NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 9 Psychology and Sports

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NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 9 Psychology and Sports

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Psychology and Sports

Chapter: 9

Some Other Important Questions For Examinations


1. Which of these is not a dimension of personality?

(a) Physical.

(b) Chemical.

(c) Intellectual.

(d) Emotional.

Ans: (b) Chemical.

2. In big five theory of personality which personality attributes trust, kindness and social behaviour?

(a) Neuroticism.

(b) Openness.

(c) Extraversion.

(d) Agreeableness.

Ans: (d) Agreeableness.

3. Which type of aggression’s aim is to cause injury to others sportsmen?

(a) Instrumental Aggression.

(b) Assertive Behaviour.

(c) Hostile Aggression.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (c) Hostile Aggression.

4. What level of aggression is needed in sports?

(a) Partially.

(b) Full.

(c) No need.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Partially.

5. Big five theory is a theory of:

(a) rest.

(b) be motion.

(c) encouragement.

(d) personality.

Ans: (d) personality.

6. Which type of people prefers to live alone?

(a) Introverts. 

(b) Extroverts.

(c) Ambiverts.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Introverts,

7. Who categorized the personality traits as Introverts and Extraverts?

(a) CG Jung.

(b) GW Allport.

(c) WH Sheldon.

(d) MC Dougall.

Ans: (a) CG Jung.

8. Which of these is not a factor describing the Big Five theory?

(a) Openness to experience.

(b) Extraversion.

(c) Neuroticism.

(d) Introversion.

Ans: (d) Introversion.

9. Positive self-talk is a technique that can be used to enhance ___________.

(a) Motivation.

(b) Image.

(c) Income.

(d) Understanding.

Ans: (a) Motivation.

10. Which one of the following is not the benefit of exercise?

(a) Improves mood.

(b) Improves anxiety.

(c) Improves self-confidence.

(d) Improves flexibility.

Ans: (b) Improves anxiety.

11. Which of these is not a reason to start performing an exercise routine?

(a) Excessive weight. 

(b) Low energy level.

(c) Lack of sleep.

(d) Low self-confidence.

Ans: (c) Lack of sleep.

12. Which one of the following directs and activates us to take up or leave any activity? 

(a) Mental Imagery.

(b) Goal Setting.

(c) Self-Talk.

(d) Self-esteem. 

Ans: (d) Self-esteem.

13. The word personality is derised from the Latin word ___________.

(a) Persona.

(b) Endomorphy.

(c) Perjona.

(d) Person.

Ans: (a) Persona.

14. Who presented the theory of personality by classifying personality on introverts and extroverts?

(a) Sheldon.

(b) Jung.

(c) Big Five.

(d) Eysean.

Ans: (b) Jung.

15. Traits of High-self confidence, social, friendly, confident etc., lies in __________.

(a) Ambivert.

(b) Etrovert.

(c) Introvert.

(d) Ectomorphic.

Ans: (b) Etrovert.

16. Traits of Etrovert, Introvert and Ambivert is given by ___________.

(a) Jung.

(b) Sheldon.

(c) Big Five.

(d) Eysean.

Ans: (a) Jung.

17. Big Five theory is also known as ___________.

(a) Five factor model.

(b) Five traits model.

(c) Five personality model.

(d) Five temperament model.

Ans: (a) Five factor model.

18. Aggression is displayed in sports through __________.

(a) assertion of views.

(b) use of abusive words.

(c) walking away from the opponent.

(d) strictly following the rules.

Ans: (b) use of abusive words.

19. ___________ Includes body size, shape, structure, colour etc.

(a) Mental Dimension. 

(b) Social Dimension.

(c) Physical Dimension.

(d) Emotional Dimension.

Ans: (c) Physical Dimension.

20. Behaviour Carried out with intention of harming other person is known as ___________.

(a) Stress.

(b) Motivation.

(c) Aggression.

(d) Tension.

Ans: (c) Aggression.

