NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Garbage In Garbage Out

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NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Garbage In Garbage Out

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Garbage In Garbage Out

Chapter: 16


Q. 1. (a) Which kind of garbage is not converted into compost by the red-worms? 

Ans: Garbage such as pieces of cloth, polythene bags, broken glass, aluminium wrappers, nails, old shoes and broken toys etc., are not converted into compost by red worms. 

(b) Have you seen any other organisms, besides red worm, in your pit, if yes, try to find out their names. Draw pictures of these. 

Ans: Yes, there are other organisms in a pit of composting such as bacteria and some fungi which decompose the biodegradable wastes.

Q. 2. Discuss:

(a) Is garbage disposal the responsibility only of the government?

Ans: (a) No, the garbage disposal is our responsibility also. Because clear air, water and locality helps us to make healthy. So every citizen should care for waste disposal. We should not throw wastes carelessly. We should use less and reuse them and recycle the We should collect garbage carefully in dustbins and should save environment to pollute. It is our duty to keep our environment healthy and clean.

(b) Is it possible to reduce the problems relating to disposal of garbage?

Ans:  Problems related to garbage disposal can be reduced easily, if we think carefully for disposal of wastes. We should collect our kitchen or shop garbage in separate bags and dispose of in municipal dustbin. We should not throw any waste materials in the gali or on road. Everyone of us should use separate dustbins. Industry should use effluent plants for their waste disposal. Organic and agricultural wastes should be used for composting garbage properly discarded into landfill.

If we properly follow these actions then disposal problem can be reduced.

Q. 3. (a) What do you do with the leftover food at home?

Ans: The left over food in our home is known as kitchen wastes. It comes in group -I category, which wastes are biodegradable by micro-organisms into useful products. Left over food at home is dumped into compost pits with other wastes such as rag, papers, and peels of vegetables which converted into manure after some days and used as food for plants.

(b) If you and your friends are given the choice of eating in a plastic plate or a banana leaf platter at a party, which one would you prefer and why?

Ans: In a party I and my friend choose to eat in a banana leaf platter, due to the following reasons:

Banana leaf platter is an agricultural waste and it can be converted into compost after use. Compost is a manure, which is used by plants and crops for getting necessary nutrients. By using banana platter we also save our environment and surroundings to become pollute, which is helpful for our health and healthy environment.

Q. 4. (a) Collect pieces of kinds of paper. Find out which of these can be recycled.

Ans: Pieces of newspapers, magazines, used envelops, note books, shiny plastic coated papers and shiny paper which are waxy in nature.

From all these types of papers, plastic coated paper and shiny paper, could not be recycled. But paper pieces like newspapers, used envelops, notebooks, magazines, etc., can be recycled and be converted into useful products, which are harmless for our society 

(b) With the help of a lens look at the pieces of paper you collected for the above question. Do you see any difference in the materials of recycled paper and a new sheet of paper?

Ans: When we see the recycled paper with the help of lens, we find that there is no great difference between them. The recycled paper quantity decreases upto some level and there are roughness in recycled paper. This type of paper can be used for making carry bags and other packing materials.

Q. 5. (a) Collect different kinds of packaging materials. What was the purpose for which each one was used? Discuss in groups. 

Ans: Collect different types of packaging materials such as, plastic cords, plastic bags, strips, jute bags and cords, clothe strips and any packaging materials from your locality and market shops. Discuss with your in groups, in which each packaging materials used and write in your notebook.

(b) Give an example in which packing could have been reduced. 

Ans: The shopkeepers should buy large amount of goods like nuts or coffee. By doing so they reduce the waste and packaging materials. They should buy goods in bulk and bigger quantities in a single box package. For example, we can buy the large package of sugar, rice, cereals, tooth-pastes and detergents, etc. This type of shopping will reduce the wastages.

(c) Write a story on how packing increases amount of garbage.

Ans: Packing increases the amount of garbages. Every goods or things are sold in small packets of plastic materials which are thrown out after use. This increases the garbage. Plastic bags, cans, aluminium foils and many other packaging materials are used thrown out after use. These packaging materials increase garbage. Soft drinks,tooth-pastes and days many other goods now-a- s are sold in plastic cans and aluminium cans.

Now-a-days every thing/goods such as ghee, refined, soaps, detergents, cereals and all eatable goods are sold in small packets. This increases the garbage upto a large extent.

In this way we can say that packaging materials increases the amount of garbage.

Q. 6. Do you think it is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilizers? Why?

Ans: We think that compost is better to use instead of chemical fertilizers because compost provides much nutrients to crop plants. It is easily absorbed by plant roots. Compost is cheaper than chemical fertilizers. It increases the fertility of On the other hand chemical fertilizers do not get decomposed by natural method and they increase water and soil pollution. Chemical fertilizers are easily soluble in water. By leaching they reach the underground water and pollute water.

Therefore, we can say that it is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilizers.



Q. 1. What type of worms are used for vermi composting?

Ans: Red worms.

Q. 2. Name the structure present in red worms which helps them in grinding the food which they eat.

Ans: Gizzard.

Q. 3. What is the colour of dustbins in which biodegradable garbage is collected?

Ans: Green.

Q. 4. What is the colour of the dustbins for collecting the non-biodegradable garbage? 

Ans: Blue.

Q. 5. Name two waste materials which can be recycled.

Ans: Paper, metals.

Q. 6. What name is given to the manure prepared by the action of red worms on kitchen wastes?

Ans: Vermi-compost.

Q. 7. Name two components of garbage which can rot when buried into the soil.

Ans: Fruit and vegetable peels, left-over foods.

Q. 8. Name two components of garbage which cannot rot when buried into the soil. 

Ans: Broken plastic toys, glass bottles.

Q.9. What do you think is the best way to dispose of left-over food cooked at home?

Ans: Composting…

Q. 10. What type of paper is difficult to be recycled?

Ans: Shiny or plastic coated paper. 

Q. 11. Define composting.

Ans: The rotting and conversion of same materials into manure is called composting.

Q. 12. What are red-worms?

Ans: Redworms are a type of earthworms which help in preparing compost from the kitchen wastes and parts plants or animals.

Q. 13. Which type of wastes is not used as red food?

Ans: Wastes such as salt containing oil, vinegar, meat and milk should not be used as red worm food.

Q. 14. How red worms grind the food? 

Ans: Red worms do not have teeth for grinding food. They have a structure called gizzards for grinding their food.

Q. 15. What is the suitable season for the survival of red worms? 

Ans: They need normal temperature, not very hot nor very cold. They also need moisture around them.

Q. 16. What is ‘Papier mache’?

Ans: It is a paste made of clay and paper and some rice husk.

Q. 17. Why is it advisable to carry a cloth bag while going to market?

Ans: It will decrease the use of plastic bags and also production of garbage.

Q. 18. What reason do you think is of constantly increasing amount of garbage?

Ans: Constantly increasing human population and modernisation.

Q. 19. Give two examples of non- biodegradable wastes.

Ans: (i) Plastics. 

(ii) Glass objects.

Q. 20. Suggest a method for the disposal of solid wastes such as used paper, plastics and metal articles.

Ans: Recycling.

Q. 21. Name two examples of biodegradable wastes,

Ans: (i) Vegetable peels. 

(ii) Paper.

Q. 22. Name a place situated in Delhi which is built on a landfill.

Ans: The Indraprastha Park in New Delhi is built on a landfill.

Q. 23. How plastic bags are harmful for stray animals?

Ans: Stray animals look for food in these bags, eat up swallowing these, sometimes they die due to this.

Q. 24. Define domestic wastes.

Ans: Domestic wastes include sewage, kitchen wastes and garbage etc.

Q. 25. What is incineration? 

Ans: The process of burning of wastes in a large furnace is called incineration.


Q. 1. How do biodegradable wastes affect the environment?

Ans: Biodegradable wastes usually do not pollute environment. Biodegradable wastes pollute the environment only when their amount is large that it cannot be decomposed into harmless substances by the micro-organisms in nature, at the right time. Y

Q. 2. How do wastes affect the environment?

Ans: Non-biodegradable wastes cannot be decomposed by micro-organisms in nature. Due to this, the non- biodegradable wastes cannot be made less toxic hence cause a lot of pollution in the environment.

Q. 3. Explain, why, it is better to use paper bags than plastic bags.

Ans: (i) We should use paper bags because paper is a biodegradable material. Waste paper can be decomposed in nature by micro-organisms into harmless substances and hence does not pollute the environment.

