English Communication Unit 2 Speaking Skills Notes, College and University Answer Bank for BA, B.com, Bsc and Post Graduate Notes and Guide Find here, English Communication Unit 2 Speaking Skills Solutions to each Unit are provided in the list of UG-CBCS Central University & State University Syllabus so that you can easily browse through different College and University Guide and Notes here. English Communication Unit 2 Speaking Skills Question Answer can be of great value to excel in the examination.
English Communication Unit 2 Speaking Skills
English Communication Unit 2 Speaking Skills Notes cover all the exercise questions in UGC Syllabus. The English Communication Unit 2 Speaking Skills provided here ensure a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every Unit and score well in the board exams.
- Group Discussion
- Effective Communication/Mis- communication
- Public Speech
- What do you mean by dialogue?
Ans: Dialogue is communication or discussion between people or groups of people such as governments or political parties. … They have begun dialogues to promote better understanding between both communities.
2. What is an example of a dialogue ?
Ans: Dialogue is a conversation between two or more people in a narrative work. … Dialogue is written using quotation marks around the speaker’s exact words. These quotation marks are meant to set the dialogue apart from the narration, which is written as standard text. Together, let’s explore some dialogue examples.
3. What is the purpose of dialogue ?
Ans: Dialogue is one of the few ways that a play wright has to communicate important things to the audience through his/her characters. So what is the purpose of dialogue in a play? Dialogue is not simply conversation between characters.
4. What is dialogue?
Ans: For some, dialogue is a focused and intentional conversation, a space of civility and equality in which those who differ may listen and speak together. For other it is a way of being-mindful and creative relating. In dialogue, we seek to set aside fears, preconceptions, the need to win; we take time to hear other voices and possibilities. Dialogue can encompass tensions and paradoxes, and in so doing, new ideas-collective wisdom-may arise. Diana Chapman Walsh describes it this way:
It’s when we let our guard down and allow our differences and doubts to surface and interact that something authentic and original can begin to emerge, tentatively, in the spaces between us. And I’ve found that it’s often in these fleeting and complicated moments that the heart and mind can come into synchrony, pointing to altogether novel educational possibilities. The key is to remain alert to those moments and to move with them when they arise.
We know that the most effective process for discovering these layers of meaning is through interactive and iterative dialogue and that if we undertake them sincerely and openly-and patiently-we can sometimes find our way to something entirely new. We assume that individual voices speak and act for the system as a whole, and we listen carefully or a variety of voices and the competing values they represent.
5. How do you write a dialogue ?
Ans: Tips for Writing Believable and Compelling Dialogue
(i) Use quotation marks. One of the absolute dialogue writing rules is using quotation marks.
(ii) Each speaker gets their own paragraph. Each speaker needs to be given their own paragraph. …
(iii) Make sure the reader knows who is speaking. …
(iv) Vary speech tag use. …
(v) Use dialogue with a purpose. …
(vi) Written dialogue should sound real. …
6. What makes a good dialogue ?
Ans: A good conversation is an escalation. The dialogue is about something and builds toward something. If things stay even and neutral, the dialogue just feels empty. Characters in a novel never just talk.
7. What is the importance of dialogue ?
Ans: Dialogue is important because when you have dialogue it shows the character’s personality, emotions, and actions.
8. The Functions of Dialogue
Ans: Dialogue, he informs us, performs four functions: It provides information, reveals emotion, advances the plot and exposes character.
Information: This seems straight forward enough. Tell the audience what they need to know to follow the story. The catch is that the writer should do so without being obvious or slowing down the forward thrust of the tale.
A good example of providing necessary information while maintaining the tension occurs at the start of Inglorious Basterds where a Nazi officer interviews the French farmer concerning the whereabouts of a missing Jewish family in the area – a family that the farmer is secretly sheltering under the very floorboards where the interview is talking place!
