Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Beginning of the British Administration in Assam

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Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Beginning of the British Administration in Assam

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Beginning of the British Administration in Assam Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

Beginning of the British Administration in Assam

Chapter: 5


Additional Questions And Answers


1. Which of the following was a milestone in the history of North-east India?

(a) Treaty of Rongpur.

(b) Treaty of Singpho.

(c) Treaty of Yandaboo.

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (c) Treaty of Yandaboo.

2. Lieutenant Colonel Richards was succeeded by which two officers successively as Commissioner of Assam?

(a) Captain Neutville; Captain Adam White

(b) Captain Adam White; Captain Neutville.

(c) Captain Neutville; Lieutenant Colonel Cooper.

(d) Lieutenant Colonel Richards; Captain Neutville.

Ans. (c) Captain Neutville; Lieutenant Colonel Cooper.

3. Robertson served Assam till ______.

(a) April, 1831.

(b) August, 1831.

(c) April, 1834.

(d) August, 1834.

Ans. (c) April, 1834.

4. Who among the following wrote an article regarding Assam in the journal of Asiatic Society Bengal?

(a) Captain Jenkins.

(b) David Scott.

(c) T.C. Robertson.

(d) Cracuoft.

Ans. (a) Captain Jenkins.

5. The headquarter of Darrang was shifted to Mangaldoi in ________.

(a) 1835

(b) 1836

(c) 1837

(d) 1838

Ans. (b) 1836

6. The Khamtis occupied _______ during the Burmese invasion.

(a) Muttock.

(b) Singphou.

(c) Jaintia.

(d) Sadiya.

Ans. (d) Sadiya.

7. On June 13, 1833, who surrendered leading to occupation of the Khasi hills by the British?

(a) Gobinda Chandra.

(b) Tirot Singh.

(c) Sadiya Khowa Gohaiti.

(d) Purandhar Sinha.

Ans. (a) Tirot Singh.

8. Garo Hills was made a separate district in which year?

(a) 1836

(b) 1846

(c) 1839

(d) 1849

Ans. (c) 1839.

9. Who occupied Jaintia kingdom in 1835?

(a) Captain Lister.

(b) Neutville.

(c) Zalim Singh.

(d) Jenkin.

Ans. (a) Captain Lister.

10. Escaping from Rongpur, Dhananjoy fled to which place?

(a) Sivsagar.

(b) Cachar.

(c) Muttock.

(d) Lushai Hills.

Ans. (c) Muttock.


Q.1: The Jaintia king Rajendra Singh/ Govinda Chandra/ Tirot Singh was deported to Sylthet by the British.

Ans: The Jaintia king Rajendra Singh was deported to Sylhet by the British.

Q.2: The last Ahom king was Chandra Kanta Sinha/ Kamaleswar Sinha/ Purandhar Sinha. 

Ans: The Last Ahom king was Chandra Purandar Sinha.

Q.3: Tirot Singh was a patriot of Khasi/ Manipuri/ Jaintia.

Ans: Tirot Singh was a patriot of Khasi.


Q.1: The Jaintia king Rajendra Singh/ Govinda Chandra/ Tirot Singh was deported to Sylthet by the British.

Ans: The Jaintia king Rajendra Singh was deported to Sylhet by the British.

Q.2: The last Ahom king was Chandra Kanta Sinha/ Kamaleswar Sinha/ Purandhar Sinha. 

Ans: The Last Ahom king was Chandra Purandar Sinha.

Q.3: Tirot Singh was a patriot of Khasi/ Manipuri/ Jaintia.

Ans: Tirot Singh was a patriot of Khasi.


Q.1: To which kingdom Govinda Chandra belonged?

Ans: Cachar kingdom.

Q.2: Who was Devid Scott?

Ans: Devid Scott was the agent to the Governor General, North-East Frontier of the Brahmaputra Valley.

Q.3: Who was the next commissioner to Devid Scott?

Ans: After David Scott’s death in 1831, T.C. Robertson was appointed to his post in April 1832.

Q.4: Of which kingdom Tirot Singh was the Siyem?

Ans: Tirot Singh was a Siyem of the Khasi Hills.

Q.5: What was the title of the Muttock king?

Ans: Barsenapati.

Q.6: According to the instruction of Jenkins who lost the kingdom?

Ans: The Ahom king Purandhar Singha lost the kingdom of upper Assam in 1838 due to the non-payment of yearly tribute to the British administration.

Q.7: What were the districts that Jenkins divided into in Lower Assam?

