Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 1 Basics of Computer System

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Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 1 Basics of Computer System

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Basics of Computer System

Chapter – 1




1. Choose the correct option.

(a) Which of the following is not an output device? 

(1) Speaker

(2) Mouse 

(3) Printer

(4) Monitor

Ans: (2) Mouse.

(b) Which one of the following is the  “brain” of a computer?

(1) CPU 

(2) ALU

(3) CU 

(4) MU

Ans: (1) CPU. 

(c) A collection of eight bits is called______.

(1) Byte 

(2) Word 

(3) Record 

(4) Nibble 

Ans: (1) Byte.

(d) Second-generation computers were manufactured using which technology?

(1) Vacuum Tubes

(2) Transistors

(3) ICs 

(4) None of these 

Ans: (2) Transistors.

(e) Storage of 1KB means the following number of bytes:

(1) 1000

(2) 1024

(3) 1064

(4) 1012

 Ans: (2) 1024.

(f) Which of the following is not hardware?

(1) Hard disk 

(2) Printer 

(3) Assembler

(4) CPU 

Ans: (3) Assembler.

(g) Fourth generation computers used

(1) Vacuum tubes

(2) Transistors

(3) Microprocessors

(4) ICs

Ans: (3) Microprocessors.

(h) Which one of the following is a special-purpose application software?

(1) word-processing software

(2) Compiler

(3) Operating system software

(4) Payroll system

Ans: (4) Payroll system.

(i) The base of the Octal Number System is _____.

(1) 2

(2) 10

(3) 16

(4) 8

Ans: (4) 8.

(j) who is known as the father of the modern computer?

(1) Charles Babbage 

(2) Herman Hollerith

(3) Blaise Pascal

(4) John Atanasoff

Ans: (1) Charles Babbage.

2. Fill in the blanks.

(a) The first-generation computers used______for storage.

Ans: magnetic tape.

(b) The third-generation computer replaced______with _____.

Ans: transistors, Integrated Circuits (ICs)

(c) ______are high speed temporary storage area.

Ans: Registers.

(d) _____is the short form of binary digit.

Ans: Bit

(e) A group of four bits is called ____.

Ans: Nibble.

(f) _____holds data , programs and instructions for computer.

Ans: RAM .

(g) A microphone is ____device.

Ans: input.

(h) A ____is set of instructions to perform a specific task.

Ans: program.

(i) _____software are used to scan the computers for viruses.

Ans: Antivirus.

(j)  The decimal system is composed of ____ digits.

Ans: 10.

(k) _____was the first fully electronic general-purpose computer.


(l) ____was one of the first commercially available computers.


(m) An _____converts the program written in assembly language into machine language.

Ans: assembler.

(n) Processing takes place in the_____.

Ans: CPU.

(o) The ALU performs the ____and ____operations.

Ans: arithmetic, logical.

(p) RAM is ____or ____.

Ans: temporary, volatile.

(q) ROM stores basic _____instructions to operate the computer.

Ans: input / output.

(r) _____memory is an electronic non-volatile storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.


(s) Data and instructions are given to the computer through its ____device.

Ans: input.

(t) