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NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 10 Noise: How it Affects Our Lives
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Noise: How it Affects Our Lives
BOOK – I
10.2 LET US UNDERSTAND THE TEXT
10.2.1 PART – 1
What is noise?_________ at a lower level.
Do you know that a loud and unpleasant sound which we don’t enjoy is called “noise”? The sound of thunder, fire engines and screeching of tyres are some examples of noise. The level of sound can be measured scientifically in decibels. Sound is measured with an instrument called decibel meter.
The softest sound that we humans can hear is at Zero decibel. We usually speak in the range of 45-75 decibels which is comfortable to our ears. When we shout or raise our voice we are speaking at a higher decibel that is hurtful to our ears.
At 85 decibels noise becomes harmful. Sound that measures more than 140 decibels can cause great damage.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.1
I. Answer the following questions:
Q.1. What is the difference between ‘sound’ and ‘noise’?
Ans. Sound is something which is produced within limits. Noise is one which is not pleasant and agreeable to our ears.
Q.2. List out three examples of ‘sound’ and ‘noise’.
Ans. Examples of sound are:
(a) Birds chirping.
(b) Soft music.
(c) Soft laughter.
Examples of noise are:
(a) Tyres screeching.
(b) Music from loudspeakers.
Q.3. What is the unit of measuring sound called?
Ans. Unit of measuring sound is ‘decibels’.
Q.4. Up to what level is sound tolerable to the human ear?
Ans. Ear can tolerable sound upto 10 decibels.
Q. 5. What are the sounds that are intolerable and why?
Ans. Sounds which are difficult to tolerate are blaring of loudspeakers, honking of horns, sounds of quarrelling. These are annoying because they cause head aches, they hurt my ears and they are loud.
II. Say whether the following state-ments are true of false:
(a) Every sound is noise to human ears.
(b) The sound made by a fire engine is noise.
(c) Noise can be injurious to health.
(d) Noise does not pollute the environment.
(e) Noise below 145 decibels is safe for every human being.
III. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences:
(a) The sound made during normal conversation measures _______ decibels.
Ans. 45-75 décibels.
(b) Beyond _______ decibels, noise can be painful to the ears.
(c) The screech of a car tyre is very _______ to the ears.
(d) The method of measuring sound is _______.
(e) In order to protect ourselves against it is necessary to keep a check on noise.
Ans. Hearing loss/deafness.
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 10.1
Q. 1. Find out some words from the dictionary which have the same meaning as noise.
Ans. Din, row, tumult, clamour, hulbub.
Q. 2. Given below are some words/phrases. Write ‘noise’ or ‘sound’ against each as the case may be.
(a) screech of tyres.
Ans. screech of tyres – noise.
(b) soft music.
Ans. soft music – sound.
(c) ticking of a clock.
Ans. ticking of a clock – sound.
(d) beating of drums in a marriage procession.
Ans. beating of drums in a marriage procession – noise.
(e) normal speech.
Ans. normal speech – sound.
(f) clap of thunder.
Ans. clap of thunder – noise
(g) sound made by a fire engine.
Ans. sound made by a fire engine – noise.
Q.3. There are many words in English that sound the same but are spelt differently. Such words are called ‘homophones’ (literally meaning same sound). Example: tale, tail, mail, male, meat, meet.
Fill in the blanks choosing the right word from the brackets:
(a) We applied the _______ and the car stopped. (breaks/brakes)
(b) Sumeet danced with joy when he ______ that he had got a job. (heard/herd)
(c) The window _______ were made of unbreakable glass. (pains/panes)
(d) The dog chased the _______ of sheep. (herd/head)
(e) Don’t keep the glass near the gas, it will _______. (brake/break)
(f) He has a sharp _______ in his knee because of a fall. (pain/pane)
(g) I can’t _______ having cats in the house. (bare/bear)
(h) Everyone must have at least the _______ necessities of life. (bare/bear)
(i) I check my _______ every day. (mail/male)
(j) The peacock is a _______ bird (mail/male)
10.2.2 PART – 2
Noise pollutes _______ every week.
We all understand that air pollution causes breathing problems and water pollution can cause a variety of diseases like typhoid Noise pollution is also very harmful. Do you know that noise around us affects us even while we sleep? We just don’t realise its harmful effects immediately however the problems are felt later.
Research shows us that continuous exposure to noise can cause headaches, heart problems and also hearing loss.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.2
Q.1. Write three bad effects of noise.
Ans. (a) causes headaches.
(b) causes deafness.
(c) causes danger to the heart and blood vessels.
Q.2. Was Naseer aware of the damage the noise caused? How do you know?
Ans. No, Naseer was not aware of the damage it caused. This is made clear from the fact that he always boasted that he could sleep when there was noise of traffic or television around him.
Q.3. How did noise affect Naseer?
Ans. Naseer got frequent headaches because of noise.
Q.4. Why did Naseer often have hadaches?
Ans. Naseer had headache because he used to be exposed to noise even when he was sleeping.
Q.5. What do you think Naseer should do to reduce his headaches?
Ans. Naseer could use ear plugs, request his neighbours to reduce the volume of the television or more to a quieter locality.
Q.6. Why do blood vessels in the brain expand.
Ans. Blood vessels in the brain expand because when we are exposed to noise.
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 10.2
Q.1. Find words from the passage which mean the following:
(a) complete loss of hearing.
Ans. complete loss of hearing – deafness.
(c) pain in the head.
Ans. pain in the head – headache.
Ans. found – discovered.
Q.2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the passage.
(a) One should not about ones riches.
(b) Our blood vessels shrink in the winter and in the summer.
(c) After a medical check up the school authorities that most of the children had poor eyesight.
(d) Whenever I go out in the hot sun I get a
LET US DO 10.2
Q.1. On any working day, observe your own behaviour from morning till evening.
Note how much noise has been caused by you to pollute the environment. Also try to think what noises could have been avoided and list them in the table below. Write down how you plan to reduce noise in your life.
Noise pollution generated by me.
|Avoidable noise pollution||Unavoidable noise pollution|
|Avoidable noise||Unavoidable noise|
|honking of horns||roar of airplanes|
|speaking very loudly||whistle of trains|
|banging doors||running of buses|
|slamming books||heavy rain and storm|
We can reduce the noise in our life by following methods:
1. We should minimise using machines.
2. Do not permit use of loudspeakers in residential areas.
3. Keep the harms at loud level.
4. Use of loud music systems should be banned.
LET US DO 10.3
Observe your neighbourhood and write down one incident that has violated the norms laid down by the government.
Ans. Once in my neighbourhood there was a great problem our neighbours had a son who had rock band of his own. He had set-up the whole rock music system at home. He would often play the music very loud with his them members. There was a lot of disturbance and confusion. At times late in night noise continued many times resident welfare association tried to interfere but not solution was got.
10.2.3. PART – 3
It’s the length of time ______ quiet ourselves.
Is there no escape from the bad effect of noise? Let’s read this passage and find out.
We should realise the harmful effects of loud noise and think of ways to bring down the noise level. We can observe silence for sometime and avoid playing loud music.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.3
Answer the following:
Q.1. How is the inner ear damaged?
Ans. Inner ear is damaged when we are exposed to very loud noise.
Q.2. What will happen if we ourselves start thinking about the harmful effects of noise?
Ans. We would then become careful and stop creating unnecessary noise.
Q.3. Why does the author advise people not to slam or throw books on a desk but put them down gently?
Ans. In such a case unnecessary noise is created.
Q.4. List out different gadgets used at home. Which of these make the most noise? How does its noise affect the members of your household?
Ans. The different gadgets which make noise are mixers, hair dryers, music systems, television etc. The noise disturbs the members of the family. Due to this they can’t study. The patients, old people and infants suffer the most.
