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English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types
English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types Notes cover all the exercise questions in UGC Syllabus. The English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every Unit and score well in the board exams.
Communication: Theory and Types
- Theory of Communication,
- Types and Modes of Communication
- Verbal and Non-verbal (Spoken and Written)
- Personal, Social, and Business
- Barriers and Strategies
- Intra-personal, Interpersonal, and Group Communication
1. What is Communication ?
Ans: First, understand that definitions are neither wrong nor right, just useful or not useful. Many of the definitions offered here dilute “Communication” to the point that everything is Communication. Not too useful. If I sneeze and you move away from me, it is not useful to call that communicative behaviour. If I look at the sky and see grey clouds, so I grab my umbrella, I haven’t just communicated with the sky.
A useful definition of Communication should encompass a variety of situations such as ordinary conversation, deception, coded/secretive Communication between POWs several cells apart, and the game of Charades. The definition is less useful if it encompasses cursing when you hit your thumb with a hammer, or crying when you are sad.
In very simple terms: You have thoughts “asleep” in your head that I would like you to be currently thinking. I access your senses with some sort of stimuli – sounds, sights, smells etc. – that I believe will activate those thoughts. If it works, you and I are thinking the same thing. That is Communication. In a fully communicative situation you are aware that I am doing this and you contribute to the process.
A more formal articulation of this process: Communication is the process by which people observe and exhibit social stimuli in order to active, create, or ascertain meme states in other people, with the goal of creating isomorphic meme states between themselves.
2. What is effective Communication ?
Ans: If it’s a two way conversation, the best communicators know to stop, truly listen and when ready, continue the conversation with their thoughts. Many people don’t understand the art of a 2 way conversation.
One person may be speaking about their thoughts or feelings or a general topic, while the other person is formulating their thoughts already and prepping them to come out of their mouth the moment there is a lapse in words from the other person. This is not the best way to communicate. It happens naturally though.
The best way for good, even great communication, is to listen. Truly listen. Hear their words. Read their body language. And when the time is right, allow your words to flow naturally in response. That makes for great Communication.
If it’s communicating to an audience via email, blog, newsletter, teachers, thing of your audience. At this point, the dialog is on you. What will attract your audience to your words? What makes up the majority of the audience?
I’II use an example for you. When I recruit for technical positions, I know that IT folk in the industry don’t have time to waste on reading a long email. They like it short and sweet – subject line, body of email, quick links for the job and my contact information. I direct my Communications to my audience. Those that are of interest, get back to me very quickly. Those that aren’t, some save my email for when the time is right. Others not on the market, forward the email to their friends who are on the market. Speak to your audience. But when they respond back, make it a great two way conversation using the suggestions in the above paragraph. (Also, grammar, font, formatting, if bad, people will delete immediately.)
Overall, listen to the person you are communicating with and don’t prep your words for the time to jump in. Connect with your audience. Each human being you interact with, whether face to face, phone or email, is a human being and deserves your sole attention and when provided, you may get the same respect back.
3. What are the essential characteristics of effective communication ?
Ans: Communication is the most critical art at work-places. Companies succeed or fail basis how effective employees communicate.
We are all driven by our desires and our fears of not being able to fulfil those. When I was writing my book ‘Corporate Avatars’, a book based on different personality types at work, I spoke to different people at different ranks, in different professions and different functions to understand what breaks these channels of communications. Many feared of their colleagues, many distrusted them, many were constantly scared of being left out of the race; be it the race of being promoted, getting salary hikes, being appreciated, getting the coveted project and so on.
People at workplace have these fears playing harder on them which makes them do stuff keeping their own selfish interest in mind. End of the day, only one person gets the extra hike, the promotion, the project. Which makes people seem ‘mean’ and defensive when the natural tendency is never that.
After working for over a decade in the corporate life, here are my tips of effective communication:
Choose the mode of communication – Some communications work better in person, some can be done over emails and some over calls. Knowing what kind of communication channel works for the topic you have in mind in the key. The larger the potential of conflict, the better it is to communicate in person. The urgency behind taking a decision can also drive the mode. If you chose email as a mode to communicate something complex and controversial, there is a high likelihood of the communication not being very effective.
Build relationships and earn trust over time – Relations don’t get built overnight. Investing in forming long term relationships at work is a key to successfully navigating your way through the corporate world.
(a) Talk Data – If you want a wall pink and your colleague wants it red, finding a common ground needs data. The more the talk is subjective, the higher is the chance of the communication being ineffective.
(b) Learn to listen – We all believe we are great communicators without realising we are good speakers but poor listeners. We listen with our biases, per-con-lesser is the communication effective.
(c) We are all very busy – Everyone has work to do, stuff to deliver. Limit the conversations as much to the point so people know you value their time.
(d) What’s in store for the other person – When you open a communication, start with what’s in store for the other person. Talking in someone else’s language is the best way to open channels of effective communication.
4. Do you consider yourself an effective communicator ?
Ans: When I sold translation rights I had to learn to rein in my expansive tendency, and that helped my writing and communication skills in general. Writing about creative business to smart people who speak English as a second or third language requires focus on what is essential and the simplest way to get it across without insulting anyone’s intelligence.
My work as an editor requires the detection of failing communication. I feel confident with my communication skills when I know what I’m talking about. If I am motivated to achieve something I can be very effective with my choice of words. I have made most of my significant life achievements by my communication skills alone.
When it comes to expressing my own needs, how-ever, I seem to speak an invisible language. So I know that I am not 100 percent effective.
5. How can I learn to communicate effectively ?
Ans : “Communication” is a huge topic. There would be a lot to talk about. Communication online, communication face to face, on the phone, via letter, email. etc. Different approaches need different attention.
You communicate well if you consider these points:
a) Try to always maintain positive facial expressions and body language (non-verbal language is very important). Bear in mind seeing someone in person gives you the advantage of using your body language which in written communication or over the phone is unfortunately not possible.
b) Listen carefully to what the other person is saying (by nodding, keeping eye contact, once in a while repeating/acknowledge what they are saying, asking questions)
c) Be focused on what you are saying and try to express your thoughts in an articulate way. Don’t use 3 sentences if you can say the same in one sentence.
d) Learn to distinguish assertive language from aggressive (more direct) language. Imagine you moved to a foreign country and there are two people…. One person tells you “You will realise by yourself that learning the local language will benefit you in many ways.” Which approach do you think is better? Obviously version 2, it’s less direct and sounds friendlier.
e) Be always respectful towards the other person, no matter whether you communicate orally or in writing. Also remember, you don’t write an engaging blog post and apply a conversational writing style.)
f) If you get feedback from others, never take it personally. Look at it as an opportunity to improve. If you on the other hand need to give someone else feed-back, start with a positive note, mention points that need to be changed/improved and end again with a positive note (it’s known as the “sandwich” method).
g) Make sure your spoken word and body languages are in sync. If they are not, people will trust more your body language rather than what is coming out of your mouth. Word can lie but body language is difficult to manipulate.
6. What is the importance of good communication skills
What are the objectives of communication skills ?
Ans: Communication is the exchange of information and ideas, whether written or verbal. Effective communication skills are about conveying your message to others clearly. Communication is an important skill for successful businesses and for building relationships by influencing interactions either positively or negatively. Effective communication engages the choice and use of an effective communication channel and presentation of information to the target audience.
Development of Interpersonal Skills
Developing interpersonal skills is an important aspect of effective communication. Interpersonal skills encompass the verbal and non-verbal aspects of a message. You should be able to communicate with other people under different circumstances. Whether it’s sharing good news like a job promotion or bad news, like a death in the family, knowing how to handle various situations is essential in being a good communicator.
Technological advancement has resulted in the development of many forms of communication. You should develop the message content carefully to communicate effectively. All messages are designed to have a purpose whether written or spoken. Effective communication skills will enable you to create clear messages. You will achieve this by eliminating unnecessary words and making the message relevant to the target audience.
Active listening is an important aspect of developing effective communication skills. Maintaining eye contact and avoiding interrupting the person you are communicating with are ways to ensure you listen to the message. Active listening means you concentrate on what your subject is relaying to you. By doing this, you increase the chance of developing solid relationships with people, which can come in handy in your business and personal life.
Reading Non-Verbal Cues
Developing skills of reading non-verbal signs during conversation is a vital communication skill. Human beings present important messages with their body language. Facial expressions, eye movement, body posture and gestures are ways an effective communicator can pick up on what a person is trying to say – or trying not to say. Mastery of the non-verbal signals leads to effective communication.
