NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 14 Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes

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NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 14 Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 6 Social Science Chapter 14 Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes, NCERT Class 6 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – I: History, The Earth – Our Habitat: Geography, Social and political Life: Civics. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes

Chapter: 14

THE EARTH – OUR HABITAT [GEOGRAPHY]

Q. 1. Answer the following questions briefly:

(a) What is the true shape of the earth?

Ans. The earth is slightly flattened at the poles. It is called as Geoid. This is the true shape of the earth.

(b) What is a globe?

Ans. Globe is true model (miniature form) is the true shape of the earth.

(c) What is the latitudinal value of the Tropic of Cancer?

Ans. The latitudinal value of the Tropic of Cancer is 23¹/₂° N.

(d) What are the three heat zones of the Earth?

Ans. The three heat zones of the earth are:

(i) Torrid Zone.

(ii) Temperate Zone.

(iii) Frigid Zone.

(e) What are parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude?

Ans. Parallels of latitude:

(i) All parallel circles from the equator upto the poles are called parallels of latitudes.

(ii) Meridians of longitude: The lines of reference running from the North Pole to the South Pole are called meridians of longitude.

(f) Why does the torrid zone receive maximum amount of heat?

Ans. The torrid zone receive maximum amount of heat because it is located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn i.e. 23°N to 23 14 S. It receives the sun’s rays vertically.

(g) Why is it 5.30 p.m in India and 12.00 noon in London?

Ans. The earth rotates about 360° in 24 hours. Each degree of its longitudes corresponds to difference of 4 minutes. The Standard Meridian of India is 82° 30′ E and that of London is 0″. This means a difference of 4 mins. x 82.5 = 330 minutes = 5.5 hours. That is why it is 5.30 p.m. India and 12.00 noon in London.

Q. 2. Tick (✓) the correct answers:

(a) The value of the prime meridian is

(i) 90°

(ii) 0°

(iii) 60°

Ans. (i) 0°

(b) The frigid zone lies near:

(i) the Poles.

(ii) the Equator.

(iii) Tropic of Cancer.

Ans. the Poles.

(c) The total number of longitudes are:

(i) 360

(ii) 180

(iii) 90

Ans. (i) 360.

(d) The Antarctic circle is located in:

(i) the Northern hemisphere.

(ii) the Southern hemisphere.

(iii) the Eastern hemisphere.

Ans. (ii) The Southern hemisphere.

(e) Grid is a network of:

(i) parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes.

(ii) the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

(iii) the North Pole and the South Pole.

Ans. (i) parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes.

Q. 3. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The Tropic of Capricorn is located at _______.

Ans, 23¹/₂% S.

(b) The Standard Meridian of India is __________.

Ans. 82¹/₂% E.

(c) The 0′ Meridian is also known as __________.

Ans. Prime Meridian.

(d) The distance between the longitudes decreases towards _________.

Ans. Poles.

(e) The Arctic Circle is located in the __________ hemisphere.

Ans. Northern.

THINGS TO DO

Draw a diagram of the earth showing earth’s axis, the Equator, Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle.

SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

Q. 1. What are parallels of latitudes?

Ans. The imaginary lines drawn between the two poles and are parallel to the equator is known as parallels of latitudes.

Q. 2. What is the extent of the Torrid Zone?

Ans. Torrid Zone lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn i.e. 0.

Q. 3. How can we know the latitude of a particular place?

Ans. The latitude of a particular place is measured by the angle of the pole star from the particular place.

Q. 4. Name the hottest and the coldest zones of the earth.

Ans. The hottest zone of the earth is Torrid zone. The coldest zone of the earth is Frigid zone.

Q. 5. What is the imaginary line that divides the earth into two halves?

Ans. The imaginary line that divides the earth into two halves is Equator.

Q. 6. What are the two reference points for locating places on the earth?

Ans. Two reference points for locating places on the earth are North Pole and South Pole.

Q. 7. Name the two sets of imaginary circles that help us to locate places on the earth.

Ans. Two sets of imaginary circles that help us to locate places on the earth are Parallels of latitude, Meridians of longitude.

Q. 8. What is the latitude of the North Pole?

Ans. 90°.

Q. 9. Between which two parallels does the Torrid Zone lies.

Ans. Torrid Zone lies between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.

Q.1. How did geographers discover the Prime Meridian?

Ans. Unlike parallel of latitudes, all meridians are of equal length. Thus, it was difficult to number the meridians. Hence, all countries decided that the counting should begin from the meridian which passes through Greenwich. It is the place where the British Royal Observatory is located. This meridian is known as Prime Meridian.

Q. 2. What is the difference between the Torrid zone and the Frigid zone?

Ans. The difference between the Torrid zone and Frigid zone are:

Q. 3. What are the characteristics of Temperate zone?

Ans. Characteristics of Temperate zones are:

(a) The mid-day sun never shines overhead on any latitude beyond the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

(b) The angle of the sun’s rays goes on decreasing towards the poles.

(c) This region is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere and Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere.

(d) They have moderate temperature.

Q. 4. What do the terms GMT and IST mean?

Ans. (a) GMT stands as Greenwich Mean Time. The time at the Prime Meridian is called the Greenwich Mean Time which is the standard time for the U.K. Since, the earth rotates from the west to east, any place east of the Prime Meridian will have its sunrise or midday earlier than Greenwich Mean Time. Any place which is west of Prime Meridian will have its sunrise or midday later than GMT.

(b) IST stands as Indian Standard Time. The local time on the standard meridian is the standard time for the whole country. This is called as Indian Standard Time.

Thus, the difference of time between Indian Standard Time (IST) and GMT is 5% hours.

Q. 5. Why are longitudes important for us?

Ans. Longitudes are important for us because:

(a) It helps us to calculate the local time of a place.

(b) It helps us to locate a particular place on a globe or a map.

(c) On a given longitude, local time remains the same.

Q. 6. What is the importance of 82% E meridian in India?

Ans. In India the longitude of 824 E is treated as the standard meridian as it passes through more or less through the central part of India.

Q. 7. Into how many times zones is the world divided? On what is the standard time in a zone based?

Ans. The world is divided into 24 time zones of an hour each. The standard meridian in a time zone is based on a meridian passing centrally through 14 zone.

Q. 8. Why is frizid zone considered as the coldest zone?

Ans. In Frizid Zone sun does not rise much above the horizon. Sun’s rays are always slanting and provide less heat. That is why this zone is considered as the coldest zone.

Q. 1. Describe the three heat zones of the Earth.

Ans. The three heat zones of the earth are:

(a) Torrid Zone:

(i) It is very hot zone.

(ii) It lies between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

(iii) It receives the direct heat and experiences maximum heat and temperatures throughout the year.

(iv) It is also called Tropical zone.

(v) Southern part of India lies in the Torrid zone.

(b) Temperate Zone:

(i) It is neither too hot nor too cold.

(ii) It lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle.

(iii) Sun’s rays are always slanting.

(iv) The angle of the sun’s rays decreases as we move towards the poles.

(c) Frigid Zone:

(i) It means very cold.

(ii) It lies between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole.

(iii) The sun never rises above the horizon.

(iv) The rays are extremely slanting and do not carry much heat.

(v) These regions remain very cold throughout the year.

Q. 2. Explain with a suitable diagram how longitudes are marked on the surface of the earth.

Ans.

Q. 3. Why is standard time necessary for India?

Ans. Standard time means local time of a particular place or a central longitude adopted as a uniform time for the whole country. We select a central meridian or longitude passing near about the middle of the country. We call its standard meridian of that country. We make it a local time as the standard time for all the places within the country. The Standard Meridian of India is 82% E (82°30’E). This is running close to Allahabad. The local time in this meridian is the standard time for the whole country. That is why standard time is necessary to India.

Q. 4. What are the important parallels of latitudes?

Ans. The important parallels of latitudes are:

(a) Tropic of Cancer:

(i) It is an important parallel of latitude in the northern hemisphere.

(ii) It is located at an angular distance of 2334 north of the equator.

(b) Tropic of Capricorn:

(i) It is an important parallel of latitude in the southern hemisphere.

