English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types

English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types Notes, College and University Answer Bank for BA, M.com, Bsc and Post Graduate, English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types to each Unit is provided in the list of UG-CBCS Central University & State University Syllabus so that you can easily browse through different College and University Guide and Notes here. English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types Question Answer can be of great value to excel in the examination.

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English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types

English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types Notes cover all the exercise questions in UGC Syllabus. The English Communication Unit 1 – Communication: Theory and Types provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every Unit and score well in the board exams.

31. Please discuss some barriers to effective communication like: Emotion . Language . Silence . Information overload. Communication…

Ans: Two barriers to communication come from both sides:

(i) The speaker does not have command of language through lack of vocabulary, knowledge of sentence structure and correct verb and pronoun usage, and diction, or word choice.

(ii) The listener is not objectively receptive and/or is not educated well enough to discern the nuances of meaning or implications of what is said and not said. Or, the listener has an emotional block to receiving objectively the message.

George Orwell wrote an essay on the English language in which he purported that one cannot have great thoughts without a great vocabulary, and conversely, one cannot use a great vocabulary unless one thinks greatly. In this mediocre world of pretend greatness, people are ill-educated and unversed in the importance and significance of language; consequently, they are often, at best, mediocre in their communications with others.

32. Discuss hoe time effects communication – with an emphasis on clocking and orienting.

Ans: verbal communication is affected by clocking and orienting:

1. focus- when communication has no focal theme or topic the orientation (goal, purpose) is not defined. Therefore, the result is unnecessary “rambling” that could eventually lead to the complete loss of focus and purpose. Think about politicians. Their timing and orientation must lead directly to a specific cause for which they should come up with

– the identification of the issue at hand

– the identification of the causes that led to the issue

– the identification of the potential solutions

– the identification of the resources available to convert the potential solution into a viable one

– the disclosure of a timeframe that can be put into place to fix the issue

Notice how that type of essential communication could make or break a politician. But, how about regular people like you and me? It affects the same exact way. Effective communication (that which is done for a specific purpose and with a goal in mind) is not merely “casual speak”. It is a vehicle through which links and correlations can be made, and through which problem solving is possible.

2. action. Cognitive synchrony, and time- The Oxford University article “Communication, Coordinated Action. And Focal Points in Groups: From Dating Couples to Emergency responders” by Andrea Hollingshead names the following essential elements to assure good communication, IN TANDEM with clocking and orienting

– coordinated action

– cognitive synchrony

Coordinated action has everything to do with orienting: focusing on which way the conversation goes, what goal it is supposed to achieve, and in how many ways the issue at hand will be presented (and in how many ways) for it to make sense to the listener. However, over-saturating the listener will not work: this is why you need cognitive synchrony, which has a lot to do with timing.

Timing basically means to know when is too much, too early, or “the right moment” to communicate. It has to do with cognitive synchrony because, if you are at a cognitively mature state *notice I did not say “if you are an adult”, as many adults are still more immature than some children* you would have the cognitive acumen to discern when is a good time to say something. Likewise being at a proper cognitive synchronicity with your speaker means that at least you know how and when to communicate with your listener. This entails that you will have the ability to time and orient a conversation in a way that your message will be effectively conveyed.

In not so many words, “clocking” means timing: when, how much, and for low long. – When you plan ahead, you can say whatever you need to say in less time, less words, and more effectively. Combine that with non-verbal communication (coordinated action) for backup, and cognitive synchrony as your bridge to reach the listener, and you will achieve success without a doubt.

33. How can we classify communication ?

Ans: First, we must remember that “No taxonomies are innocent” – in other words, the person doing the classifying has an agenda in mind, a reason or project that calls for the classification. Fist, we may use the standard parts of communication: code, medium, sender, static, feedback, etc, to classify communication. Depending on which area of communication you want to classify, you can start the classification at that point. If you are building an advertising campaign (as the sender), for example, you will want to classify the media as TV, radio, print (further classified into news-papers, magazine, posters, etc., each of which can be further classified-daily, weekly, etc.).

If you are a translator, you will classify the “codes,” the languages or dialects, that sender and receiver share as partially, imperfectly, or well shared. If you are concerned with the effect of communication on the receiver (called feedback), you will classify the results of your ad campaign in terms of sales, hits on the website, etc.

If you are mainly worried about the impediments and interference (static) to your communication, you will categorise problems, such as linguistic ambiguity, demographics, timing, etc. but the phrase “classifying communication” is itself an incomplete or ambiguous communication. The simplest answer to classification is in its basic definition and component parts, as outlined in the communication model cited above.

