passion for pictures, himself take up painting, spend all his money buying them and beg them of his drawing. master, of papa and of grandmamma. Then it would be a craze for curios to decorate his table, collecting them from every room in the house, or a mania for novels which he obtained on the sly and read all day and night. I could not help being impressed by his hobbies but I was too proud to imitate him arid too young and not independent enough to choose a hobby for myself.
1. Name the passion that would suddenly develop in Valodya.
Ans. It is the passion for pictures.
2. In what way he would spend all his AMEM money?
Ans. Valodya would spend all his money in buying pictures.
3. What was Valodiya’s specific craze?
Ans. Valodya had specific craze for curios to decorate his table.
4. Why could Nicky not imitate Rip Valodya?
Ans. Nicky could not imitate Valodya because evin he was too young to do.
PASSAGE – 3
Once when his passion for ornaments was at its height, I went up to his table and accidently broke an empty brightly-coloured little scent. bottle. “Who asked you to touch my things, “demanded Valodya coming into the room and seeing how I had upset the symmetry of the different treasures on his table.” And where is the scent bottle “you must have…..”
I knocked it over by accident and it broke. What does it matter? “Do me the favour-never dare touch my things again”, he said.”
1. What does the first line indicate?
Ans. indicates that Valodya’s passion for ornaments was as its height.
2. What did Nicky break accidently?
Ans. Nicky broke an empty brightly-coloured little-scent bottle of his elder brother.
3. What warning did Valodya issue to Nicky?
Ans. Valodya warned him never dare touch his things again.
4. Make a sentence from “upset”.
Ans. Rahim was upset when he could not find his papers on the table.
PASSAGE – 4
Valodya took my word and tried to drag me away from the table, but I was beside myself by now; I got hold of the leg of the table and tipped it over “There now!” And all his China and glass ornaments crashed to the floor.
“You disgusting little boy?” Cried Valodya, trying to save some of his falling treasuses.
“Well, now it is all over between us” “I thought as I left the room.” We have quarrelled for good.”
1. What did Valodya do in anger?
Ans. Valodya tried to drag Nicky away from the table.
2. What happened when Nicky tipped over the table’s leg?
Ans. When Nicky tripped over the table’s leg, the China and glass ornaments crashed to the floor.
3. In what way Valodya abused Nicky?
Ans. Valodya called Nicky a disgusting little boy.
4. Find word from passage which means to fight.
PASSAGE – 5
We did not speak to each other till evening. I felt myself in the wrong and was afraid to look at him and could not do anything all day. Valodya, on the contrary, did his lessons well, and after dinner talked and laughed with sisters an usual.
1. Identify ‘we’ in these lines.
Ans. ‘We’ here stands for Nicky and Valodya.
2. What did Nicky realize?
Ans. Nicky realized that he was in the wrong.
3. What did Valodya do all day?
Ans. Valodya passed his routine as usual doing his lessons, dinner and other facts.
4. Find word which means ‘opposite’
PASSAGE – 6
As soon as afternoon lessons were over I left the room. I was too scared, uncomfortable and ashamed to be alone with my brother. After our history lesson in the evening I took my exercise books and started towards the door. As I passed Valodya, though I wanted to go up to him and make friends, I scowled and put on an angry expression. At that moment Valodya raised his head and, with a meaningful smile, looked me full in the face. Our eyes met and I knew that he understood me; but some irresistible feeling made me turn away.
1. When did the narrator leave the room?
Ans. The narrator left the room as soon as the afternoon lessons were over.
2. What was the narrator feeling?
Ans. The narrator was feeling scared, uncomfortable and ashamed.
3. What was something in the mind of the narrator?
Ans. The narrator Nicky wanted to go up to his brother Valodya for friendship.
4. What made Nicky turn away?
Ans. It was his irresistible feeling that made Nicky turn away.