LET US DO 10.4
Now that we have become aware of the harmful effects of noise pollution, discuss with your friends how you can help reduce it and contribute towards protecting the environment.
1. Make posters and slogans depicting the ban of the following things between 10 p.m. and 6 am:
- bursting of crackers.
- beating of drums.
- amplified music.
Let’s try to form groups of students and go from door to door and create awareness in people.
- to observe silence for sometime daily.
- to talk softly.
- not to shout at each other.
- not to provoke animals to wail and cry.
- not to play loud music.
- not to use too many gadgets at a time.
- not to use loud speakers at night.
- to switch off the engines of cars or scooters at red lights.
- not to honk horns as far as possible.
- not to burst crackers even during. festivals, functions and ceremonies
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 10.3
Q.1. Find words from the passage which are opposite in meaning to the following:
Ans. outer – inner.
Ans. harmless – harmful.
Ans. noisier – quieter.
II. Compound Words:
Look at the following words that occur in the passage:
- vacuum cleaner (vacuum + cleaner).
- washing machine (washing + machine).
- tape recorder (tape + recorder).
- dishwasher (dish + washer).
These words are formed by combining two words and are called compound words.
Compounding is a process of word formation by which usually two (but sometimes more) words are combined to form anew word. These words may be noun + noun, noun+ verb, noun + adjective, adjective + noun, adjective + verb etc. etc. Compound words, thus formed, behave as independent words and not merely as combinations of other words. They are listed separately in the dictionary. They lose their independent entity and become part of a new word which functions as a single word even if it is written as two words.
Look at some more compound words.
blacklist, black box, clean-shaven, flowerpot. In the word flowerpot the two words flower and pot lose their identity and the third word flowerpot behaves like any other noun. It can have a plural form and can take an adjective. A red flowerpot is not a pot for growing red flowers but a flowerpot which is red in colour.
Similarly the words black and list lose their independence and become a new word, meaning a list of the names of people, companies, products that are considered unacceptable and must be avoided.
Blackbox is a small machine in an airplane that records all the details happening during a flight and is useful for finding out the cause of an accident, if any.
Clean- shaven refers to a man who does not have a beard.
In some cases the meaning of the compound word is not very different from the combined meanings of their parts, e.g washing machine is a machine used for washing and an armchair is a chair which has support for the arms, therefore, it has to do with arms as well as chair.
However, there are many compound words whose meanings have nothing to do with the meanings of their parts. Their meanings are idiomatic, e.g blockhead means a foolish person. Hardware stands for tools and equipments used in the home or garden.
Compound words come in three forms
- closed- two parts written without a space between them, e.g afternoon, pickpocket,
- open-two parts written with a pace between them, e.g. fancy dress, mother tongue.
- hyphenated- two parts with a hyphen between them, e.g. man-eater, baby- sitter.
2. Form compound words taking one word from column A and one from column B. Look up the dictionary to find out if they are open, closed or hyphenated compound words and write them accordingly.
10.3. LET US LEARN GRAMMAR
Revision exercise: Yes/No questions
1. In the lesson, ‘A Birthday Letter’ you have learnt how to form ‘Wh’ questions.
Form questions to which the following may be the answers, based on the underlined phrases.
(a) A decibel meter is used to register sound.
(b) A decibel zero sound is equal to the faintest sound heard by the human ear.
(c) Noise damages ears at 85 decibels.
(d) Actual pain is felt at 140 decibels.
Besides ‘wh ‘questions we can also form questions beginning with ‘Do’, ‘Is’, ‘Can’ etc. Such questions can be answered only in ‘yes’ or ‘no’ Hence they are called yes/no questions.
Read the following questions and their answers:
Question: Do you know the harmful effects of noise?
Answer: Yes, noise causes hearing loss and many other diseases.
Question: Is there an escape from the bad effects of noise?