34. Explain the process of communication.

Ans : The central aspect of communication is “exchange,” for without the give and take, the giving and receiving, communication does not take place. Consider trying to speak to someone who does not speak your language or to someone who cannot hear. You can say something, but the other person is unable to “receive” What you are saying neither the content nor the intent. This refers to an “area of communicative commonality” that is not shared between the two parties. For communication to actually take place the sender has an idea, which he transmits to the receiver through [signs or physical] sensations capable of being perceived by another.

Sometime communication can take place that is non-verbal, through gestures, facial expressions or eye contact (called “body language”). Rolling one’s eyes “speaks” volumes, though no words are used. In this case, although words are not exchanged, non-verbal messages are. And so communication still takes place.

A variety of verbal and non-verbal means of communicating exists such as media such as picture, graphics, sound, and writing.

Communication can take place, as the quote above relates, through representations or written words. Morse code, a pattern of sounds or tones (or lights) has been used for many years when only telegraph was available, to cover long visual or spatial distances, and/or to maintain silent communication. Sign language is used to enable those unable to speak to communicate with their hands. Some animals have been taught rudimentary signs to communicate with humans. It is even documented that twins often have a communication system unique to them called idioglossia. In any case…

Language is the predominate method of communication, though it has its setbacks as seen with ambiguity of words spoken, colloquial language, etc. saying what one means is not always easily achieved if one is not careful to use the correct words.

As Mark Twain once wrote:

The difference between the almost right word & the right word is really a large matter – it’s the difference between the lightning.

Comprehension means everything in communication: The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.

35. How can communications help an organisation to achieve its goal ?

Ans: Communication, both internal and external, is integral to organisational success. First, leaders need to set a goal or goals. Just to do this requires clear communication between everyone involved in the process. Then, once goals have been set, they need to be communicated to all concerned parties (employees, share holders, perhaps the media, etc.).

Internally, management will want to know how employees are progressing toward meeting the goals. Employees will need to relate their successes and failures; management will need to convey ideas to solve problems and increase production. Externally, the organisation must communicate its progress to the public, or to its supporters. It also uses communication, in the form of advertising, promotion or fund-raising, to earn the money it needs to stay in business.

Effective organisations understand how to tailor their message for the audience they wish to reach, and which form of communication (personal meeting, phone call, emails, social media, etc.) is most appropriate in each situation, in the age of social media, with so many different communication channels at hand, it’s more crucial than ever to guard against misunderstandings, and to nimbly counter negative publicity.

36. Discuss the importance of administrative communication and performance when it comes to public decision making.

Ans: Communication is important in any relationship. Without clear communication, all relationship in time will unravel. This is also true in politics and public decision making. There are several reasons for this fact.

First, governmental officials are elected to represent the people and their desires. In addition, officials should do what is most beneficial for the general population. In light of these mandates, they need to be transparent with the people. In order to do this, communication is very important. This is why even the United States government has a website to communicate to people what is going on.

Second, for the people to support their elected leaders and officials, they need to know that their opinions, problems, and desires are not only known, but also cared for by their officials. This takes place through communication.

In short, leaders need to communicate as much as possible to inform the population and for accountability.

Across the nation, government is frequently acting as the convening party, bringing affected and often competing interests together, and providing the resources to enable them to find areas of agreement. … core values are the esprit de corps of constructive public participation and collaboration.

– Be informed.

– Be heard.

– Have influence.

– Reach agreement.

37. What are different skills within communication ?

Ans: I think that the different skills within communication reside in the basic idea of having to recognize that a simple concept exists in many different forms. Communication involves “the sharing or exchange of thought by oral, written, or nonverbal means.” In this definition, exists a skill within the practice. Skilled communication involves being able to convey thought in different forms. Possessing the ability to communicate in different arenas is a skill intrinsic to communication.

Part of this resides in understanding of audience within communication. This understanding of audience is another form of communication. Skilled communicators can target their message and thoughts to a particular audience and have the confidence that their point is understood by the audience. This is a needed skill in communication because if the audience is not able to grasp or understand the message being emphasised, then the entire point of communication is lost or distorted.

Finally, another skill in communication is understanding past experience. This is difficult because human beings are limited in being able to fully understand the experiences of another. Yet, skilled communication involves the ability to, in a limited sense, acknowledging and integrating these realities. It becomes a skill to recognize the individual’s past in the process of communication. This is where I thing the skills in communication determine success in the idea of conveying thought to another.