Emotion: Whenever possible, dialogue should also reveal emotion. Failure to do so makes for boring lines. In the above mentioned example, each line uttered by the Nazi officer in the scene serves to heighten the stakes for the farmer and his family since discovering the Jews under the floorboards will surely lead to everyone’s execution.
Plot: Additionally dialogue should advance the plot, but it should do so surreptitiously so that it does not expose its purpose. Initially, it seems that the Nazi officer is merely questioning the French farmer and will leave at the end of the interview. But as the questioning continues it becomes clear that the Nazi already has the answers and is merely prolonging the process to the torment of the farmer and his family.
Character: Lastly, dialogue should characterise the speaker and the person to whom it is directed. The Nazi officer, seems, at first, to be cultured and polite. The interview initially seems more of a conversation between friends than an interrogation. The farmer, although reticent, is encouraged to participate in the exchanges. But the niceties are only superficial – part of the cat-and-mouse game that the german is playing with the farmer. This characterises him as a sadistic tormentor and the farmer and his family as helpless, passive victims.
Working in unison, then, these functions make for effective and engrossing dialogue – a boon to any storytelling toolkit.
Good dialogue performs four functions – it provides information, exposes emotion, advances the plot and reveals character.
9. Definitions of dialogue
Ans: “Dialogue” comes from the Greek word dialogos. Logos means ‘the word’, or in our case we would think of ‘the meaning of the word’. And dia means through’-it doesn’t mean ‘two’… The picture or image that this derivation suggest is of a stream of meaning flowing among and through and between us. This will make possible a flow of meaning in the whole group, out of which may emerge some new understanding. It’s something new, which may not have been in the starting point at all, it’s something creative. And this shared meaning is the ‘glue’ or ‘cement’ that holds people and societies together.
The object of a dialogue is not to analyse things, or to win an argument, or to exchange opinions. Rather, it is to suspend your opinions and to look at the opinion-to listen to everybody’s opinions, to suspend them, and to see what all that means…. We can just simply share the appreciation of the meanings, and out of this whole thing, truth emerges unannounced-not that we have chosen it.
Everything can move between us. Each person is participating, is partaking of the whole meaning of the group and also taking part in it. We can call that a true dialogue.
Dialogue is the collective way of opening up judgments and assumptions.
10. What is effective Dialogue ?
Ans: Effective dialogue is an exchange of ideas or opinions on a particular issue, especially a complex issue, with a view to reaching an amicable agreement or settlement.
It is a common method used in all workplaces to scope out the nature of complex problems that need to be solved, to discover and assess issues, discover alternatives, challenge assumptions, evaluate the pros and cons of various possible approaches and develop solutions.
Effective dialogue is unlike ordinary conversation. Effective dialogue encourages participants with diverse perspectives to interact; encourages participants to question any unspoken assumptions or worldviews that may be blocking new approaches; and recognises that the same discussion can be interpreted differently by different participants. Participants go beyond polite conversations and small talk to develop an informed understanding of each other’s perspectives. Unlike ordinary conversations, effective dialogue requires participants to take deliberate action to listen and understand the concerns of others. It requires treating people with respect, listening with empathy and being open to new and different ideas.
Having Effective Dialogue at work
For effective dialogue, participants are encouraged to:
(i) Work cooperatively rather than competitively
(ii) Consider all aspects of the issue. Discuss what the problem is, why it has arisen at this time, what the possible solutions are, which solutions are better than the others (and why), and how the best solutions could be implemented
(iii) Play “devil’s advocate” (by speaking against generally agreed assumptions or generally agreed solutions) as part of the search for better solutions
(iv) Carefully evaluate the information and the reasoning that links the information to conclusions
(v) Recognise effective dialogue is not merely a rational exercise – it is always an emotional experience for many participants. Respect different views and alternative perspectives
(vi) Be especially watchful for barriers and biases that can easily occur in conversations of different perspectives (see the following section).