7. Why is interpersonal communication important ?
Ans: Interpersonal communication skills are essential to developing other key life skills. Being able to communicate well with others is often essential to solving problems that inevitably occur both in our private and professional lives. Decision making is another area which can benefit from good communication skills as it often requires communicating complex information so that the most appropriate decision can be made.
Good interpersonal communication skills enable us to work more effectively in groups and teams, which may be either formal, like at work, or informally – in social situations. It is often desirable to build strong relationships with others, which can in turn lead to better communication and understanding.
8. How important is communication in your career ?
Ans : If success is life, then communication is its lifeblood. Period.
Let me elaborate.
First of all, understand what communication is: transfer of information from source / sender to receive through voice, printed or digital media, visual elements like images, maps, charts or logos.
Humans speak to each other through words but that’s not all, communication is also conducted non-verbally i.e., using body language, gestures and voice modulations. This is done consciously and subconsciously and according to research, this form of communication constitutes almost 75% of any conversation.
E.g., when you meet someone, there is communication. This is how it goes: “Hello, How are you?” and you shake hands, smile and stand along with the person to have a chat. The spoken words are verbal communication and the rest is non-verbal.
And it is in non-verbal communication that most people suffer.
A limp handshake, a fake smile, a slouching posture, bad body odour, obnoxious breath odour all constitute a very bad non-verbal communication situation. Remember, you don’t get a second chance to make a first impression.
No person with a bad work ethic, verbal and non-verbal communication skills stands a chance to move up the ladder of success. Most institutes, sadly, do not concentrate on the non-verbal part of the communication. So it’s up to the individual to search for the required tutors / lessons etc. if she wants to move ahead in life.
After all it’s not just important to know what to talk to a client during a business lunch but also not to keep elbows on the table, burp loudly and curse the waiters.
9. What is the importance of verbal communication ?
Ans: Communication has the ability to confuse, clarify, encourage, instruct or teach. Verbal communication can be seen in daily life when you listen to the evening news, interview a client or tell your children to be home on time. Verbal communication is the beginning of the communication process, followed by nonverbal communication that validates or contradicts the verbal communication.
One of the primary purposes of verbal communication is to inform. Verbal communication is used daily to teach in the classroom or tell your spouse that you’II be home late from work. It’s also used in business and technology to educate on a variety of topics from updates to new policies and procedures.
Verbal communication is used to clarify when there is a misunderstanding or not enough information provided. This is typically seen in group communication and in large organisations where information can easily get lost in the channels or can be misunderstood when it’s communicated. Verbal communication can also help clarify nonverbal communication. You may do something that isn’t perceived correctly, and you’re able to clarify what you really meant with verbal communication.
When something isn’t being done correctly or is being done ineffectively, verbal communication is able to correct the wrong and make it right. This is obvious in a school classroom or a home situation where a student is performing an action incorrectly and the teacher or parent corrects the performance to show the correct way. This is also seen in relations when a controversy or accusation arises within an organisation.
Verbal communication is a medium that provides feedback. Feedback is essential in any relationship, family or organisation to function properly. Feedback is the ability for individuals to give their verbal opinion and experience with the purpose of improving systems, policies and relationships.
e) Power of Influence:
Verbal communication has the power of influence. This is best demonstrated by the president of the United States. When he makes a speech, the entire world is watching, listening and responding to his verbal communication. On more common levels, the power of influence is seen between father and son, boss and employee and clergy to his congregation. What someone says can have a deep effect on his subordinates.
10. What is verbal communication ?
Ans: The sharing of information between individuals by using speech is what is known as verbal communication. In the field of business or any other field you need to communicate with the help of verbal communication.
But you would be surprised to know that out of 100% of communication, 93% of the communication is the part of the non verbal communication and only 7% of the communication is based on the verbal communication.
11. Which are some of the disadvantages of verbal communication ?
Ans: Communication is the transmission and receiving of information. If there is no distortion in transmission or receiving, then you have successfully communicated. However, there are many types of distortions which may cause problems such as: 1) different languages, 2) national or racial cultural references, 3) education, 4) economic situation, 5) tribal references (e.g. a biker gang or “teen speak”). There is another consideration that is not usually mentioned in a discussion of verbal communication. A verbal language is not just a means to impose meaning upon sound. It is also a device to organise thoughts. For example, I once read about a primate tribe with a number system based upon 1, 2, 3 and many. That group was not overly concerned with numbers. Now think of someone like Albert Einstein. The point being, that how you think about your reality is influenced by your language.