38. Is a message more important than the way it was delivered? Delivery meaning the way it was spoken or conveyed with non- communication context. Such as with facial and/or hand gestures… etc. thanks in…

Ans: The answer to this is not always the same. There will be some messages whose contents are more important than the way in which they are delivered. There will be some for which the opposite is true. It is also the case that different receivers of the messages will feel differently about what is important.

Just as not all people send communications in the same way, not all people receive them in the same way. There are some people for whom nonverbal communications are more important. These are people who are more oriented to nonverbal cues than they are to words. Other people will only hear the words and will not care so much about the delivery.

Perhaps more importantly, the answer to this can vary with the message being sent. For example, if some one tells you that your spouse has died, the nonverbal aspect of the message is not likely to matter very much. The content of the message will be so overwhelmingly important that the delivery will be largely lost to you. For other messages, the delivery can be more important. For example, if you say something like “tell me more” to a friend who is talking about their troubles, the way in which you say it can mean much more than the actual words. If you are learning forward and attending to them, your message will be very different than if you are playing with your phone and you sound distracted.

Thus, the answer to this question will vary depending on the message that is being sent and on the personal characteristics of the person receiving the message.

39. Explain what “Noise” (physical, physiological and psychological) means in a communication context.

Ans: Sound is culturally/socially divided into harmony and noise, that is, pleasing or non pleasing. In the communication model, noise is called static-an auditory or psychological interference in sending the message from sender through the code to the receiver. Aesthetically/ psychologically, noise is the non harmonious combination of two or more sounds; the hearer is pleased by sounds that augment each other’s structures (harmony), and displeased by sounds that interrupt each other’s structure. Physically, since sound is vibrations in various wave-lengths, noise is that combination of vibrations that disturb the rhythm and flow of the waves. Metaphorically, then, “noise” is any superfluous or disturbing interruption in the visual, aural, aesthetic, or cognitive message being sent out from its creator to its recipient. The prevention of it in any form is achieved by the sender’s being sensitive to the underlying harmony or sense of the sent “message”. For example, a guitarist “tunes” his guitar to avoid the “noise” of disharmony; an author “edits” hi words to give a clarity to his expression.

40. Which theories of social psychology apply to the differences between online and offline interactions ? Provide specific examples of changes in perception, behaviour, and thinking.

Ans : Different dynamics exist when it comes to online and offline interactions. The biggest difference is that when a person is online, they do not see a person. More specifically, they do not see the non-verbal types of communication that exist in our world. The roll of the eye, a grin, body language, and the like are completely missed when it comes to online communication. Because of this, there is less sensitivity, as we miss these marks of communication. In addition, because the idea of another person is not front and centre, this lack of sensitively could cause a person to minimise inhibitions. In other words, what you would never say to a person face to face, you might say online. This is why cyberbullying is such a big problem these days.

41. Please discuss a recent communication experience that had an outcome that was unanticipated due to ineffective communication. Discuss how you would have done things differently.

Ans : This is not the sort of question that can be answered effectively by another person. For example, my communications tend to be with students, my children, or my wife. You, presumably, have none of these and so my answer would not be useful as a model for your own. Let us, instead, look at how miscommunications might occur. We can then think about how this might apply to situations from your own life.

One way that communication can be ineffective is if one of the people is not really paying attention. If you are not paying attention, you might miss words or you might miss body language or other nonverbal cues. This can lead to a situation where you do not understand the other person properly. This lack of attention can be caused by a lack of caring, but it can also be caused by things like stress or being busy.

A second problem can be if people use jargon. If a person uses technical terms when speaking to another person who does not know those terms, misunderstandings can arise.

Another way that communication could be ineffective is if the two people are from different cultures. The two people might have different underlying assumptions that make them understand the same conversation differently. For example, one person might think that the other had been agreeing to do something while the other person had actually been politely saying “no” without coming out and explicitly saying so.

It is also possible to misread body language, especially across cultures. Some cultures thing that looking in another person’s eyes is disrespectful whereas Americans see it as evidence of sincerity and of paying attention. Misunderstandings like this can reduce the effectiveness of communications.

Perhaps you could try to think about communications problems such as those mentioned here. Think about situations that you have been in that might have included problems mentioned here.

42. How do the linguistic conventions of e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, and text messaging differ from more traditional modes of communication like letters, face to fac conversation and formal prose ? 

Ans: The new methods of communication do not differ significantly in content or in “speech-acts.” We are still basically saying “hello,” “keeping in touch,” “passing information,” etc. the primary overriding difference is succinctness, abbreviating language on the assumption that the receiver can “fill in” what is abbreviated. The basic communication model – sender, code, medium, static, receiver, etc. – is still intact, but now the “exchanges” – the pairings of utterance A, response to A, etc. – are quicker and more conversational than letters, quieter than oral conversation, less “wordy” – that is, “modified” with adjectives and adverbs, etc. – and interestingly, more private than 20th century conversation (cf. Phone conversation to Twitter).

