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Class 9 Social Political Science Chapter 2 Types or Classification of Government
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Types or Classification of Government
PART (III): POLITICAL SCIENCE AND ECONOMICS
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1: Who was the first political philosopher to classify the government ?
Ans:Greek philosopher Plato.
Q.2: Which is the most popular government in the world at present ?
Ans : The federal form of government.
Q.3: Give the name of a state having parliamentary form of government.
Ans: India .
Q.4: Who is the head of the government and the head of the state in the parliamentary form of government ?
Ans: In a parliamentary form of government,the council of ministers along with the prime minister (real/actual executive) is the head of the government while the president,the king or the queen (nominal executive)is the head of the state.
Q.5: In what type of government is the principle of separation of power found ?
Ans: The presidential form of government.
Q.6: Give the name of a state having presidential form of government ?
Ans: The United States of America (USA).
Q.7: Give the name of a state having a unitary form of government ?
Ans: Great Britain(England).
Q.8: What are the two governments found in the federal form of government ?
Ans: (i) Central government
(ii) Provincial government
Q.9: Which type of government is found in Switzerland ?
Ans: Federal form of government.
Q.10: Is there the system of dual citizenship in India ?
Ans : No.
GIVE SHORT ANSWER
Q.1: What are the different types of government prevalent in the world at present ?
Ans: The different types of government prevalent in the world at present are :
Q.2: Give the two characteristics of the parliamentary form of government ?
Ans: Two characteristics of the parliamentary form of government are :
(i) There is a close relationship between the executive and the legislature.
(ii) There are two executives in a parliamentary form of government. One is the head of the state and other is the head of the government. The president,king or the queen who is the head of the state is the nominal executive while the council of ministers along with the prime minister is the real executive.
Q.3: Write briefly about the two merits and two demerits of the parliamentary form of government.
Ans: Two merits and demerits of the parliamentary form of government are :
(i) Close relationship and cooperation exists between the legislature and the executive which leads to better governance of the country.
(ii) The executive remains responsible and accountable to the legislature and therefore there is very little possibility of passing anti-people laws.
(i) It is not stable if an alliance government is formed.
(ii) It often becomes bureaucratic in nature as often the ministers are inexperienced and become highly dependent on the bureaucrats.
Q.4: What is meant by the Principle of Separation of Power ?
Ans: The Principle of Separation of power states that the three organs of the government,viz.the legislature,executive and the judiciary are independent of one another. They function independent of one another,enjoy equal powers and function within their prescribed limit without any interference from the others.
Q.5: Give the two characteristics of the presidential form of government ?
Ans: Two characteristics of the presidential form of government are :
(i) No distinction between the head of the state and the head of the government exists.
(ii) This form of government is based on the principle of separation of power.
Q.6: Write briefly about two merits and two demerits of the unitary form of government.
Ans: Two merits and demerits of the unitary form of government are :
(i) The government is strong and has complete control over every sector.
(ii) The executive can take quick decisions in times of crisis and emergencies.
(i) It is not suitable for a big country like India which has many races,groups,communities etc.
(ii) The central government is overburdened with functions and responsibilities.
GIVE LONG ANSWER
Q.1 : Write the merits and demerits of the presidential form of government.
Ans: The merits and demerits of the presidential form of government are :
(i) Stable government : This form of government is a stable government. The president is elected for a fixed tenure and cannot be removed from the office before the completion of the term. The term of the legislature is also fixed.
(ii) Principle of separation of powers : The system is based on the principle of separation of powers for maintaining independence of each organ of the administration.
(iii) Suitable for emergencies : Since the actual powers of the government are in the hands of the president,he or she can take quick decisions independently in times of emergencies.
(iv) Check or dictatorship: The executive cannot become a dictator because the principle of checks and balance is followed.
(v) Strong executive : There exists a strong executive body which protects the unity and the integrity of the state.
(vi) Efficient administration : Since the ministers are not a part of the legislature,they can devote more time for the work of their concerned ministry which creates efficiency in administration.
(i) Despotic government : The president may become despotic,as the executive is independent of the legislature.
(ii) Conflicts between legislature and executive : Strict separation of powers between the executive and the legislature leads to conflicts and clashes between the two organs of the government.