12. What is non-verbal communication ?
Ans: “Non-verbal communication” usually refers to physical cues such as posture and facial expressions that indicate meaning. Shady poker players use non-verbal communications to a shill by how they hold the cards or tap their fingers on the table. The shill, “false partner,” will then bid up the pot if the shady player has a good hand, among other strategies. Some professions study non-verbal communication more than others. Trial lawyers, psychologists and police detectives may assume certain things about witnesses, clients and suspects by studying their non-verbal cues. Generally, this sort of communication is thought of as unconscious or uncontrolled. Interpretations are not always accurate just like lie-detector tests.
13. How can non verbal ways can accompany the verbal communication for the effective communication during presentation ?
Ans: During a presentation, your non-verbal cues are incredibly important in two ways: providing a sense of assurance and authority and NOT creating a distraction.
Use gestures appropriately. Don’t feel the need to constantly gesture. Use meaningful gestures for emphasis.
Don’t shuffle or dance in a circle! Move only when the subject changes. Move to refresh attention spans. Don’t rock…. Walk ….Just a couple of steps then stop.
Maintain eye contact. Speak TO your audience, not over them or around them. Lock eyes for a few seconds, then move to the next person.
Stand tall and firm. Stand in your place as if you own it. Straight back. Head high. You know your stuff better than they do. Take your stand and press your point. Confident….not cocky.
Don’t stutter or use ahhh or uuuuuuh or ummm. If you need a moment, simply pause. Pauses catch attention and refocus listeners’ ears. Ummmm, errre, uhhhhh, ahhhhh….make you look disorganised and unskilled….listeners tune out.
Dress one bit higher than you expect the audience will. No one ever regretted being over-dressed in a presentation. Even if they rub you for being more formal…they’LL respect you for respecting them enough to look sharp. If they rub me, I just say, “Well, I’d never consider going to a job interview in less than this… and you’re a great deal more important an audience than the HR interview!” They typically laugh….and I’m starting to win them before the first slide!
14. What are the pros and cons of non-verbal communication ?
Ans: There is a proverb “Actions speak louder than words.” In essence, this underscores the importance of non-verbal communication. Non-Verbal communication is especially significant in intercultural situations. Research in communication suggests that many more feelings and intentions are sent and received nonverbally than verbally. Mehrabian and Wiener suggested that only 7 % of messages are sent through words, with the remaining 93 % sent non-verbal expressions (depending on the author, the verbal part goes up to 35 %). It has multiple advantages or functions:
Complementary: Non-verbal cues complement a verbal message by adding to its meaning. You can pat someone you offended at the back as you say sorry to him or her.
Easy presentation: Information can be easily presented in non-verbal communication through using visual, audio-visual and silent means of non-verbal communication.
Substituting: Non-verbal message may substitute for the verbal message especially if it is blocked by noise interruption, long distance etc. for example: gestures-finger to lips to indicate need for quiet, facial expressions a nod instead of a yes.
Accenting: Often used to accent a verbal message. Verbal tone indicates the actual meaning of the specific words.
Repeat: Used to repeat the verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating directions.)
Help to illiterate people: This type of communication uses gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, proximity, touching etc. and without using any spoken or written word. So, it is very much helpful for illiterate people.
Help to handicapped people: Non-verbal cues of communication greatly help in handicapped people especially to deaf people. Deaf people exchange messages through the movements of hands, fingers, eye balls etc.
Attractive presentation: Non-verbal communication is based on visuals, pictures, graphs, signs etc. that can be seen very much attractive.
Reducing wastages of time: The message of non-verbal communication reached the receiver very fast. For this reason it reduces the wastage of valuable time of the communicator.
Quick expression of message: Non-verbal cues of communication like sign and symbol can also communicate some messages very quickly than written or oral messages.
Disadvantages or limitations of non-verbal communication:
Despite of advantages of non-verbal communication, it is not free from its limitations or disadvantages which are:
Vague and imprecise: Non-verbal communication is quite vague and imprecise. Since in this communication there is no use of words or language which expresses clear meaning to the receiver. No dictionary can accurately classify them. Their meaning varies not only by culture and context but by degree of intention.
