NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 10 Training in Sports

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NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 10 Training in Sports

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Training in Sports

Chapter: 10

Some Other Important Questions For Examinations


1. The ability of body to overcome resistance is called ___________.

(a) endurance.

(b) strength.

(c) speed.

(d) flexibility.

Ans: (b) strength.

2. Which of these is a type of strength? 

(a) Static.

(b) Dynamic.

(c) Interval.

(d) Both (a) and (b).

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b).

3. Which of these is not a method to improve strength?

(a) Isotonic exercises. 

(b) Isometric exercises.

(c) Isolation exercises.

(d) Isokinetic exercises.

Ans: (c) Isolation exercises.

4. Which one of the factors determines strength?

(a) Gender. 

(b) Age.

(c) Muscle composition.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

5. Interval training method is used to enhance __________ of the sportspersons.

(a) speed.

(b) endurance.

(c) strength.

(d) flexibility.

Ans: (b) endurance.

6. Isokinetic method was developed by ___________.

(a) HC Buck.

(b) Joy Perrny.

(c) J.J. Perrine.

(d) JJ Coubertin.

Ans: (c) J.J. Perrine.

7. Which of the following is a type of speed?

(a) Reaction ability.

(b) Locomotor ability.

(c) Acceleration ability.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

8. The maximum range of movement of joints is called ___________.

(a) Strength.

(b) Flexibility.

(c) Speed.

(d) Endurance.

Ans: (a) Strength.

9. In ___________ exercise no movement takes place.

(a) Isometric.

(b) Isotonic.

(c) Isokinetic.

(d) Isonomic.

Ans: (c) Isokinetic.

10. Which of these is a type of coordinative abilities?

(a) Rhythm.

(b) Balance.

(c) Orientation.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

11. The method in which there will be no change in the length of the muscle is known as ___________.

(a) Isometric method.

(b) Isotonic method.

(c) Isokinetic method.

(d) Fartlek method.

Ans: (a) Isometric method.

12. The ability which helps to overcome the resistance with speed is known as __________.

(a) Maximum strength.

(b) Explosive strength.

(c) Strength endurance.

(d) Static strength.

Ans: (b) Explosive strength.

13. Which is not the training method to develop endurance?

(a) Fartlek method.

(b) Post isometric stretch method.

 (c) Continuous method.

(d) Interval method.

Ans: (b) Post isometric stretch method.

14. In ___________ speed is not pre-planned.

(a) Fartlek Training Method.

(b) Continuous Training Method.

(c) Interval Training Method.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (b) Continuous Training Method.

15. In which method stretching is done in a rhythmic way?

(a) Slow stretch.

(b) Slow stretch and hold.

(c) Ballistic method.

(d) PNF.

Ans: (c) Ballistic method.

16. Ability to coordinate body part movements with one another and in relation to a definite goal oriented body movement is known as ___________.

(a) Balance Ability.

(b) Adaptation Ability.

(c) Rhythm Ability.

(d) Coupling Ability.

Ans: (d) Coupling Ability.

17. Ability to attain high level of fine tuning of movement phases is known as __________.

(a) Differentiation Ability.

(b) Orientation Ability.

(c) Adaptation Ability.

(d) Coupling Ability.

Ans: (a) Differentiation Ability.


1. The dynamic strength is related to position of an individual.

Ans: False.

2. Isometric exercises are also known as static strength training. 

Ans: True.

3. Endurance is the ability to continue under the condition of fatigue.

Ans: True.

4. Acceleration and pace runs are methods to develop stamina.

Ans: False.

5. Fartlek training was developed in Sweden.

Ans: True.


1. Continuous training is one of the best methods for improving ___________.

Ans: endurance.

2. ___________ strength is the ability to overcome resistance with a higher speed.

Ans: Explosive.

3. __________ is defined as the range of movements of joints.

Ans: Flexibility.

4. The process of preparation of sportsman is called ___________.

Ans: sports training.

5. ___________ is the time taken by the body to reach maximum speed. 

Ans: acceleration.


Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R):

Codes: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

1. Assertion (A): Explosive strength is a combination of strength and speed.

Reason (R): This type of strength is mainly used in spiking of volleyball, jumps in basketball, sprint events, etc.