(ii) We should not plastic bags (polythene bags) because plastic is a non- biodegradable material. Plastic cannot be decomposed in nature by into harmless substance and hence pollutes the environment.

Q. 4. X is a very useful material which the part of our daily life in one form or other. of X needs cutting down of forest trees. This material is biodegradable and it can be recycled to make other useful products like cardboard etc. 

(a) What could material X be?

Ans: Paper

(b) Name any three things made of X which are used in our everyday life. 

Ans:  Books, Notebooks and Newspaper.

Q. 5. We should not add wastes containing salts, pickles, oil, meat and milk products in vermi composting pit to feed the red worms. Why?

Ans: Addition of substances such as salts, oil, pickles, vinegar, meat and milk products to vermi compost pit causes growth of disease causing small organisms. They may cause harm to red worms and hinder in preparation of vermi compost.

Q. 6. Waste of which of the following two materials is more polluting – polythene or paper? Give reasons for your answer.

Ans: Polythene is more polluting than paper because polythene is non-biodegradable and it is not broken into simpler components by the decomposing micro-organisms. Therefore, it remains as such in the soil and causes pollution of the soil.

Q. 7. How earthworms are called farmers’ friends?

Ans: Earthworms are farmers’ friends because they help to increase the fertility of the soil. They eat dust and make soil fertile. They are used to prepare vermicompost,which  gives many nutrients to soil and ultimately to crop plants. So they are called farmers’ friend. 

Q. 8. Give two advantages of recycling old newspapers.

Ans: (i) Recycling of paper wastes save trees.

(ii) Recycling of paper saves energy and natural resources. 

Q. 9. Why should we not burn dried plant leaves and husk? What is the best way to get rid of them? 

Ans: Burning of dried leaves, husk and other plant parts produces smoke and gases that are harmful to our health.

Dried leaves, husk and other plant parts can be used for preparing compost. 

Q. 10. We should not add wastes. containing salts, pickles, oil, vinegar, meat and milk products in vermi-composting pit to feed the red worms. Why?

Ans: Addition of substances such as salts, oil, pickles, vinegar, meat and milk products to vermin-compost pit causes growth of disease-causing small organisms. They may cause harm to red worms and hinder in preparation of vermi-compost.

Q. 11. There are two dustbins A and B of different colours which are installed in a colony collecting two types of garbage (or waste materials). The wastes like broken glass articles and metal objects are put in dustbin A whereas vegetable peels and left-over food are put in dustbin B. 

(a) What is the colour of dustbin (i) A and (ii) B?

Ans: (i) Blue.

(ii) Green.

(b) What name is given to the wastes like those in (i) dustbin A, and (ii) dustbin B? 

Ans: (i) Non-biodegradable wastes.

(ii) Biodegradable wastes.

(c) Which dustbin contains wastes which can be converted into compost? 

Ans: B.

(d) Which dustbin contains wastes which can be recycled?

Ans: A.

Q. 12. Explain why, it is better to use compost (or vermi-compost) instead of chemical fertilizers.

Ans: (i) Making compost (or vermi-compost) is quite cheap whereas chemical fertilizers are very expensive.

(ii) Compost (or vermi-compost) is a natural manure which does not harm the soil but chemical fertilizers are man- made which may harm the soil in the long run.

Q. 13. Give any two ways which biodegradable substances would affect the environment.

Ans: (i) They may produce foul smell during decomposition process. 

(ii) They may produce some harmful gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, etc which can further cause global warming.

Q. 14. Give any two ways which non-biodegradable substances would affect the environment.

Ans: (i) These inert substances simply persist in the environment. This means that these substances require land area for dumping.

(ii) Excess fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals change soil chemistry and also affects aquatic life.

Q. 15. How can the non-useful components be reused?

Ans: The non-useful components of the garbage separated by safai are karamcharis. This separated non-useful. components of garbage is spread over the landfill and then covered with a layer of soil. Once the landfill is completely full, it is usually converted into park or a playground. For the next 20 years or so, no building is constructed on it.


Q. 1. What do red worms eat?

Ans: Red worms do not have teeth. They grind their food with the help of a structure called gizzard. Worms eat wide variety of materials, such as, paper, manure, fruit and vegetable waste, coffee and tea remains and ground yard waste. Worms prefer a slightly acidic pH (about 6.5).

Q.2. What do we do the useful components (biodegradable) of the garbage?