(iii) Rigid Constitution : In a presidential form of government,the Constitution is rigid. Therefore it cannot be changed according to the needs of the time.
(iv) Political crisis: Whne both the executive and legislature come from separate political parties, political crisis may develop.
(v) Appointment on personal basis : The ministers and the secretaries are appointed on personal basis rather than on eligibility and experience.
Q.2: Write the characteristics of the parliamentary form of government.
Ans: The main characteristics of the parliamentary form of government are :
(i) Two executive : There exist two executives -viz.the nominal executive and the real/actual executive. The nominal executive is the president,the queen or the king while the real executive is the council of ministers headed by the prime minister. The former is generally a Constitutional figurehead while the real power is exercised by the prime minister with the help of his council of ministers.
(ii) Members of the executive are also the members of the legislature : The executive or the prime minister and the council of ministers of the legislature too.
(iii) Close relationship between the executive and the legislature : There is a close relationship between the executive and the legislature. The executive cannot function well without the support of the legislature.
(iv) The council of ministers is responsible to the legislature : The members of the council of ministers are not only members of the legislature but they are also responsible and answerable to the legislature. This means that if a no confidence motion is passed in the Parliament house then the entire council of ministers has to resign.
(v) Collective responsibility : The council of ministers has collective responsibility to the legislature. In other words,the failure of one minister is a failure of the entire council of ministers.
Q.3: Discuss with examples why the federal form of government has become popular at present.
Ans: The idea of federal government was initiated by the United States of America after its independence in 1776. Therefore, America is considered to be the Homeland of Federation. At present the counties such as the USA,south Africa, Australia, Switzerland and India have this form of government. The main reasons why this system of government has become popular are:
(i) Federal system is ideal for a country with diversities and differences.
(ii) There is a wider participation of the people in this form of government than in any other form.
(iii) The concerns and needs of various regions get due attention.
(iv) Different races,groups,communities, languages, religions,etc.get due consideration.
(v) This form avoids concentration of power by dividing power between the central government and the provincial government.
(vi) There is little possibility for the central government to become autocratic as it does not have the sole power.
(vii) There is a great deal of decentralisation of power.
Q.4: Write the characteristics of the unitary form of government.
Ans: The main characteristics of the unitary form of government are :
(i) A strong central government : The most significant feature is the presence of a strong central government where the Constitution vest the entire power of the state in the hands of the central government.
(ii) A written or unwritten Constitution : Countries that practice unitary system have either an unwritten or written Constitution.e.g. England has an unwritten Constitution whereas the Netherlands has a written one.
(iii) Single citizenship : There is single citizenship which promotes national unity and integration.
(iv) Weak judiciary : The legislature stands more powerful than the judiciary. The judiciary does not have the power to review nor can it declare any laws passed by the legislature as unconstitutional.
(v) Flexible Constitution : The Constitution is characterised by flexibility where the central government can amend the Constitution quite easily.
Q.5: Is the unitary form of government really democratic ? Give a critical anysis.
Ans: On the basis of the centralisation and distribution of power,the government can be classified into unitary form and federal form. The form of government in which all government powers and authority is vested in one authority,i.e. the central government is known as the unitary government.
In fact there may exist some administrative units without holding any Constitutional basis of it directly comes under the control of the central government.viz.countries like Britain,France,Japan,Italy,the Netherlands,etc.have unitary government.The question regarding whether this form of government is truly democratic or not is a debatable issue.
Unitary system of government is a democratic form of government. The point to be noted here is that unitary system does not concern itself with representation. It is concerned with distribution and concentration of power. It does not affect the type of representation a country may have.e.g. Great Britain follows both the unitary and the parliamentary system of government.
It has all the aspects of democracy such as party system, the election process, three organs, fundamental rights, strong public opinion, active voters, etc. Definitely, England is a democratic country. In other words, unitary system is more concerned with the distribution of power than with people’s representation in the government. Therefore, unitary form of government is democratic.
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1 thought on “Class 9 Social Political Science Chapter 2 Types or Classification of Government”
Very short answers, q.2 should’nt that be parliamentary form of government?