Ans: (b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

2. Assertion (A): Speed is an ability to do task in minimum possible time.

Reason (R): Speed has a complex nature and does not depend considerably on the central nervous system.

Ans: (c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.

3. Assertion (A): Flexibility is also known as range of motion around a joint.

Reason (R): It is the ability to execute a movement with greater amplitude or range.

Ans: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

4. Assertion (A): Rhythm ability is the ability to coordinate body part movements with one another.

Reason (R): Adaptation ability depends considerably on the speed and accuracy of perception of changes in the situation.

Ans: (c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.


1. Stretching your body to become more supple and flexible offers many physical benefits. Such training allows for easier and deeper movements while building strength and stability. Stretching your muscles and joints also leads to greater range of motion, improved balance, and increased flexibility.

(A) The ability which helps to the movement with greater range is known as _________.

(a) endurance.

(b) strength.

(c) flexibility.

(d) speed.

Ans: (c) flexibility.

(B) Which is not the method to improve flexibility?

(a) Ballistic method.

(b) Slow stretch and hold method.

(c) Slow stretching method.

(d) Slow continuous method.

Ans: (d) Slow continuous method.

(C) Which is the most commonly used method to improve flexibility?

(a) Ballistic method.

(b) Slow stretch and hold method.

(c) Dynamic method.

(d) Isotonic method.

Ans: (b) Slow stretch and hold method.

2. Mr. Gopichand is a renowned badminton coach. When he started his academy, he selected our school badminton players and designed a training program. During the training, he noted that few players were good in defense but due to lack of endurance and strength, they were unable to play up to the last moment. He used various methods to enhance their endurance and strength.

(A) This type of training and exercises helps in increasing the static strength and maximal strength.

(a) Isometric.

(b) Isotonic.

(c) Isokinetic.

(d) Aerobic.

Ans: (a) Isometric.

(B) Isotonic exercise helps in enhancing ___________.

(a) speed.

(b) strength.

(c) agility.

(d) endurance.

Ans: (b) strength.

(C) High pressure over muscles can be seen in these set of exercises.

(a) Isometric.

(b) Isotonic.

(c) Both (a) and (b).

(d) Ballistic.

Ans: (c) Both (a) and (b).

(D) This training method is considered as the best method to develop endurance.

(a) Interval.

(b) Continuous.

(c) Fartlek.

(d) Pace runs.

Ans: (a) Interval.

3. Raghu was good thrower. When he joined a new training camp, where he observed some athletes were running on uneven surfaces like bushes, rocks, pits etc. He was in dilemma. Then the coach explained about that training in detail.

(A) What type of training are they doing?

(a) Fartlek training.

(b) Ballistic method.

(c) Interval Training.

(d) Acceleration run.

Ans: (a) Fartlek training.

(B) Stretching exercise improves _________.

(a) Flexibility.

(b) Strength.

(c) Coordination.

(d) Explosive.

Ans: (a) Flexibility.

(C) Fartlek training is also known as ___________.

(a) Pace runs.

(b) Speed play.

(c) Acceleration run.

(d) 400 m run.

Ans: (b) Speed play.

4. Sameer was a very good sportsperson. He wanted to be a marathon runner and asked his Physical Education teacher for his advice on how to become one. Like all marathon runners, Sameer needs to develop muscle strength but, more importantly, long-term muscle endurance.

(A) What strength did his coach suggest him to develop?

(a) Muscle strength.

(b) Long-term muscle endurance.

(c) Stamina.

(d) Both (a) and (b).

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b).

(B) What factors contribute for developing these strengths?

(a) Proper nutrition.

(b) Adequate hydration.

(c) Training to develop muscle strength.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

(C) What types of exercises would the PE teacher suggest to Sameer?

(a) Fartlek.

(b) Breathing exercise.

(c) Cycling. 

(d) all of the above.

Ans: (a) Fartlek.

5. Developing endurance is vital to any sportsperson who wants to take part in any sport which takes time to compete in and complete. Any event lasting over 11 minutes in athletics needs long-term endurance. Thus, races of 5,000 metres, 10,000 metres, cross-country runs, triathlons and marathons are sporting activities that need long-term endurance.

(A) Which sports are focused on endurance?

(a) Triathlons and marathons.

(b) Cross-country runs.

(c) Jumping.

(d) Both (a) and (b).

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b).

(B) What type of training methods will be used by the coach to develop endurance?

(a) Continuous training.

(b) Interval training.

(c) Fartlek training.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

(C) A training to improve endurance was developed in Sweden. What is it called?

(a) Fartlek training.

(b) Continuous training.

(c) Interval training.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Fartlek training.

(D) Which method is best suited for developing strength?

(a) Interval method.

(b) Isometric method.

(c) Ballistic method.

(d) Continuous method.

Ans: (b) Isometric method.

(E) Ballistic method can used to develop ____________.

(a) Strength.

(b) Endurance.

(c) Flexibility.

(d) Speed.

Ans: (c) Flexibility.

(F) According to the given case study why did boys start their training?

(a) For speed.

(b) For strength.

(c) For flexibility.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.



(A) From the above picture, it is identified as ____________ training method.

(a) Pace runs.

(b) Fartlek.

(c) Isometric.

(d) Isotonic.

Ans: (b) Fartlek.

(B) The above training method helps in increasing the ____________.

(a) Strength.

(b) Speed.

(c) Endurance.

(d) Flexibility.

Ans: (c) Endurance.

(C) The Swedish word meaning “speed Play” is ____________.

(a) Citius.

(b) Fartlek.

(c) Pace.

(d) Altius.

Ans: (b) Fartlek.

(D) In the above training method, who plays an important role?

(a) Self-discipline.

(b) Coach.

(c) Guidance.

(d) Support.

Ans: (a) Self-discipline.


(A) What does the given picture show?

(a) Interval Training Method.

(b) Fartlek Training Method.

(c) External Training Method.

(d) Both (a) and (b).

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b).

(B) In this method, heart rate increases from normal to __________ beast/min.

(a) 120

(b) 180

(c) 140

(d) 160

Ans: (b) 180.


Q. 1. What is sports training?

Ans: Sports training is the physical, intellectual, technical, psychological and moral preparation of an athlete or a player by means of physical exercises.

Q. 2. What does the term ‘Fartlek’ mean?

Ans: Fartlek is a Swedish term which means ‘speed play’ and has been used by distance runner for years. Fartlek is a form of road running or cross country running in which the runner usually changes the pace significantly during the run.

Q. 3. Who has developed ‘Fartlek’ training method?

Ans: This method was introduced by Gosta Holmer. It is good for aerobic and anaerobic fitness.

Q. 4. What is endurance?

Ans: Endurance is the ability to do sports movements with the desired quality and speed under conditions of fatigue.

Q. 5. What do you understand by acceleration running?

Ans: This type of running is employed to increase speed, specially in attaining maximum speed from a stationary position. Before employing acceleration runs for training, it is very important to develop the techniques involved in the event at a slower speed.

Q. 6. State the types of coordinative abilities.

Ans: Coordinative abilities in an individual can be of the following types:

(i) Reaction ability.

(ii) Differentiation ability.

(iii) Balance ability.

(iv) Coupling ability.

(v) Adaptation ability.

(vi) Rhythm ability.

(vii) Orientation ability.

Q. 7. What is speed endurance?

Ans: It is the ability of an individual to perform body movements with high speed under the condition of fatigue upto 45 seconds. Ex. – 400 metres race.

Q. 8. What is movement speed?

Ans: It is the ability of an individual to do movements in minimum time.


Q. 1. What do you mean by dynamic strength and static strength?

Ans: Dynamic Strength and Static Strength

(a) Dynamic Strength: Dynamic strength can be called isotonic strength because it is related to the movements. In pull-ups and push-ups, we required dynamic strength. In performing such a workout there is a diminishing tendency in dynamic strength and as a result, after some time muscles refuse to do work. At this juncture, man is not able to do even one extra pull-up or push-up. Movements are clearly visible when someone uses dynamic strength.

(b) Static Strength: Static strength is also called isometric strength. This type of strength is not usually applied in all sports. It is applied in a phased manner. For example, it is used in weightlifting for short periods.

Q. 2. Define speed. Explain the methods of speed development.

Ans: Speed: It is the ability of an individual to cover maximum distance in minimum possible time. 