Ans: Generally, useful components of the garbage are used to make compost.

(i) For preparing compost, waste materials like fruit and vegetable peels, egg shells, used tea leaves, waste food, dry leaves, newspaper, etc. should be dumped in a pit.

(ii) The pit is covered with soil. 

(iii) After 20-25 days, observe the garbage. If the garbage is not turned back in colour and no foul smell is emitted, it means rotting of garbage is complete and compost is ready to use.

Q. 3. How does a landfill basically work?

Ans: The basic working of a landfill involves three steps:

(i) Deposit the refuse.

(ii) Compact it with bulldozers. 

(iii) Cover the garbage with at least 6 inches deep of soil after each day operation and with a final cover of 2 feet when the area is full.

Q. 4. Two separate pits A and B are dug in the ground about 30 cm deep. Material C is placed in pit A whereas another material D is placed in pit B. Both the pits are then covered with soil. When the pits were dug up after a month, it was found that material C remained as such but material D is ‘rot’ completely. 

(a) What type of material is: (i) C and (ii) D? 

Ans: (i) Non-biodegradable. 

(ii) Biodegradable. 

(b) Give one example of material: (i) like C,and (ii) like D.

Ans: (i) Polythene sheet.

(ii) Paper.

(c) What is responsible for rotting of material D?

Ans: Action of micro-organisms present in soil.

Q. 5. Explain recycling of paper.

Ans: Collect old newspapers, magazines, used envelops, note-books and other papers and take a frame fitted with a net. Tear the paper into small pieces, put them in a tub and pour water over it. Let the paper remain submerged in water for a day. Make a thick paste of by pounding it.

Now spread the wet pastes on the wire mesh fixed to the frame. Put it gently to make the thickness of layer of paste as uniform as possible. Wait till waste drains off. Now remove the layer of paste from the frame, spread it on a sheet of newspaper by putting some weights so that these do not curl up. Thus recycled paper is prepared.

Q. 6. What is meant by the spoilage of landscape?

Ans: Spoilage of landscape is directly to the improper waste management specially solid waste. The solid wastes may be slag heaps from mines, paper mills, sugar mills, fertilizers and our household. They make our surrounding unhygienic. These spoils the landscape and destroy greenery of some areas. Soil becomes toxic in nature, wastes accumulated places often becomes home of rats, houseflies, mosquitoes and bacteria. These things destroy the beauty and usefulness of the place.

Q. 7. What are the health problems faced by the rag-pickers?

Ans: Rag-pickers manually separate non- biodegradable wastes from the heap of garbage in the cities. These people are always exposed to biomedical wastes like tape worms, liver flybe eggs, materials, broken glass, used syringes, needles etc. which can harm them to a great extent.

Some of the occupational hazards associated with these wastes handling are infectious of different types like skin and eye and respiratory, intestinal. Some diseases also result due to bites of animals. Exposer to dust can result in cancer. Exposer to toxic agents is usually followed by its absorption and entry into the blood cancer.

Q. 8. What is meant by biodegradable waste materials? Explain with an example. How do they affect the environment?

Ans: Those waste materials which can be broken down to non-poisonous or harmless substances in nature in due course of time by the action of micro-organisms like certain bacteria, are called biodegradable wastes. A biodegradable waste decomposes naturally and becomes harmless after some- times. For example, vegetable peels are a biodegradable waste material. If we bury some vegetable peels in the ground and cover it with soil, we will find that they are decomposed by the micro-organisms in the soil after a few days.

Biodegradable wastes usually do not pollute the environment.

Q. 9. How do you prepare vermi – compost?

Ans: Vermicompost is prepared by the help of red worms. A pit of 30 cm deep is dug and a comfortable home is made for the red worms in it. Spray a thick layer of sand in it, stalk of plants’ husk or green leaves spread over the sand layer. Sprinkle some water to make this layer wet. Now put some red worms in this pit. Cover it with a sheet of cloth over the pit. Red worms eat fruits wastes, coffee and tea remains. They grind their food. They eat equal to their weight. After 3/4 weeks soil like material is seen in the pit. This is vermicompost. Remove it from the pit and use after dried in sunlight. 

Q. 10. What is composting? What are its benefits?

Ans: Composting is defined as the decomposition of heterogeneous matter in a mixed microbial population in the moist, warm and aerobic environment. The micro- organisms convert organic waste into humus which has a significant value for crops. The end product is called compost. It consists of nutrients and minerals like N, P, K and other trace elements. 