Barriers to Effective Dialogue
Effective dialogue is useful in overcoming many of the biases that occur in everyday discussions.
These biases, which are often unconscious and unintentional, include:
(i) Groupthink: Where people within a group conform to the group (or its leader) rather than come up with options, problems or alternatives that may be a challenge for the group or a risk for the proposer
(ii) Cultural and other assumptions: Where the most extroverted and assertive speakers of English in the group “take over” the discussion and assume those who are quiet are agreeing with them or have nothing to add; whereas it may be necessary to restructure how the meeting is held so people can contribute in ways that are culturally appropriate, people can talk together informally before they feel confident enough to state their views publicly, and/or people can have time to reflect on what they have heard before they can present their views to the meeting
(iii) Bounded rationality: Where people, limited by their incomplete information and lack of time, adopt a satisfactory solution rather than the optimal one
(iv) Short-termism: Where people seek short term “wins” without considering longer-term alternatives or consequences
(v) This is similar to acting tactically without also thinking strategically – that is, carrying out detailed tasks or manoeuvres to achieve a specific objective as well as setting multiple, interrelated objectives as part of an overall, longer-term plan
(vi) Confirmation bias: Where people gather facts that support preferred conclusions and disregard other facts that support different conclusions
(vii) Premature termination of the search for evidence: Where people accept the first alternative that looks like it might work
(viii) Cognitive inertia: Where people rely on their familiar assumptions and understanding of a situation when that situation changes
(ix) Selective perception: Where people actively screen-out information that is not considered important; and discount arguments with which they disagree
(x) Framing bias: Where people work with others to construct a point of view that encourages the facts of a given situation to be interpreted by others in a particular manner
(xi) Sunk – cost fallacy: Where people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation
(xii) Over generalising: Where people ignore important details or significant issues by talking in general terms as if all agencies, programs, policies, customers, governments (or whatever is being discussed) are the same
(xiii) Ad hominem attacks: Where people question (or attack) the person giving the message rather than questioning the message itself
(xiv) False causal links: Where people believe that because something seemingly occurs in conjunction with something else – there is a direct causal link between the two events
(xv) Intimidation: Where people do not speak up or act truthfully because they fear – rightly or wrongly – that they or their career may threatened or harmed in some way by another person.
11. A bank Clerk and A Bank Customer
Bank Clerk: good morning, welcome to the Grammar Bank. How can I help you?
Customer: Good morning. I would like to open a bank account.
Bank Clerk: Sure thing. What kind of account would you like to open? A saving account or a checking account?
Customers: What’s difference?
Bank Clerk: A checking account is designed to use for everyday transactions. Yet; the money in a savings account is meant to stay in the account and earn interest over time.
Customer: I see, actually I want to apply for a credit card. That’s why I need an account.
Bank Clerk: Okay then, you probably want a checking account.
Customer: Well, thank you. I’d like that.
Bank Clerk: Sure, we will have you fill out an application form, please.
Customer: No problem.
Bank Clerk: How much of a credit limit were you looking for?
Customer: I would like a $ 10,000 spending limit.
Bank Clerk: Alright, we will see what we can do. We might be able to get you one of our gold cards with a $ 10,000 spending limit.
Customer: Wonderful. Will I also collect points when I use the card?
Bank Clerk: Sure, with our gold card you will get 10 reward points for every dollar spent.
Customer: Perfect, I have filled out the form. Do you need anything else?
Bank Clerk: You just need to deposit a minimum of $250 into your new checking account.
Customer: Very well, here you are.
Bank Clerk: Thank you, your account is set up now and your credit card will be mailed to your address within 5 to 10 business days.
Customer: Thank you for your help, have a good day.
Bank Clerk: Thank you, you too.
12. Patient & Doctor.
Ans : Patient’s mother: Good morning, doctor.
Doctor: Good morning.
Patient’s mother: My daughter hasn’t been feeling well and she has a fever, can you please have a look?