Developing Methods:

(i) Acceleration Run: Acceleration runs are usually adopted to develop speed specially in attaining maximum speed from a stationary position. Before acceleration runs, proper warm us must be done. After every acceleration run, there should be a proper interval so that the athlete may start the next run without any fatigue. Generally, the athlete should take rest of 4 to 5 minutes in between the runs.

(ii) Pace Races: Pace races mean running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. In pace races, an athlete runs the race with uniform speed, generally 800 m and above. Very young children can maintain their maximum speed for 15 to 20m, whereas a well-trained athlete can maintain a maximum speed for 40m. Repetitions can be fixed according to the standards of the athletes.

Q. 3. What do you mean by short-term and long-term endurance?

Ans: Short Term and Long Term Endurance

(a) Short-Term Endurance: Short-term endurance is needed to resist fatigue in sports activities lasting from about 45 seconds to 2 minutes. This endurance also depends to a large extent on strength endurance and speed endurance. The endurance needed for an 800 m race is the most suitable example for short-term endurance.

(b) Long-Term Endurance: Long-term endurance is needed in such sports activities which last for more than eleven minutes. The sports activities such as 5000m, 10,000 m cross country and marathon races require such type of endurance.

Q. 4. Explain any two methods to improve flexibility.

Ans: Two Methods of Improving Flexibility:

(a) Static Stretching Method: The static stretching method involves gradually easing into the stretch position and holding the position. The amount of time a static stretch is held depends on one’s purpose. If it is a part of cool down, then the stretch should be held for 10 seconds. If it is to improve the range of flexibility then hold it for 30 seconds. In static stretching, it is advised to move further into the stretch position as the stretch sensation comes to a lower level.

(b) Dynamic Stretching Method: Dynamic stretching requires controlled movements, usually of legs and hands, and where the event requires dynamic movement, it is suitable to perform dynamic stretching exercises.

Q. 5. Differentiate isometric and isotonic exercises.

Ans: An isometric contraction occurs when there is tension on a muscle without any movement. The length of the muscles remains constant.

Isotonic exercises involved controlled contraction and extension of muscles and mobilization of the joints around those muscles.

A comparison between their characteristics is given below: 

SNo.Isometric ExercisesIsotonic Exercises
(i)Less or no equipment required.Sometimes equipment is required to perform them.
(ii)It develops static strength.It develops dynamic strength.
(iii)It needs less time.Less or no equipment is required.

Q. 6. What are the types of flexibility? Discuss.

Ans: Active flexibility: It is the ability of an individual to do the joint movement for a longer range without any external help. Active flexibility is always greater than passive flexibility.

Example: Doing any stretching exercise without external help.

Passive flexibility: The ability to do a joint movement with a greater range with the external help of a partner. This flexibility is largely determined by joint structure and stretchability of the muscle and ligament. Passive flexibility helps in the development of active flexibility.

Q. 7. Explain any four types of coordinative abilities.

Ans: The different types of coordinative abilities are: 

(i) Differentiation Ability: It is the ability to achieve a high level of fine-tuning or harmony of individual movement phases and body part movements.

(ii) Orientation Ability: It is the ability to determine and change the position and movements of the body in time and space in relation to a definite action e.g. playing field, boxing ring, apparatus, and a moving object e.g. ball, opponent, partner.

(iii) Coupling Ability: It is the ability to coordinate body part movements (e.g. movements of hand, feet, trunk etc) with one another and in relation to a definite goal-oriented whole body movement. Coupling ability is especially important in sports in which movements with a high degree of difficulty have to be done e.g. gymnastics, and team games.


Q. 1. Explain the physiological factors determining speed.

Ans: The various factors of speed are:

(i) Reaction Speed: It is the ability to respond to a given stimulus as quickly as possible. In sports, reaction ability is not only significant to react quickly to a signal, but it should also be accurate according to situation. 

(ii) Movement Speed: It is the ability to do a single movement in the minimum time. Movement speed is of high relevance in sports like jumping, throwing, kicking, boxing, etc.

(iii) Acceleration Speed: It is the ability to increase speed from minimum to maximum. This form of speed, to a great extent depends upon explosive strength, frequency of movement, and technique. This ability is important in swimming, hockey, football, gymnastics, etc.