21. Match components of factor model with their traits.

1. Conscientiousness(a) Assertive
2. Extraversion(b) Dependability
3. Agreeableness(c) Anxious
4. Neuroticism(d) Compassionate

(a) 1- b, 2 – a, 3 – d, 4 – c 

(b) 1- c, 2 – a, 3 – b, 4 – d

(c) 1- a, 2 – b, 3 – c, 4 – d

(d) 1- d, 2 – c, 3 – b, 4 – a

Ans: (a) 1- b, 2 – a, 3 – d, 4 – c,


1. Neuroticism includes high level of thoughtfulness and good impulse control.

Ans: False.

2. Positive attitude can play a significant role in motivating a sportsperson.

Ans: True.

3. The extroverts are shy in nature and talk less.

Ans: False.

4. An aggressive sportsman keeps a friendly behaviour towards its opponent.

Ans: False.

5. Excessive stress is not good for our health in general. 

Ans: True.


1. ___________ gets their energy from themselves.

Ans: Introverts.

2. __________ is behavour that is hostile and violates other peoples right.

Ans: Aggression.

3. __________ behaviour that involves use of legitimate physical or verbal force.

Ans: Assertive.

4. Introverts and Extraverts come under __________ classification of personality.

Ans: CG Jung’s.

5. Sad and emotional personality people are called ___________.

Ans: Neuroticism.


Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R):

Codes: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false. 

(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

1. Assertion (A): We are, each of us, unique individuals.

Reason (R): No two persons will behave the same way, have the same preferences, the same man rising.

Ans: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

2. Assertion (A): Hostile aggression provokes one to harm others physically.

Reason (R): Aggression is an internal motivation to harm another person mentally and/or physically.

Ans: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

3. Assertion (A): Introverts personalities focus on themselve only.

Reason (R): They are good players of chess, snooker.

Ans: (b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).


1. The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can be helped to generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective, and intervention and prevention approaches. Psychologist have given different views related to aggression, As per instinct theory, aggression is an inbuilt emotion in human being per social learning theory, it is acquired, frustration theory pointed out that frustration is the cause of aggression.

(A) Behavior Carried out with intention of harming other person is known as ___________ .

(a) Stress.

(b) Motivation.

(c) Aggression.

(d) Tension.

Ans: (c) Aggression.

(B) Any physical behaviour intentionally aimed to injure other is known as ____________.

(a) hostile aggression.

(b) instrumental aggression.

(c) assertive aggression.

(d) negative aggression.

Ans: (a) hostile aggression.

(C) Unintentional physical harm is known as ___________.

(a) hostile aggression.

(b) instrumental aggression.

(c) assertive.

(d) negative aggression.

Ans: (b) instrumental aggression.

(D) Verbal behaviour which harm the living being is known as ___________.

(a) Hostile aggression.

(b) instrumental aggression.

(c) Assertive aggression.

(d) negative aggression.

Ans: (c) Assertive aggression.

2. Vijay is a football player of Kennedy school. He is famous for his aggressive play in the field. Because of his aggression he scored many goals. At the same time, he was punished for his aggressive behaviour with opponent.

(A) What level of aggression is needed in sports? 

(a) Partially.

(b) Fully.

(c) No need.

(d) None of theme.

Ans: (a) Partially.

(B) Hostile aggression is also known as __________ aggression.

(a) Readive.

(b) Channelled.

(c) Assertive.

(d) Instrumental. 

Ans: (a) Readive.

(C) Which of the following is the example of Trait Theory of personality?

(a) Sheldon’s classification.

(b) Jung Classification. 

(c) Personality.

(d) Intrinsic.

Ans: (c) Personality.


1. Who has provided essential insights into the key elements of personality?

(a) Sheldon. 

(b) Jung.

(c) Big-5.

(d) Eysean.

Ans: (b) Jung.

2. Which type of personality is depicting in figure B?

(a) Introverts.

(b) Extroverts.