Answer: Yes, we can take many steps to cut down noise pollution and avoid its bad effects.
Question: Can you bake a cake?
Answer: No, I can’t.
2. From questions beginning with ‘Do’, ‘Is’ and ‘Can’ to which the following may be answers.
(a) Answer: Yes, noise can a lot of damage.
Question: Do you __________________?
Ans. Do you think noise can cause any damage?
(b) Answer: No, loud noise is not all good for health.
Question: Is _______________________?
Ans. Is loud noise good for health?
(c) Answer: Yes, children can help to control noise pollution.
Question: Can _____________________?
Ans. Can children help to control noise pollution?
10.4. LET US WRITE
Note making and summarising are important study skills.
A. Note Making: You should make notes whenever you read or listen to anything important. While listening, you may note important words or phrases.
While reading it is better to make notes in the form of tables, flow charts etc., so that the organisation plan of the entire reading passage can be seen at a glance.
Read the first part of the lesson “Noise: How it affects our lives and fill in the notes in the plan given below:
Examples: (1) ___________________.
Measuring unit of sound: _____________.
Measuring instrument of sound: _________.
Title: NOISE-HOW IT AFFECTS OUR LIVES
Definition: Any unpleasant noise is sound
Examples: (1) wail of fire engine.
(2) clap of thunder.
(3) screech of car tyres.
Measuring unit of sound: decibel
Measuring instrument of sound: Decibel meter decibel effect means:
Zero: faintest sound
40 to 75: range for human speech
85: damages ears
100: hearing loss
140: pain in the ears
Effect of decibel level on ears:
45 to 75 ______________________
Read Parts 2 and 3 and make notes in the format given above.
B. Summarising: Read the following passage which is a summary of Part 1 of the lesson “Noise: How it affects our lives”.
Today sound can be measured scientifically. The level of sound is measured in decibels by a decibel meter. Most people speak in the range of 45-75 decibels. This is comfortable on our ears, while a level above 100 decibels causes pain. We must, therefore, be careful about the amount of noise we make or hear.
Make similar summaries of Part 2 and Part 3 of the lesson.
Part 2: Note making
Noise compared to: _________________
Ans. Noise compared to smoke, foul water, dirty air and litter.
Noise causes: _____________________
Ans. Noise causes: illness and deafness.
Examples of reaction of various people to noise
Reaction of Naseer: ________________
Ans. Not affected at all by noise.
Reaction of Doctor number I: __________
Ans. Reaction of Doctor number I: Sound can cause danger to hearts and blood vessels.
Reaction of Doctor number II: All players in rock band suffered hearing loss.
Part 2: Note making
Inner ear is damaged by _____________.
Ans. Inner ear is damaged by being exposed to loud noise.
Ways to cut down noise in school ____________.
Ans. Ways to cut down noise in school-stop slamming book on the desk, walk quietly in corridor.
Steps to be followed at home __________
Ans. Steps to be followed at home. Use one mechanical device at one time.
Steps taken in ones ________________
What one needs to do _______________
Ans. What one needs to do – to listen more speak less.
WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT
In this lesson you have learnt about noise pollution and its effects. Over a period of time, pollution has had its affects on land, water and air. But of late noise pollution has become a big problem. We use loudspeakers to celebrate festivals and for functions, blare car horns and burst crackers but do we realise how much harm it causes? We are the ones who create noise so we should do our best to reduce noise and create a better environment. We can help the government and society to create an environment that is noise free by doing away with avoidable noise.
Q.1. What happens if somebody is exposed to loud noise for a long period?
Ans. When we are exposed for a long time, we can suffer hearing loss.
Q.2. In what way can school children help reduce noise pollution?
Ans. School children can be very helpful. They can walk quietly along the corridors, they can talk softly and not burn crackers. They should also not run in the corridors.
Q.3. Do you know why we cover our ears when there is too much of noise?
Ans. We cover our ears because too much noise is painful to our ears.
