Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India and select needs one.
Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India
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Q.10: How were the Indians included in the civil services ? Discuss the growth of these services ?
Ans: When the East India company was in power,the posts of the Civil services were reserved only for the English. Various acts did make way for the recruitment of Indians in the services but their effect was nullified by British intentions.
(i) The Charter Act of 1833 instructed that measures be taken to determine the eligibility of Indians for the civil services posts. The Directors of the Company opposed this directive,yet the posts of Deputy Magistrate and of Deputy collector were created in 1833 and 1834 respectively,for which Indians could be appointed.
(ii) The Act of 1853 directed that competitive examinations be held for the Civil Services,and that Indians be allowed to sit for it. However few Indians could appear as the examinations were held in England.
(iii) The Queen’s proclamation of 1858 promised that Indians would be appointed on the basis of merit in the Indian civil service. The secretary created a committee which suggested that the examinations be held in India. However,this was not implemented and the Queen’s Proclamation remained a hollow promise.
The first Indian to get a civil service post was Satyendranath Tagore in 1864. An outline on the growth of civil services in India is as follows:
(i) Reduction of upper age limit in 1866: The upper age limit for sitting in the Civil service examination was reduced from 22 to 21,leading only few Indians to appear for it.
(ii) Further reduction of upper age limit during the time of Lord Lytton (1876-80): The upper age limit of candidates was further lowered from 21 years to 19 years which made it almost impossible for Indians to complete the required qualification for the examination.
(iii) The British government resolution during Lord Lytton’s tenure decreed that one sixth members of the Indian Civil administration which were reserved for the covenanted British would now be filled by nominated Indians of the local governments. Again this system failed because it could not attract the educated high class Indians.
(iv) The Aitchison Commission or the public service commission created in 1886 by Viceroy Lord Dufferin under the Chairmanship of sir Charles Atchison,split the civil service Department into three divisions- Imperial Indian civil service,Provincial civil service and sub-ordinate civil service. The first posts were to be reserved for the English and the other two for the Indians. However,the British government did not approve of the suggestions.
(v) Resolution adopted by the British Government on 2nd June,1893 to hold Civil service examination simultaneously in India and in England . However,the government failed to do so on the pretext of an unfriendly atmosphere in India .
(vi) The Royal Commission on public service was formed under the chairmanship of Lord Islington,but it too failed to take any effective steps.
(vii) The Montague-Chelmsford Report declared that the Civil Service Examination would be held simultaneously in England and India,and that one-third of the posts in India would be filled by Indians,and their number in employment would be increased by 1.5% annually. The Government of India Act,1919 directed that the Montague-Chelmsford Report be implemented.
(viii) The Lee Commission formed in 1923 for implementing the recommendations of the Montague- Chelmsford Report,also proposed the formation of the Civil Service Commission in India and to raise the number of Indians in civil services posts by 50% within 15 years.
(ix) The Government of India Act passed in 1935 led to the formation of Federal state in India . For the very first time,a proposal was made for forming two commissions,viz Federal Civil service commission and provincial civil service Commission.
(x) After independence in 1947,the traditional mode of recruitment to the civil services was abolished. Open competitive examinations are held for these posts at national level. For this purpose,two commissions have been formed,viz.
(a) Union public Service Commission at national level.
(b) State public Service Commission at state level.
Q.11: Mention three differences of the civil services of British occupied India and independent India.
Ans: Three differences between civil services of British occupied India and independent India are:
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1 thought on “Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India”
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