(c) Ambiverts.

(d) Extraversion.

Ans: (a) Introverts.

3. Talkative, outgoing and friendly people are known as ___________.

(a) Introverts.

(b) Extroverts.

(c) Ambiverts.

(d) Extraversion.

Ans: (b) Extroverts.


Q. 1. Define personality.

Ans; Personality is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that influences his/her cognitions, emotions, motivations and behaviours in different types of situations.

Q. 2. What do you understand by self-esteem?

Ans: Self-esteem is a learned phenomenon like the other aspects of the self and becomes a reflection of how others regard us or attach value to us as persons. Our behaviour reflects our self-esteem and has a reassuring effect on others.

Q. 3. How participation in physical activities enhance self-esteem among children?

Ans: Enhanced coping skills can translate into lifetime benefits such as

  • Reduced anxiety.
  • A more optimistic ourlook on life.
  • Fewer interpersonal problems.
  • Less chances of conforming due to social pressure.
  • A better body image.
  • Being less likely to engage in risky behaviour such as drug use.

Q. 4. What do you mean by self-talk?

Ans: When you talk to yourself or inner voice it is called self-talk.

Q. 5. Define aggression.

Ans: Aggression refers to a range of behaviours that can result in both physical and psychological harm to oneself, others or subject in the environment.

Q. 6. What is sports psychology?

Ans: Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human behaviour on the play field, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.

Q. 7. What do you understand by aggression in sports?

Ans: In sports aggression means the desire to harm another player which is not within the laws of the game. For example, pushing another player over a game in football or using abusive language for other players or teams.


Q. 1. What are the factors influencing body image and self-esteem.

Ans: Following are the factors influencing body image and self-esteem:

The body type or physical traits of an individual is the most important factor which influence the body image and self esteem. Most of the teenagers specially girls want to loose weight and be thinner where as the boys want to be tall and have more muscles. Sometimes family members may criticize about their body image which affects the self-esteem.

Post experiences, like due to natural aging process, we name different feelings about are body and self esteem. Psychological factors like motivation, personality, interest, attitude, emotions, conflicts, learning skills affect the body image.

Through participation in games and sports use can develop our physical fitness, psychological development, social and mental development which helps to improve our body image and self-esteem.

Q. 2. Explain the type of aggression in sports.

Ans: There are three types of aggression in sports:

(i) Instrumental Aggression: It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is directed at the target as a means to an end. For example, injuring a player to gain a competitive advantage or stopping an opponent from scoring.

(ii) Hostile Aggression: It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is aimed toward another person who has angered or provoked the individual and is an end in itself. Fir example, hitting an opponent who has just been aggressive against the player. It is generally proceeded by anger.

(iii) Assertive Behaviour: Assertive behaviour is different type of aggression behaviour. This is defined as behaviour that involves the use of legitimate physical or verbal force to achieve one’s purpose. In assertive aggression or assertive behaviour, the intention is to establish dominance rather than to harm the opponent.

Q. 3. Explain the structure of personality. Describe the role or sports in developing the personality.

Ans: The word personality is derived from Latin word ‘persona’ meaning the mask. In ancient Greece, the actors used to wear masks to hide their identities while portraying their roles in a theatrical play. To an ordinary person the word personality conveys the meaning of one’s physical appearance, his habits, his ways of dressing, his reputation, his manners and other similar characteristics.

So, personality basically reveals the psychological make-up of an individual through his behaviours. In fact, it is the quality of a person’s total behaviour. Physical activities and sports play an important role in the development of personality of an individual.

One of the primary and apparent aspect of one’s personality is one’s physical appearance. Children as well as adults, boys as well as girls, all are very much concerned about how they look. Physical activities are conducive to the growth and development of the physique. Robust and athletic physique does enhance one’s personality. Poise, grace, agility and the manner one carries oneself have a great impact one’s personality.


Q. 1. Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports. 

Ans: Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human behaviour on the play field, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.