(iv) Locomotor Ability: It can be defined as the ability to maintain maximum speed of locomotion over a period of time as far as possible. This ability is very important in races, speed skating, swimming, hockey, football etc.

(v) Speed Endurance: It is the ability to do sports movement with high speed under conditions of fatigue. Speed endurance is a combination of speed and endurance abilities. This ability depends upon anaerobic capacity, psychic factors, and level of skill.

Q. 2. Elaborate the physiological factors determining endurance.

Ans: Physiological factors are given below:

(i) Slow twitch muscle fiber: Slow-twitch muscles help enable long-endurance feats such as distance running, while fast.

(ii) Dehydration: The present article addresses the latest findings on the effects of exercise-induced body weight loss on endurance performance and provides basic hydration guidelines needed for the design of efficient hydration strategies.

(iii) Blood volume: Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output.

(iv) Cardiac output: Endurance training (ET) commonly augments maximal oxygen consumption (Vo² max), it remains unclear whether such increase is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Q max) alone or along with arteriovenous oxygen difference (aVo² diff). Herein, we sought to systematically review and determine the effects of ET on Vo² max, Qmax, and a Vo² diff at maximal exercise, and on their associations, in healthy young subjects.

(v) Pulmonary Diffusion: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of repeated heavy exercise on postexercise pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL) and the development of exercise induced arterial hypoxemia (EIH).

(vi) Lactic acid tolerance: It will increase your tolerance to lactic acid and allow you maintain a high work rate for longer. This type of training could also be called speed endurance, anaerobic endurance or power endurance.

(vii) Muscle composition: Muscles are made up of different types of fibers called slow twitch-or type 1. – and fast twitch-or type 2. Slow twitch fibers are responsible for endurance – the ability to go long on a treadmill or cycle. Fast twitch come in types A and B. Type A help you to endure a long sprint or carry a heavy object across the room, while type B are recruited for short, explosive moves, such as Jumping or heaving a very heavy weight.

(viii) Aerobic capacity: Aerobic capacity is directly related to flexibility, heart strength, bone strength, muscle endurance.

Q. 3. Define flexibility and explain the methods of flexibility development.

Ans: Flexibility is the range of movement. It is the ability of joints to move in the maximum range. 

Developing methods of flexibility are:

(i) Ballistic Method: It is the oldest form of doing stretching exercises. This method involves jerk in movement. A joint or muscle is stretched with just rhythmic actions or movements around a joint. Before performing such exercise, the appropriate warm-up is essential.

(ii) Slow Stretching Method: In this method the muscles or joint involved is stretched to the maximum possible limit using slow movement. It has an advantage over the ballistic method as it minimizes the chances of overstretching of the muscle or joint, preventing injury to the tissue.

(iii) Slow Stretching and Holding Method: It is the extension of slow stretching method. Here the muscle is stretched to its maximum limit and then the position is held for few seconds before returning to the original position.

(iv) Post-Isometric Stretching: This method of flexibility development is based on the principle of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. In this procedure, the muscle is first contracted maximally for 6-8 seconds using isometric method. Then the muscle is gradually stretched to its maximum limit and is held in this position for 8-10 seconds. This process is to be repeated 4 to 8 times for each muscle group.

Q. 4. Discuss Fartlek training method as a means of developing endurance. 

Ans: Fartlek Training Method: Fartlek training method is used for developing endurance. Gosta Holmer developed Fartlek training in 1937. The word ‘fartlek’ is a Swedish word means speed play. It is such a training method that blends continuous training with interval training. This training method lays emphasis on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. In the method, pace or speed is not pre-planned so it is left up to the individual. He can change his speed according to the surroundings (hills, rivers, forests, muddy roads, metal roads and grassy grounds). Self-discipline plays a vital role in Fartlek training method. The rate of heart beat ranges between 140 to 180 per minute. The duration of training depends upon the experience of athlete but most probably it lasts a minimum of 45 minutes. It can vary from aerobic walking to anaerobic sprinting. This training method is usually linked with running but can comprise any type of exercise. For performing this training proper warm up should be done at the beginning and appropriate cooling down at the end of the training to improve performance and to reduce the chances of injury. An example of this training is given below:

  • Warm up, Jogging or slow running for 5 to 10 minutes.
  • Steady, hard speed for 1.5 to 2.5 km. 
  • Recovery, Rapid walking for at least 5 minutes.
  • Start of speed work: Easy running between sprints of about 50 to 60 metres repeated until a little tired.
  • Easy running with three or four ‘quick steps’ now and then. 
  • Full speed uphill for 175 to 200 metres.
  • Fast pace of 1 minute. 