Compost has the following benefits:

(i) It increases the fertility of the soil, rich in nutrients.

(ii) It also contains trace elements like copper, manganese and molybdenum etc. essential for growth of plants. 

(iii) It improves the texture of the soil and increases the water absorption capacity of the soil.

Q. 11. What is meant by non- biodegradable waste materials? Explain with an example. How do they affect the environment?

Ans: Those waste materials which cannot be broken down into non-poisonous or non- harmless substances in nature by the action of micro-organisms are called biodegradable wastes. For example, plastic is a non-biodegradable waste material. If we bury a polythene bag in the ground and cover it with soil, we will find that the polythene bag has remain unaffected even after a month. Non-biodegradable wastes cause a lot of pollution in the environment. 

Q. 12. If all the waste we generate is biodegradable, will this have no impact on the environment?

Ans: Biodegradable waste will be recycled easily by the decomposers such as bacteria and fungi. It will have only this bad impact on our environment that, many of the gases released during decomposition process may result in global warming.

Q. 13. The red worms can convert kitchen waste into a natural manure called X. When red worms eat rotting kitchen waste, a structure Y in their body helps in grinding the wastes which they eat as food. The substance Z is usually mixed with the kitchen waste to help the red worms to grind the food inside structure Y. What are X, Y and Z?

Ans: X: Vermi compost. 

Y: Gizzard.

Z: Powdered egg shells (or sea-shells). 

Q. 14. In one method P of disposal of garbage, the non-useful part of garbage is burnt at a high temperature in a special kind of furnace Q. This reduces the large amount of garbage into a small amount of ash. This ash is then disposed of by dumping in a low lying area of ground called R. What are P, Q and R?

Ans: P: Incineration.

Q: Incinerator.

R: Landfill.

Q. 15. What is land filling? How can the process of land filling be helpful to us?

Ans: Land filling is a method of disposing waste by burying it. This is an old garbage disposal method and almost all countries in the world use this method in some form or the other.

Generally, the waste is buried under the ground. The most important thing should be considered is the fact that the disposal area should not bring any environmental hazard causing harm to human health. Once the land is filled, it can be used to redevelop a park on the same land.


Q. 1. What can we do to minimize overuse of plastics and deal with garbage?

Ans: (i) We make a minimum use of plastic bags. We reuse the bags wherever it is possible to do so without any adverse effects. 

(ii) We insist shopkeepers use proper bags. We carry a cloth or jute bag when we go out for shopping. 

(iii) We do not use plastic bags to store eatables. 

(iv) We do not throw plastic bags here and there, after use.

(v) We never burn plastic bags and other plastic materials. 

(vi) We do not put garbage in plastic bags and throw it away. 

(vii) We use vermicomposting at home and lead with other kitchen wastes carefully. 

(viii) We recycle papers. 

(ix) We use both sides of paper to write. We use a slate for rough work. We use blank sheet of paper left in our note-books for rough works. 

(x) We make our family friends and others to follow proper practices for disposing different kinds of wastes.

The most important point to know and think about is that-more garbage we generate, more it will be to get rid of it. 

Q. 2. What we can do to manage waste?

Ans: The following are some of the things we can do to manage waste:

(i) Throwing garbage in the correct bin. 

(ii) Segregating household garbage into biodegradable and non-biodegradable. 

(iii) Reducing the use of plastics.

(iv) Using materials that can be recycled. 

(v) Buying things with least amount of packaging to avoid generation of waste. 

Q. 3. Write some problems caused by wrongful use of plastics.

Ans: The problems associated with plastics are caused. due to the way we use and dispose off plastics. 

Some examples are:

(i) We generally throw away plastic bags after use. These bags get into drains/sewer system and block them. As a result dirty water may stagnate or spill over to the surrounding area. This may become a breeding ground for mosquitoes.

(ii) Plastic bags are often used for disposing the kitchen waste or left over foods. The stray animals looking for food may swallow such plastic bags. The plastic bags may block their food pipe and cause death of such animals.

(iii) People burn rubber, plastic waste during winters to protect themselves from the cold. Plastics/rubbers on burning give out toxic and poisonous gases. These gases may cause respiratory problems, eye problems and even cause cancer.