Q.4. Can you guess too much the sound of thunder would measure in terms of decibels?
Ans. Thunder would measure 100-145 decibels.
Q.5. List out noises that you find intolerable and given suggestions to reduce them.
Ans. Many noises are very imitating, intolerable noises.
(a) Very loud music.
(b) Very loud DJ.
(c) Running of heavy vehicles.
(c) Running of heavy machines.
The best way to reduce noise is do proper oiling and limit the sound beyond a certain limit.
Q.6. This Diwali what is the best gift you can present yourself and to others to lead a healthy life?
Ans. The best gift we can give to our friends during Diwali is by saying no to crackers. By this we can keep away both noise as well as sound pollution.
PASSAGE FOR COMPREHENSION
Read the passages given below and answer the questions that follow:
PASSAGE – 1
What is noise? Any unpleasant sound is noise. It’s something we don’t like. It’s something that makes us cover our ears. The wail of a fire engine, a clap of thunder, the screech of a car’s tyres when the brakes are put on suddenly.
How much sound is too much? A what level does sound become noise? Well today sound can be measured scientifically. The level of sound is measured in decibels. A decibel meter is used to register sound. Zero decibel is equal to the faintest sound heard by the human ear.
1. What is noise?
Ans. Any unpleasant sound is called noise.
2. What does noise make us do?
Ans. Noise makes us cover our ears.
3. How is the level of sound measured?
Ans. The level of sound is measured in decibels.
4. What is zero decibel equal to?
Ans. Zero decibel is equal to the faintest sound heard by human ear.
PASSAGE – 2
A decibel meter in a quiet bedroom may register around 35 decibels. In a classroom during a quiet period it may register around 50 decibels. This level is comfortable on the ears. It is said that most people speak in a range between 45 and 75 decibels.
Noise damages ears at 85 decibels. Hearing loss can begin when the noise level goes above 100 decibels, and actual pain is felt at 140 decibels. Some people, however, may experience pain at a lower level.
1. What can decibel meter register in a quiet bedroom?
Ans. A decibel meter can register around 35 decibels in a quiet bedroom.
2. Which level of noise is comfortable on the ears?
Ans. 50 decibels of noise is comfortable on the ears.
3. At what level of noise one can feel pain?
Ans. Pain is normally felt at 140 decibels (level of noise).
4. Write the antonym of ‘Comfortable’.
Ans. Comfortable troublesome, uncomfortable.
PASSAGE – 3
Noise pollutes our environment just as much as smoke, foul, water dirty air and litter. It can cause illness and deafness. The human body never gets used to noise. It continues to react even though a person thinks he or she has become used to all the surrounding noises. For instance, Naseer who lived in an apartment on a busy street often boasted that he could sleep through any kind of noise. He claimed he just didn’t hear it. Well, Naseer could sleep through the roar of traffic and the blare of a television set in the next apartment, but he didn’t know that while he slept, his body was reacting to the stress of the noise.
1. What does noise pollute?
Ans. Noise pollutes the environment and causes illness and deafness.
2. When does human body get used to noise?
Ans. Human body never gets used to noise.
3. What does the body do while sleeping during some noise?
Ans. The body reacts to the stress of noise while sleeping during some noise.
4. Write down the boasting of Naseer?
Ans. Naseer boasted that he could sleep in the blare of noise.
PASSAGE – 4
A doctor in West Germany after studying the effects of noise, concluded that sounds heard by persons when they are asleep can cause danger to their hearts and blood vessels. May be this was the reason why Naseer had so many headaches. Noise causes the blood vessels in the brain to expand. It brings on pain Another doctor was researching the effects of loud music by talking to players in a rock band. One of them called out, “Speak up, Doctor we can’t hear you”
The doctor discovered that all the players suffered from some hearing loss and two of them were partly deaf The noise level of the music they played ranged from 105 to 115 decibels and they played for more than eleven hours every week.