Q. 5. Differentiate the continuous method, interval method and fartlek method.

Ans: (i) Continous method: In this type of method, the exercise is done for a long duration without taking rest. We do the exercise for a long duration, so the intensity of work is low. The heart rate during the exercise for a sportsman should be between 140-160 beats per-minutes. For fast continous method the heart rate of an athlete should be increased about 175-180/ minute.

(ii) Fartlek method: It is another method to develop the endurance ability. This method was developed by a Swedish coach “Gosta Holmer” in 1930, so it is also known as “Swedish Play” or “Speed Play” (Fartlek means speed in swedish). In this method the athlete changes his/her pace, himself/herself according to surrounding (hills, rivers, forest, mud etc).

This method helps in development of strength and endurance of the sports person. Athlete changes his/her speed according. So it is self – disciplined in nature. The heart-rate fluctuate between 140-180 beats/minute. Fartlek training involves varying our pace throughout our run, alternating between fast and slow pace. Fixed distance in fixed time by variable type of movement/pattern/place of running. 

(iii) Interval method: This method is very effective for developing endurance for track runners. intervals are given to the athlete in between the repetition for incomplete recovery. The recovery period for athlete varies from person to person. The heart rate should go up to 18 beats/min. And when the heart rate comes down to 120- 130 beats/min, again the repetition/work starts. The training load should be given again after checking the heart-rate of the athlete.

Q. 6. Explain the preventing measures to be kept in mind during strength training.

Ans: While doing strength training appropriate supervision is a must as it is always accompanied with a high risk of injury. Therefore, it is very important to know the ways of preventing such incidents. These are:

(i) Strength training must be done after proper warming up. 

(ii) Strong and stable joints are a prerequisite for strength training. Therefore, strength and stability of Musculo-Skeletal system must be ensured by doing general strength training with low intensity.

(iii) While exercising with heavy weights, correct technique is required. Otherwise it will result in serious injuries. 

(iv) A strength training programme includes a variety of exercises. These exercises must be done in a proper sequence preferably agonists and antagonists muscles one after the other. 

(v) The load must be increased gradually and as per the athlete’s ability and requirement. 

(vi) Recovery or rest plays a vital role in strength training. Proper and effective use of recovery period helps in preventing injuries.

(vii) Improper breathing while exercising with heavy weights lead to serious disturbance in the blood circulation. Hence, as a rule, a sportsperson must breathe continuously and if he/she holds the breath, it should be for a minimum duration possible.

(viii) Safety equipment like belts, boots, wrist bands etc. should be used when necessary.

(ix) In case of children, the load should be low till the age of 16 years as chances of injuries are very high in children.

Q. 7. Discuss important tips for developing flexibility.

Ans: Important Tips for Developing Flexibility: 

(i) The right age for flexibility development is considered to be before puberty as it is hard to develop flexibility after puberty.

(ii) Flexibility tends to deteriorate once improved, if the stretching routine is not continued.

(iii) Stretching exercise performed in fatigue affects flexibility negatively. Hence, a person should perform such exercises when fresh. The ideal time to perform stretching exercise is after warm-up.

(iv) Flexibility exercise tends to work best after a proper warming up. If the warm up is not performed properly it may lead to overstretching of the muscles.

(v) Flexibility training should aim for optimum flexibility and not for maximum flexibility. Too much flexibility results in less joint stability and therefore chances of injury increase.

(vi) A muscle group must be stretched several times for improving flexibility effectively. Usually 10- 15 repetitions are recommended for a muscle group to gain flexibility. 

(vii) A stretching exercise should be accompanied by a conscious effort to relax antagonist muscles.

(viii) It is important to avoid jerky movements while performing stretching exercise. 

(ix) Age has an inverse relationship with flexibility. Therefore, do not compete with others while working on one’s level of flexibility.

(x) For faster improvement in flexibility, the routine can be followed daily or twice a day with involving variety of exercises for each joint.

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