Higher Order Thinking Skill Questions

Q. 1. Why is the process of reuse of materials even better than recycling? 

Ans: The process of reuse is better than recycling because though some energy is required to recycle old objects but no energy is required during reuse.

Q. 2. Can you replace the following170 packaging material with those can be recycled or reused?

(i) Milk packets of polythene. 

Ans: Glass bottles or recycling polythene.

(ii) Dry eatables in polythene.

Ans: Paper bags coated with thin sheet of aluminium or recycling polythene.

(iii) Gift items packed with shiny material. 

Ans: Beautifully designed paper or material.

(iv) Glass tumblers packed in thermocol box.

Ans: Glass tumblers packed in straws placed in card-board boxes, as thermocol cannot be recycled.

Q. 3. What we should do to minimize overuse of plastic?

Ans: (i) Reduce our dependence on plastic bags.

(ii) Carry our own cloth bag or jute bag for shopping.

(iii) Use the soft drink plastic bottles for storing water. 

(iv) Say ‘no’ to plastic to save the future generation.

Q. 4. How recycling of certain things help in saving our environment? Explain.

Ans: Plastic, paper, glass and metals can be recycled easily. 

Their recycling help in saving our environment in the following ways: 

(i) Recycling helps in saving land as we do not require large land area for dumping waste.

(ii) Recycling prevents the faster depletion of natural resources. 

(iii) Recycling prevents pollution of land, water and air.

Q. 5. What is meant by three R’s? 

Ans: Three R’s are: REDUCE, RECYCLE and REUSE

(i) REDUCE: It means using less of available natural resources.

(ii) RECYCLE: It means collecting plastic, paper, glass and metal items and recycling them to make required things. 

(iii) REUSE: It means using things again and again. It is better than recycling because the process of recycling uses some energy.

Skill Based Questions

Q. 1. Observe the picture of worms given below. They do not have teeth, then how they grind food. For what purpose we use them? 

Ans: (i) They are a type of earthworms called red worms. 

(ii) They do not have teeth. They have a structure called gizzard, which help them to grind the food. Addition of powered egg shells or sea shells can help in grinding of food.

(iii) We use them to convert the biodegradable waste into useful compost.


Q. 1. Fill in the following blanks with suitable words: 

(i) Vermi-composting used __________to turn kitchen waste into a very high quality manure. 

Ans: Red worms.

(ii) All the packaging materials are useless and go out as _________.

Ans: Garbage.

(iii) The colour of dustbin in which biodegradable garbage is collected is _____________.

Ans: Green.

(iv) The method of preparing compost with the help of red worms is called _____________.

Ans: Vermi composting.

(v) Red worms have a structure called ____________ which help them in grinding their food.

Ans: Gizzard.

(vi) The waste material after using by us is called __________.

Ans: Garbage.

(vii) Plastic bags ____________ the drains and the sewer system. 

Ans: Chokes.

(viii) Converting plants and animal waste including that from kitchen into manure is called ___________.

Ans: Compositing.

(ix) Recycling of paper saves _____________.

Ans: Trees.

(x) The part of garbage which cannot rot in nature from harmless substance is called _____________.

Ans: Non-biodegradable.

Q. 2. State whether the following statements are true or false: 

(i) Red worms are a kind of earthworms. 

Ans: True.

(ii) Biodegradable waste can be used as landfills.

Ans: False.

(iii) Paper can be recycled to get useful products. 

Ans: True.

(iv) Vermi compost is prepared in a landfill.

Ans: False.

(v) Garbage in the open field produces disease causing small organisms.

Ans: True.

(vi) All components of garbage can be converted into compost. 

Ans: False.

(vii) We can recycle paper from waste paper used by us.

Ans: True.

(viii) We should use plastic bags in place of jute bags for carrying grocery from the market.

Ans: False.

(ix) Domestic wasted is biodegradable wastes.

Ans: True.

(x) The wastes generated by shops, restaurants, hotels, institutions etc.are called industrial wastes.

Ans: False. 