Ans: Goalpara, Darrang and Kamrup.

Q.8: To whom British gave Rupees 50(fifty only) as pension and occupied Cachar?

Ans: (The answer to this is not found in the text but since after the death of Tularam,the ruler of North Cachar,his two sons Bakul Ram Barman and Brajanath Barman,ruled Cachar, until dispute arose between them,it could be either of them to whom British paid a pension and occupied Cachar. It may be mentioned that South Cachar was already under the British after the death of king Gobinda Chandra in 1830.)


Q.1: How was the revenue policy of Devid Scott? Discuss.

Ans: The imperialist British always looked for the colonial interest. Apart from the military and civil administration they always counted on the profit from revenue collection. British needed money to invest in the industrial sector in England. To accumulate capital British imposed new taxes in Assam.

Without finalising any concrete decision regarding the Brahmaputra Valley, British administration in Assam did not think of any radical change in the collection of revenue. In upper Assam the paik system was abolished and all the paiks had to pay a sum of rupees three for the cultivated lands, homestead and gardens. The old staff of the Khel were entrusted to collect such revenues. In upper Assam the general management of revenue was bestowed on Janardan Barbarua, high official of Ahom times. He was assisted by Hazarika, Saikia and Bora. Later on the kheldars were assigned to the task of collecting revenue in their respective places. Districts were now divided into Mauzas and officers were appointed to collect revenue.

Revenue collection of Nagaon and Raha were intrusted to Aradhan Rai and Latapani Phukan respectively. At first British gave responsibility to the aristocratic class of the Ahom with the hope that they would co-operate the British in Assam. Lower Assam was brought under the direct administration of the British. The petty kingdoms of Darrang, Dimoriya (Dimarua), Beltola. Rani etc. had paid the revenue in fixed rate.

During the tenure of David Scott separate revenue system was arranged for Lower Assam and Upper Assam. Scott retained the parganas in Lower Assam. Each pargana was kept under the charge of a Choudhury. In collecting the revenue Sheristadar, Tahbildar, Patwaris and Thakurias were appointed. A separate unit was formed comprising Nagaon and Raha for revenue collection. This unit was placed under jurisdiction of Gauhati. Apart from land revenue, Scott also imposed professional taxes on different professions. Weavers, goldsmiths, fishermen, brassworkers etc. had to pay taxes to the British Government in Assam. Scott also imposed taxes on the rent free lands like Devotter Brahmotter and Dharmottar. From these lands half of the tax was collected, called contribution.

Survey of land in Lower Assam was completed during the time of David Scott. Under the supervision of Captain Matthews the task was completed. Lands were classified as Basti land, Arable land, Barren land etc. The process of implementation of this kind of taxation was quick in some places and it took time in some other places. Lands used for opium cultivation was taxed heavily. Scott informed the supreme Government about the possibility of collecting more tax from Lower Assam. In Lower Assam a tax of rupees two (gadhan) was imposed on each paik for which he was to receive three puras of land (gamati). Apart from it each male had to pay poll tax. This tax was called in Kamrup poll tax or paik tax or plough tax (as it was levied on the number of ploughs), in Darrang it was called mess-pots and in Nagaon it was called a capitation tax.

Q.2: What steps were adopted in the matters of judiciary during the time of Devid Scott?

Ans: During his reign, some panchayats were formed with the local people to settle minor civil and criminal disputes. With the assistance of the panchayats, important cases were tried by the Commissioner’s Assistants. If someone was dissatisfied with the panchayat’s decision, they could file an appeal with the commissioner. David Scott entrusted the trial of important civil cases in upper Assam to Lombodar Barphukan. The Junior Commissioner tried criminal cases. In Lower Assam, two civil courts and one criminal court were established. 

David Scott also reformed the police system in Assam. He maintained cordial relations with the Moamariyas and Singhphos. As an efficient administrator David Scott attained an honourable position in contemporary Assam is still remembered with regards.

(i) David Scott intrusted with Lombodar Barphukan the trial of important civil cases in upper Assam. 

(ii) In Lower Assam two civil courts and one criminal court were established. David Scott also reformed the police system in Assam.

(iii) He also maintained cordial relations with the Moamariyas and Singphos. He laboured hard and personally supervised all the matters.

(iv) His health was ruined and died in 1831 A.D. As an efficient administrator David Scott attained an honorable position in contemporary Assam is still remembered with regards.

Q.3: How was the revenue administration of Robertson?