Another interesting social change is the extensive range of people who can join in on the conversation – thousands of Tweeters, for example. Finally, our modern social structure is being altered by presence of electronic communication – in myriad ways – bringing us together abstractly while separating us physically. I see a parallel in the Interstate System, sold to us a way of connecting us to each other, but in fact acting as an excuse for the nuclear family to spread out across the country. From a linguistic standpoint, the sentence conventions (subject, predicate, object) are still there but much of the structure is implied rather than overtly stated: OMG still “means” oh, I am amazes by your last utterance.

43. What can a teacher write to introduce a communication technology class ?

Ans : The teacher should begin by reviewing the communication model, and then point out that this course will concentrate on the medium and elimination of the static. The language of communication can be discussed next, pointing out the difference between verbal communication and communication via symbols and mathematic construction. The teacher should then review binary theory and make sure the students understand how it applies to electronic signals. The teacher could the outline the kinds of interference to expect in modern communication technology – bad code, misaligned signal senders and receivers, the failure of automatic verification systems, etc. when the students seem ready to enter the discourse, a discussion of the rapid changes in electronic communication could ensure, with concomitant warnings to keep up with progress.

44. When is email interpersonal communication ?

Ans: Interpersonal communication is nothing but the exchange of some kind of information (thoughts, ideas, opinions, etc.) between two or more people. Such an exchange of information can happen via a verbal (speech) or even a non-verbal channel (we can get to know about many aspects about the personality of others and even make good guesses about what they might be thinking just by looking at their facial expressions, body posture, hand movements, etc.).

Interpersonal communication can be direct or mediated. The direct interpersonal communication requires the participants to be present in a face to face setting. The mediated interpersonal communication is mediated by technology and can, thus, happen in the absence of a face to face setting. Email and telephonic conversations are examples of mediated interpersonal communication. Email communication is usually dyadic, involving only two participants. However, it also possible to mark more than person in the email at a time, in which case it can be called a group communication.

45. What is the difference between verbal and non-verbal communication ?

Ans : Verbal communication is communication with words, and non-verbal communication is communication without words. If you are taking a communication course, it is likely that the focus of non-verbal communication is on body language and facial expression, but there are other means of communication non-verbally. Let’s look at some examples for each category.

Verbal communication is generally divided into oral and written communication, oral being spoken aloud and written being, well, in writing. A spoken conversation is a form of verbal communication that is oral, as is a radio broadcast or a speech. Sign language and Morse Code are forms of verbal communication because they are communicating words, even though they do not fit exactly neatly into oral or written categories. The President’s State of the Union address is form of oral verbal communication. Any writing that communicates is a form of verbal communication, an email, a memo. A letter, a book, or poem. I should also note that the words “verbal” and “oral” have had a tendency in recent years to be use interchangeable, but they really are different. Verbal just means using words, so you can see that using words can be aloud or in writing. When we are communicating words with our mouths, that is the precise meaning of “oral.”

Non-verbal communication is communication without words. There are many ways we communicate non-verbally. Our facial expressions communicate a great deal without our uttering a single word. We frown, we smile, we sneer, or we maintain a flat affect, and all of these are communicating something to the observer. Our body language also is a means of communication that is non-verbal, we bend closer to the person we are communicating with. Or we move away. We nod or shake our heads. We wriggle around, indicating boredom. We fold our arms across our chests, showing some defence against what is being said. If you watch people in conversation without listening to their words at all, you can usually tell a great deal by observing their body language. Another form of non-verbal communication is purely visual. A painting or a photograph is communicating to us without words, the basis of the idea that a picture is worth a thousand words. When we see logos and symbols, which are common, they too, are communicating non-verbally, without words. We don’t need to see the word “Nike” or the letters “BP” to know that they have made a product. All we need to see is their symbols.

Research has shown that non-verbal communication in the form of facial expression and body language is more “true” than our use of verbal communication. We are capable of uttering words that do not reflect what we think or feel, but we are not so good at concealing thoughts and feelings with our faces and bodies. The implication of this is that it is quite important for us to take note of both verbal and non-verbal communications in our interactions with others.

You can see that both verbal and non-verbal communications are quite important, whether we are the receivers or transmitters of communication. Some understanding of the difference between both helps us to navigate through the world of communication around us.