Continuous: It is possible to stop talking in verbal communication, but it is generally not possible to stop nonverbal cues. Also, spoken language has a structure that makes it easier to tell when a subject has changed, for instance or to analyse its grammar. Nonverbal does not lend itself to this kind of analysis.
Multi-channel: While watching someone’ eyes, you may miss something significant in a hand gesture. Every-thing is happening at once and therefore it may be confusing to keep up with everything. Most of us simply do not do so, at least not consciously.
Culture-bound: Non-verbal communication is learnt in childhood, passed on to you by your parents and others with whom you associate. A few other gestures seem to be universal. Evidence suggests that humans of all cultures smile when happy and frown when unhappy. However, most nonverbal symbols seem to be even further disconnected from any “essential meaning” than verbal symbols. Gestures seen as positive in one culture (Like the thumbs-up gesture in the USA) may be seen as obscene in another culture.
Long conversations are not possible: In non-verbal communication, long conversation and necessary explanations are not possible. No party can discuss the particular issues if the messages.
Difficult to understand: Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions in non-verbal communication. Since it uses gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, touch etc. for communicating with others which may not be understandable for the simple and foolish people.
Not everybody prefers: Everybody not refers to communicating through non-verbal communication with others. Sometimes it cannot create an impression upon people or listeners. It is less influential and cannot be used everywhere. It cannot be used as a public tool for communication.
Lack of formality: Non-verbal communication does not follow any rules, formality or structure like other communication. Most of the cases people unconsciously and habitually engage in non-verbal communication by moving the various parts of the body.
Costly: In some cases non-verbal communication involves huge cost. For example, neon sign, powerpoint presentation, cinema etc are very much costly compared to other forms of communication.
Distortion of information: Since it uses gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, touch, sign, sound, paralanguage etc. for communicating with others, there is a great possibility of distortion of information in non-verbal communication.
16. What are some non-verbal communication exercises ?
Ans: Pancake is our deaf Aussie. He is trained to hand signals and eye contact. We end up saying the words even though he can’t hear it. Eye contact is really important when training to hand signals. ‘Sit’ is a closed fist. To teach this, you put a small treat in your hand holding in the fist above the dog’s head. Move the treat back where the dog has to look up and then he should naturally sit. Give him the treat and praise. Keep doing this for several days. Then alternate giving the signal, and just praise to wean off the treats. ‘Down’ is pointing to the ground of a flat hand palm down. Once pup is on ‘it’ move the treat down to the ground and back toward you until the dog is in the down position. ‘Stand’ is palm upward, and raise the hand. With the treat, take a step back so the dog gets up to follow you. Treat and Praise. When I call pancake to me I make eye contact and wave the ‘come here’ that most people do. ‘Off’ is a finger pointing to the ground when he is on the bed or couch. Or table. That rarely happens anymore, but athletic dogs will jump on the table! ‘up’ is part of what you want them to jump up on. “Around’ is best taught when leashed. Same concept finger motion with a treat going in the direction you want. Pancake understands just as much as my other hearing dogs. I need to come up with a signal for ‘find it’ though.
17. What are the non-verbal cues ?
Ans: As a Public Relations major, it was important for me to study non-verbal communication and micro expressions to better understand how well new products and ideas are received in market research.
The secret to negotiating is reading people’s faces.
(a) If a customer doesn’t look you in the eye when you ask them if they like something, then they don’t.
(b) If a client doesn’t come to you for advice in an area you claim to know, then they don’t fully trust you.
(c) The true expression in a person’s feelings are shown in a half second expression that flashes across their face. You almost have to be a humming bird to catch this.
(d) Answering a question with a question means they know you will not like the true answer.
(e) If a person purposely avoids eye contact, they have a strong opinion about you.
(f) Rigid standing people are not comfortable with their surroundings or company. Relaxed positions of standing or sitting makes a person look like they fit in.
(g) People that laugh and make fun of others feel insecure themselves, and want to throw up a subconscious diversion.
(h) A buying signal is eye contact, without blinking, and silence.
(I) If a customer refuses your help, they are not interested in buying from you again.
(J) If a group of people are silent when you enter a room, and avoid eye contact with you, you will interrupt a conversation about you.
(K) Lonely people don’t make eye contact much when talking. Standing closer to them and using your hands when speaking will encourage visual communication.
(L) People that talk too much don’t always need an answer to the questions they ask, and would rather just have your attention.
(M) Some answers do not require a verbal response.
(N) Expressive body language is more humorous than words.