(ii) It is located at an angular distance of 23½” south of the equator.

(c) Arctic Circle: It lies at an angular distance of 66% north of the equator.

(d) Antarctic Circle: It lies at an angular distance of 66% south of the equator.

Q. 5. Define the following terms and explain their usefulness:

(a) Globe.

(b) Equator.

(c) Prime Meridian.

Ans. (a) Globe: It is a true model of the earth. It gives us a true picture of the shape of the earth. The continents and oceans are shown correctly on a reduced scale.

(b) Equator: The line which divides the globe into two equal halves is known as the equator. The northern half of the earth is known as the northern hemisphere and the southern half of the earth is known as the southern hemisphere. Equator is thus an imaginary circular line and is a way important reference point to locate places on the earth.

(c) Prime Meridian: The longitude running through the British Royal Observatory at Greenwich near London is referred to the Prime Meridian and it is numbered as 0°. Prime Meridian helps us in locating places on the globe.

(d) Longitude or Meridian: A longitude is the angular distance of a place, east or west of in the north-south direction from the the Prime Meridian. These are lines of reference drawn North Pole to the South Pole and measured in degrees.

HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS

Q. 1. Why do we have different time zone?

Ans. We have different time zone because of the sun. The sun does not shine with the same intensity in each and every parts of the world. It is shinning at one place than it does not shine the place opposite to it. So, if we have the same time then 12 noon will mean midday at one place and midnight at another.

Q. 2. Why people would feel extremely cold in the frigid zones?

Ans. People would feel extremely cold in the frigid zones because of its location. The frigid Mines lies between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole. Since, it receives a slanting ray of the sun people residing in that area would feel cold.

Q. 3. How can position of a place be determined?

Ans. We can determine the position of a place with the help of both latitude (horizontal lines) and the longitude (vertical lines). Latitudes and longtitudes together or a mesh called grid. The point of intersection of a parallel and meridian gives the exact location of a place. The vertical lines represent the east and horizontal lines determine the north latitudes.

Q. 4. A day and night cricket match is played between India and Pakistan. It had started at 2 P.M. in London. At what time would the match begin in India?

Ans. If the match started at 2.P.M. in London, in India the match would begin at 7:30 PM This is because the difference in the time of IST and GMT is 5½ hours. So, if we add 5½+2=7½ hours ie., 7:30 pm.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Q. 1. If a person lies in a torrid zone, what would be his condition?

Ans. If a person lies in torrid zone he would feel very hot because:

(a) This zone lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn S.

(b) The person would get the direct rays of the sun throughout the year. Thus, he would feel extreme hot.

Q. 2. Why all lines of longitude converge or meet at the two poles?

Ans. All lines of longitude converge or meet at the two poles.

This is because:

(a) There are total 360 lines of longitudes.

(b) 180 E longitude and 180° W longitude is the same line.

(c) We don’t mention E’ and ‘W with this longitude.

Q. 3. How are heat zones formed?

Ans. Heat zones are formed because as we move away from equator to poles, the climate also changes from hot to warm,warm to cool and cool to cold in both hemispheres. This is because the sun’s rays became increasingly slanting and therefore heating becomes less.

Q. 4. If a person is attending meeting in Assam in India at 5.00 P.M, at what time he would attend meeting in Washington?

Ans. If the person is attending meeting in Assam in India at 5. P.M. He would attend meeting in Washington at 10:30 PM. This is because of the difference of IST and GMT. There is difference of 5½ hours in GMT.

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

I. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:

Tick (✓) the correct option:

(a) Tropic of Cancer lies at:

(i) 66½° N.

(ii) 23½° N.

(iii) 0°

Ans. (ii) 23½° N.

(b) Parallels of south of the equator is called:

(i) North latitude.

(ii) South latitude.

(iii) North longitude.

Ans. (ii) South latitude.

(c) Which imaginary line divides the earth into two parts?

(i) Axis.

(ii) Poles.

(iii) Equator.

Ans. (iii) Equator.

Il. FILL IN THE BLANKS:

(a) __________is the longest line of latitude.

Ans. Equator.

(b) The standard meridian of India passes through __________.