Doctor: Let’s see, hi sweetie, what’s your name?
Dana : Dana.
Doctor: Can you please take off your jacket and lie down on the bed Dana?
Patient’s mother: She is a little scared.
Doctor: Don’t worry, it’s not going to hurt, I will just listen to you, I promise.
Doctor: Let me listen to your back and check your throat.
Patient’s mother: How is she?
Doctor: Her throat looks red, I think she has an infection. I will prescribe her some antibiotics, she should take them twice a day.
Patient’s mother: How long does she need to take them?
Doctor: About a week but she can continue for another week if she doesn’t feel better. She should probably rest for a few days too and not go to school.
Patient’s mother: he has become very weak recently. She gets cold very easily too.
Doctor: It’s probably the fever, she may have caught the infection from anyone.
Patient’s mother: Can she take a shower?
Doctor: Absolutely, taking a cool shower actually help reduce the fever in a natural way.
Patient’s mother: Wow, I didn’t know that. When should we come back again?
Doctor: I want to see her next week, but if she gets worse, you can come and see me regardless.
Patient’s mother: Thank you so much, doctor.
Doctor: You are welcome, it’s my pleasure, I hope she gets well soon.
Patient’s mother: Thank you again, good-bye.
13. A check-in Agent and A Passenger
Ans : Agent: Good afternoon, where are you flying to?
Passenger: Good afternoon. I am flying to San Francisco.
Agent: How many people are travelling?
Passenger: It’s my son and I, he is under two years old.
Agent: Can I have your passports and I will need to see his birth certificate to prove that he is under two years of age.
Passenger: Sure, Here they are.
Agent: Would you like a window or an aisle seat?
Passenger: I would be very happy If we can get an aisle seat. I may have to walk him around if he gets bored.
Agent: Aright, I’II put you near the restrooms too.
Passenger: Wonderful, thanks. Is it possible to check in the stroller?
Agent: Sure, are you checking in any bags?
Passenger: Yes, this suitcase and my backpack.
Agent: Let’s put them on the scale, one at a time, please.
Passenger: Sure. And by the way, I have a layover in London. Do I have to pick up my luggage there?
Agent: No, you will pick them up in San Francisco. Here is your boarding pass. You are all set. Be at the gate at least 45 minutes prior to the departure time.
Passenger: Thank you for your help, have a good day.
Agent: Thank you, have a nice flight.
14. Two Students (at University)
Ans: Nadia: Hello, my name is Nadia. Welcome to our university.
Alicia: Hi, I am Alicia.
Nadia: Nice to meet you.
Alicia: Nice to meet you too.
Nadia: Where are you from Alicia?
Alicia: I am from Nicaragua, how about you?
Nadia: I’m from France.
Alicia: Is this your first time in London?
Nadia: No, I have been living in London for about three years now.
Alicia: I see, have you been studying here for all that time?
Nadia: Yes, this is my third year here, I have got one more year to go.
Alicia: What are you studying?
Nadia: I’m studying English Literature. I want to be a linguist. How about you?
Alicia: Sounds cool. I want to be a school teacher.
Nadia: That’s great!
Alicia: I have always wanted to study abroad, so I came to London.
Nadia: Nice! Yeah I love it here, I am actually planning to live here even after I graduate.
Alicia: Perfect, you are already from Europe, so it shouldn’t be that difficult for you.
Nadia: Yeah, I will just need to convince my parents, what about you?
Alicia: I love London, but I am just here for school, I will need to go back once I graduate anyway.
Nadia: I see, well, good luck to you, I have to go to class now, it was nice talking with you.
Alicia: Thank you! You too, and have a good class.
Hi, I’m Dev Kirtonia, Founder & CEO of Dev Library. A website that provides all SCERT, NCERT 3 to 12, and BA, B.com, B.Sc, and Computer Science with Post Graduate Notes & Suggestions, Novel, eBooks, Biography, Quotes, Study Materials, and more.