Importance of sports psychology is due to

(i) Analyzing the behaviour of sportsmen: Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.

(ii) Identifying talent for specific sports: Every sports has specific psychological demands e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.

(iii) Stabilizing the performance for longer period: It helps in stabilizing the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological make up and anxiety level.

(iv) Important from research point of view: Sports psychologists works in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the performance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.

(v) Encouraging the players to make a comeback in professional sports: Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.

Q. 2. What is personality? Discuss its dimension. 

Ans: Personality is defined as the enduring personal characteristics of individuals. In other words, personality is combination of characteristics or qualities that an individual distinctive character.

Dimensions of Personality:

(i) Emotionality: Emotional stability or control over emotions such as anger, fear, love, hate etc. is another requirement of good personality. Emotionally unstable person can be a threat to himself and the society. Man cannot be free of emotions but emotions of an individual getting out of control can create many problems for the individual and society.

In fact, emotional control is a sign of good mental health of an individual and is, therefore, an important indicator of personality.

(ii) Sociability: Sociability is a very important quality of an individual’s personality. Since an individual and society cannot be separated, an individual is looked upon in the context of society. Moreover social dimensions of a personality such as good habits, attitudes, cooperation, helpfulness, sportsmanship and relationship etc. are developed only in a social environment Therefore to be acceptable as a member of society, the sociability aspects of an individual personality cannot be ignored.

(iii) Intellect: Man is considered as the supreme creation of God due to his intelligence. His intelligence adds charm to his personality. A good physique without mind and intellect has no meaning. Intellectual qualities of individuals are appreciated by others and help them in becoming leaders in many fields. These qualities enhance his personality.

Q. 3. Participation in sport results in all-round development of personality. Justify.

Ans: Games and sports are essential for the all- round development of personality.

It is by participating in games and sports that we can develop and maintain our health, keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic.

Participation increases blood circulation and we get an increased supply of oxygen. This makes a person healthier. Only a healthy person can work long, hard and cheerfully.

An unhealthy person may not take as much interest in work. Games and sports have additional benefits to exercise as they are played in groups and in a healthy competitive spirit.

Among many other things, they help develop cooperation, quality of leadership, team spirit and a willingness to submit to, and further, the rule of law. Games instill in participants the spirit of self-reliance, Justice, fair play and sporting spirit.

They make people bold, adventurous, social, disciplined and more conscious of their responsibilities towards society and the nation. People participating regularly in games and sports have been found better equipped to fight superstitions, communalism, obscurantism and a narrow approach to issues of national interest.

Games also help in overcoming feelings of violence, arrogance and superiority as these are purged by providing them a sufficient outlet through them. A sportsperson may not lose his or her temper and morale even in the face of defeat because he/she would take it coolly, calmly and then would try to perform better the next time. Players know that victory and defeat are two aspects of the same coin. There is more joy in playing than in its ends result. Thus, participation in sport results in all-round development of personality.

Q. 4. Explain Big Five Personality Theory. 

Ans: The big five are the broad categories of five personality traits that are uniness of:

These are as follow:

(i) Agreeableness: This includes attributes like trust, kindness, affection and other social behaviours. People high in agreeableness are more cooperative and people low in this trait are more competitive and manipulative.

(ii) Neuroticism: Characteristics are sadness, moodiness and emotional instability. People high in this trait experience mood swings, anxiety, irritability and sadness. People low in this trait are more stable and emotionally resilient.

(iii) Conscientiousness: Characteristics include high level of thoughtfulness, good impulse control and goal-directed behaviours. People high on this trail are organized and mindful of details.

(iv) Openness: Characteristics are imagination and insight. People high in this trait are creative, adventurous and have a board range of interests. People low in this trait are more traditional and less in abstract thinking.

(v) Entroverssion: Entroverts get their energy from interesting with other individuals, whereas introverts get their energy from within themselves.

Entroverssion includes the traits of being energetic, talkative and assertive.

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