(O) If you care about someone, use your body to face them when you are speaking to them.
(P) Not facing someone when you ask a question that you think they will lie about, dis-arms them to provide a less shrouded response, as they think you don’t really want to know the answer is a lie, they also will not face you.
(Q) When someone does not answer your questions then you are not in their circle of trust.
(R) People that walk with straight backs right by you without looking at you or smiling at you, strongly dislike you.
(S) Over friendly people that compliment often don’t really mean those things they say about you. They mean the opposite.
(T) If someone cares about your opinion, they will look at you when they ask the question. If they don’t respect your answer they will immediately do something else after they talk to you, without providing feedback.
18. What are the technique of detecting deception (non-verbal) ?
Ans: Other answers may say something about eye contact, posture, or something of that nature. I say that those things are inconsistent and studies show that there’s no strong evidence to suggest that any nonverbal behaviour is a universal sign of deception.
That being said, the one thing I would look out for, and just look out for this in general, is a person’s deviation from their own norm.
With every person you meet, notice their speech patterns, body language, and patterns for addressing problems (are they introverts? Confident? Humble? Selfish? Etc.).
If a person deviates from this, now you know that something new is happening. For example, if a friend who is usually gregarious sits alone, they are likely sad.
If a person is especially nice to you and breaks the touch barrier with you often, but is distant towards others, they might be romantically interested in you. Their pattern towards others is different than towards yourself.
If you notice a deviation from the norm, ask yourself why they might be acting differently. Or ask them directly, if you trust their answer.
The only way to know with greater certainty if they are deceiving you is more practice noticing people’s deceptions.
Deviations from their norm is a sign of something new.
19. What are non verbal symbols ?
Ans: A symbol, if I remember correctly, is an object or (more frequently) a visual representation of an object, carrying a culturally implied meaning (myth).
We encode outgoing messages using symbols, and decode (receive the communication) using cultural codes, something we collectively agree upon to be true.
As such, non-verbal symbols are:
– body language and gestures, paralanguage (tone and touch)
– pictograms (and icons); also flags and national symbols,
– style & outfit,
– visual symbolic language (originating in myths, used in visual arts and graphic design)
20. What non-verbal signs do men use to show interest in a women ?
Ans: Many men, in fact most do not use subtle body language and most cannot read it either. This often goofs up women who don’t understand why most guys do not get their signs, do not understand their body language or pick up on subtle clues.
Don’t over think most guys, if they are physically turning toward you with open body gesture, if the frame of their hips is toward you, if they have open hands with thumbs in pockets for example, open legs (not crossed), staring toward you from a distance or while also having a hard time looking you in the eyes for too long, if they get overly talkative with you, or become clumsy and shy, or physically turn toward you these are all signs of attraction, interest, and acceptance from men.
Some men are naturally charismatic and comfortable talking to women, most are not. Some men learn to be more flirty and conversational, even if uncomfortable or clumsy about it. A few guys try to learn trick influencing techniques which sometimes work on some women, mostly those faux efforts only work on drunks and those with few standards.
But most guys are very straight forward, watch them with friends, co-workers or a sales clerk and that is often who they are or aspire to be. If they treat service people well, are respectful, funny, and open with others they will be with you too. Some shy men may be harder to read but if they listen to you, want to make you laugh (even if its corny), try to get close to you, do you favors, make heroic or gallant gestures (even on a small scale), and open their body toward you they are more than likely interested in you.
They don’t do things women do, they won’t spin their hair, they won’t reveal more skin, most will not rub up against you or use their chest the way many women will rub their breasts against a man, few will touch you at first. Some have learned to brush a hand, touch an elbow, brush away stray hair, or guide a woman by placing a hand on her waist but most are not that physically articulate. Many men get nervous around all women, some only around those they are attracted to and then relax as friendship and conversation begins.
Some men have never had those problems and talk as easily to women as men who are confident in other parts of their life may not be with women or as articulate.
Shy men will avoid the women they are interested in, struggle to look them in the eye at times, (that does not always mean they are always looking at your breasts, eyes are far more intimate and revealing). They may just be looking below or past your eyes so don’t overthink it, life is not a sit-com. Or they will make little gestures like trying to please you, do you favours, etc. but may not be able to speak to you on an intimate level even if they are confident in other parts of their life so that too can be a clue from an introverted man that they like you.
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