Ans: The revenue reforms were implemented by Robertson. In Assam, a land revenue tax is levied based on the quality of the land. To end the oppression of exactions, a revenue system was established to fix rates based on the quality and quantity of land, as well as to ensure the details of cultivators’ names and addresses. On this foundation, he established the system of issuing pattas to cultivators. 

Gold-washing from river was given to contractors. Rivers and natural tanks were given on leases and thereby the government earned a lot of cash, but the common people could not fish there.

Jenkin’s administration also imposed tax on the grazing lands, forest wood, bamboo, chom tree etc. Moreover Jenkins increased the income of the government by imposing stamp duty in 1858 A.D., income tax in 1860 A.D., import duty and licence tax etc. in Assam.

Districts were divided into some revenue units called “Tangani’ and were placed under Phukan, Rajkhowa and Baruah. They were assisted by Hazarika, Saikias and Boras. They got a part of the total revenue collected. Later on, Tanganis were replaced by the formation of Mauzas and were managed by the ‘Mauzadars’. Apart from the aristocratic people, respected common people were also appointed as Mauzadars. This helped to reduce the class distinction in Assamese society.

On the other hand the aristocratic classes were discontented to work or listen under this type of Mauzadars. They regarded it disgraceful. Jenkins thought that the aristocratic classes centered in Jorhat might create disturbances, so he shifted the District Head Quarter from Jorhat to Sivasagar. Because the communication of Sivasagar was better than Jorhat. River Bhogdoi was less deep and not suitable for communication unlike Dikhow and its (Bhogdoi) flood washed the town. 

Increased taxes, imposition of new taxes made all classes of people enraged (discontented) with the British. Being unable to pay tax the aristocratic classes of people left most of the land barren. Their lives became deplorable. The worst sufferers were the common people and the peasants. Jenkins banned opium cultivation in Assam but opium in other way could be purchased from government owned store. It stopped the income of the opium cultivators in Assam. By this ban on opium Jenkins increased revenue in reality and compelled the cultivators to work in the tea gardens. Moreover the opium-eaters could not live without opium. They were compelled from government stores.

The drug (opium) was consumed in a large scale in Assam. Opium addiction ruined Assamese people both physically and mentally. Agricultural economy in Assam deteriorated rapidly. Money lending system started in Assam. A class of interest-exploiter. Mahajan rose in Assam. Thus it is seen that the reforms of Jenkins improved the condition of the British traders as well as the British government rather than the local Assamese people.

Q.4: What were the steps adopted by Major Jenkins regarding the welfare of Assam?

Ans: Major Jenkins was an American author and pseudoscientific researcher. He is best known for his works that theorize certain astronomical and esoteric connections of the calendar systems used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.

He made various arrangements of administrative convenience and welfare of Assam, and is known to have worked hard for the progress of the region.

Following steps were adopted by Major Jenkins regarding welfare of Assam:

(i) He made survey Cachar, Manipur and Assam and pointed out that Assam should be used for the cultivation of sugarcane and indigo. 

(ii) He made many plans for the progress of Assam. His name was associated with tea, coal and oil industries.

(iii) He also abolished many check post that created hurdle in the free flow of Assam-Bengal trade relations.

(iv) He for the time steamship sailed in the mighty Brahmaputra.

(v) He also paid a attention for the transport and communication, spread of education, establishment of English medium schools in many town of Assam.

Q.5: How did Jenkins divide Assam into districts?

Ans: Jenkings divided Assam into four different districts. 

They are:

(i) Goalpara, (ii) Kamrup, (iii) Darrang. (iv) Nowgong. 

Goalpara, including the Garo Hills was administered from Rongpur. After the Burmese war during the time of David Scott Goalpara came under his jurisdiction. Goalpara was made a new district separating from Rangpur. Later on, Garo Hills was separated from Goalpara and a new district was formed. Again when regular steam ship started sailing from Goalpara headquarter was shifted to Dhubri. Dhubri was the last port at that time.

River Manah to the west and river Barnadi to the eastern boundary, district Kamrup was constituted comprising both the banks of the Brahmaputra, and Gauhati (Guwahati) was made the headquarter of Kamrup.

Earlier, the western territory under the kingdom of Darrang was newly declared as Darrang district. Its headquarter was at first in Mangaldoi. But this place was regarded unhealthy. Often it was flooded. So, in 1836 the headquarter was shifted from Mangaldai to Tezpur.