Q. 3. Match the items given in Column A with those in Column B:

Column AColumn B 
1. Low lying open area(a) Gizzard
2. Product of rotten garbage(b) Papier mache
3. Increase micro-organisms in a compost pit (c) Landfill
4. Compost prepared with the help of red worms(d) Manure
5. Structures that help red worms to grind their food (e) Meat
6. A paste made of clay and paper(f) Vermi compost


Column AColumn B 
1. Low lying open area(c) Landfill 
2. Product of rotten garbage(d) Manure 
3. Increase micro-organisms in a compost pit (e) Meat
4. Compost prepared with the help of red worms(f) Vermi compost
5. Structures that help red worms to grind their food (a) Gizzard
6. A paste made of clay and paper(b) Papier mache

Q. 4. Write one word for the following: 

(i) The useless waste material produced at home, office, shopping complexes, schools etc.

Ans: Garbage.

(ii) The process of rotting and conversion of kitchen and agricultural waste into manure.

Ans: Composting.

(iii) Converting certain waste materials into nearly original usable form. 

Ans: Recycling.

(iv) Materials present in the garbage that can be reused or recycled. 

Ans: Useful component of the garbage.

(v) An animal waste which can be converted into a combustible gas.

Ans: Animal dung.

(vi) Substances which can be decomposed into simpler substances by microbes.

Ans: Biodegradable.

(vii) Substances which cannot be decomposed by microbes into simpler substances. 

Ans: Non-biodegradable.

(viii) A place where solid non-biodegradable waste is dumped. 

Ans: Landfill.

(ix) A method of using worms to transform organic waste into a nutrient rich fertilizer.

Ans: Vermi- composting.

(x) Waste which is hazardous to health.

Ans: Toxic waste. 


(i) Landfill is a/an: 

(a) Open area.

(b) High lying open area.

(c) Open area near a river/lake.

(d) Low lying open area.

Ans: (d) Low lying open area. 

(ii) The rotting of garbage is said to be completed when the garbage:

(a) Rot completely and not smell. 

(b) Rot almost completely but still smell bad.

(c) Rot only partially.

(d) Not change at all.

Ans: (a) Rot completely and not smell. 

(iii) Which of the following animals are used for making compost?

(a) Red worms.

(b) Housefly.

(c) Cockroach.

(d) Mosquitoes.

Ans: (a) Red worms.

(iv) Which of the following materials can be recycled?

A. Grass. 

B. Paper.

C. Stone.

D. Wood.

(a) A and B.

(b) B and C.

(c) C and D.

(d) A and D.

Ans: (a) A and B.

(v) Which of the following cannot be recycled?

(a) Book. 

(b) Wooden stool.

(c) Mirror. 

(d) Tin can.

Ans: (b) Wooden stool.

(vi) Which one of the following is not a method of disposal of garbage?

(a) Compositing. 

(b) Vermi composting.

(c) Cycling. 

(d) Landfill.

Ans: (c) Cycling.

(vii) Which of the following is biodegradable?

(a) Water bottle.

(b) Science book.

(c) Diamond ring.

(d) Window grill.

Ans: (b) Science book.

(viii) The colour of dustbins in which biodegradable garbage is collected is:

(a) Red. 

(b) Blue. 

(c) Orange. 

(d) Green.

Ans: (d) Green.

(ix) The component of garbage which cannot rot when buried in ground is:

(a) Paper bag.

(b) Polythene bag. 

(c) Jute bag.

(d) Cotton cloth bag.

Ans: (b) Polythene bag.

(x) Which of the following wastes (or garbage) cannot be added in the process of making vermi compost?

(a) Laminated paper. 

(b) Newspaper. 

(c) Card board.

(d) Cow dung.

Ans: (a) Laminated paper.


Vinod and his two friends went to Haridwar on the occasion of Kumbh Mela, Lakhs of people from India and even abroad visit Haridwar because of the religious faith. They were shocked to find dirt and garbage every where in the town. Vinod and his friends thought that they can also do something to alleviate (relief) this problem and help in the cleanliness of the town. 

(i) What measures could have been taken by Vinod and his friends for the cleanliness?

 Ans: Vinod and his party purchased plastic bins. They placed these bins at different places in the route from bus stand and to the river Ganga. This was the route where was a maximum number of pilgrims. Pilgrims who were throwing banana peels and polythene bags on the road found the bins and used them. The roads and the surroundings were earlier looking ugly, now presented a good look.

(ii) What values do you attach to Vinod and his party for the initiatives taken by them?

Ans: Vinod and his party displayed exemplary qualities and deserve all praise for saving the place from ugly scene.

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