46. What are the differences in communication between an employer-employee relationship and a friendship ?

Ans: The major difference in these communications is the level of intimacy and the range of subject matters that will be touched upon in communications. This is tied up in the fact that the goal of the employer-employee relationship is the benefit of the firm as well as in the fact that there is a power disparity in that relationship.

In a friendship, the two friends are on an equal footing. Friends do not need to worry about saying things that might hurt their careers. They do not have to constantly think about maintaining proper discipline and distance in their conversations the way a boss would have to when talking to a subordinate. Therefore, their communications will be more intimate and more trusting.

In addition, friendly communications have no tangible goals in mind. They are not as purposive. Therefore, they will range across a variety of subject matters while employer-employee communications will focus on the job.

Of course, this is somewhat overstated as there will be situations in which bosses and employees will talk about non-job related topics. However, the difference in their powers within the relationship will always have an impact on the way they communicate.

47. Most of the communication in our life is           communication. a.) Written b.) Oral c.) Tele d.) Electronic

Ans: If we are looking at all of the ways in which we communicate in all phases of our lives, then oral communication is by far the most common type of communication that we use. When thinking about this, we must remember that we speak to people in all aspects of our lives. We speak to our spouses, our children, our co-workers, and to many other people. We speak in person and by telephone. The number of words that we speak in a day is much larger than the number of words that we type, even in today’s world of email and text messages.

48. Share a situation where you went through the group communication stages-forming, storming, norming, performing, ending.

Ans: Your question specifically refers to Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development which aim to establish a patter of behaviour, from the moment a leader enters a group, to when he changes it, and then brings out results from that change.

It is known that change is a very hard thing to do, especially when one has reached a comfort zone. In groups, each individual has his or her own comfort zone and, for this reason, it is imperative that whoever leads that group does it gradually and consistently. There must be much substance to the process.

Hence, a common and typical example of how groups change is when a person is put in charge of a group of people who already have a way of doing things. This is typical of just about any field. Examples include: a) A new teacher entering a classroom that used to have another lead teacher and follow her rules; b) A new supervisor or leader that needs to fix a specific department; and c) a solider assigned to a platoon which he or she will have to mould to best benefit the common goal.

In the latter case, the case of the soldier, this is how the dynamics often are: A platoon needs to be put together to accomplish a mission. The men in the platoon have previous knowledge of what they have to do, but they do not have any knowledge about their leader.

A – When the new leader comes in, he often enters already having established (forming) the goal, the mission, the vision, and the expected outcomes.

B – This, is often met with resistance, for which the leader must come in strong regardless of the attitude of those who need to follow (storming).

C – Once the rumble calms down, it is time to reconnect, re-visit, and regroup by establishing the new rules (norming).

D – Now he goal is clear, the plan of action is clear, the rules are clear: It is time to put them into action and execute, which would be the same as performing.

E – Finally, you the group reach their goal if their plan is executed correctly, for which they would have gone through the process of transforming, QR ending, the mission.

You can apply Tuckman to just about any example of group dynamics there is out there. The group process is often the most evident way to produce change.

Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs).

1. Which of these is not an information based system ?

a) MIS

b) DSS

c) SIS

d) SDS

Ans: d) SDS.

2. Which of these factors is not required for communication growth ?

a) Growth in size of organisations

b) Negative atmosphere

c) Globalisation

d) Public relations

Ans: b) Negative atmosphere.

3. Which of these factors is not required for growth of communication ?

a) Globalisation

b) Public relations

c) Reduce

d) Technological advancements

Ans: c) Reduce.

4. Every organisation has a social responsibility.

a) True

b) False

Ans: a) True

5. Which of these does not come under behavioural sciences ?

a) Globalisation

b) Psychology

c) Sociology

d) Transactional Analysis

Ans: a) Globalisation.

6. Which of these element is not involved in the process of communication ? 

a) Pipe

b) Sender

c) Message

d) Channel

Ans: a) Pipe.

7. A sender is the person who transmits a message.

a) True

b) False

Ans: a) True.

8. Which of these is the third element of communication?

a) Sender

b) Channel

c) Message

d) Receiver

Ans: b) Channel.

9. For effective a communication, which of these commandments should one not follow ?

a) Objective of communication

b) Inadequate medium

c) Clarity

d) Adequate medium

Ans: b) Inadequate medium.

10. To make our communication effective, we should follow C’s and S’s.

a) seven, four

b) seven, three

c) six, four

d) six, three

Ans: a) seven, four.

11. Which of these does not come under the four S’s?

a) Simplicity

b) Strength

c) Sincerity

d) Shock

Ans: d) Shock.

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