In old records, Nowgong district is mentioned as Khagarijan. At that time this district was extended upto Dhansiri river to the east. Nowgong was the headquarter of Khagarijan. In 1834 A.D. this headquarter was shifted to Rangagara, later on Puranigudam was made headquarter. After some days again Nowgong town was declared headquarter.

Q.6: Who was Tirot Singh? Why did he rise against the British?

Ans: Tirot Singh was the chief of Khasi. The British did not help Tirot Singh in his dispute with the king of Rani, rather they stood for the king of Rani. That is why he raised himself against the British. In 1829, Tirot Singha with a bond of Khasis attacked the British and killed two British officers. This led to a war between the Khasis and the British.


Q.1: Tularam Senapati.

Ans: The Dimasa Kachari kingdom came under Burmese occupation in the late early 19th-century along with the Ahom kingdom. Tularam Senapati was the General of Gobinda Chandra, the ruler of Cachar. 

Q.2: Purandhar Singha.

Ans: Purandhar Singha was the last king of the Ahom kingdom in Assam. He was installed as king twice. After the first Anglo Burmese war, the British East India Company occupied Assam from Burmese invaders. Finding it difficult to administer an unfamiliar region and sensing discontent among local inhabitants to foreign rule, the British authorities decided to restore upper Assam to one prince of Ahom Dynasty. Purnadhar Sinha was found suitable for this post and therefore, in. April 1833 except Sadiya and Muttock region, the entire upper Assam was formally made over to him,on the condition of yearly tribute of 50,000 rupees. Later in 1838 finding him incompetent and defaulters in payments of revenue, the British formally annexed his kingdom putting an end the Ahom Dynasty. When Purandar Singha accepted the position of prince over upper Assam, he did not realize the difficulties of his new position.

Q.3: Tirot Singh.

Ans: Tirot Singh: was one of the Khasi chiefs in the early nineteenth century. He was a constitutional monarch who shared corporate authority with his Council, who were general representatives of the leading clans in his domain. Tirot Sing declared war on the British and fought them for control of the Khasi Hills. He died on July 17, 1835. In Meghalaya, his death is commemorated as U Tirot Sing Day.

Q.4: Gomdhar Konwar.

Ans: Gomdhar Konwar: Gomdhar Konwar was the first Ahom nobility to oppose British administration in Assam. The first man to oppose British administration in Assam Gomdhar Konwar belonged to Ahom royal family. Gomdhar Konwar was supported by Dhananjoy (Dhanjoy) and his son Harnath Jeuram Dulia Baruah etc. British withdrew martial law from upper Assam and the soldiers were shifted. Taking that advantage Gomdhar declared himself as the Swargodeo. The British were not so weak as anticipated by Gomdhar Konwar and British easily suppressed the revolt. 

All the conspirators against British including Gomdhar Konwar were arrested. Gomdhar was sentenced to imprisonment for seven years and was sent to Rongpur jail by British commissioner David Scott. Haranath was released due to lack of evidence but he managed to free the other associates from the jail by tricks. Gomdhar also fled from the jail and fled to Naga hills where he was recaptured and had spend seven years imprisonment at Rongpur.

Q.5: Occupation of Singpho kingdom by the British.

Ans: Occupation of Singpho kingdom by the British: The region between the plain of the river No-Dihing to the east of Muttok kingdom and the river Tengapani was recognised as the Singpho kingdom.

The Singphos lived between the plains of the river No-Dihing to the was known as Gaum. The signing of a subsidiary treaty with the British by the Gaum their territory came under British control. The Singphos agreed to inform the British about the enemies coming from the east. At the instigation of some Ahom nobility, the Singphos rose in revolt against the British.

Q.6: British occupation of Jayantia kingdom.

Ans: British occupation of Jayantia kingdom: Rajendra Singha was the ruler of Jayantia kingdom. He signed a treaty with the British and maintained cast of Muttok kingdom and the river Tengapani. Chief of the Singphos good relationship with them. However, he did not provide assistance to the British during Anglo-Burmese war. Though the Jayantia king Rajendra Singh maintained good relationship with the British by signing a treaty, but he could not assist the British during turmoil period of Burmese war. The Jayantias while making inroads into the British territory through the Jayantia Pargana, British threatened to invade the territory. In 1835, captain Lister occupied Jayantia kingdom. A Political Agent was appointed to look after the Jayantia territory. Rajendra Singh voluntarily surrendered to the British and deported to Sylhet with a pension of rupees five hundred only.

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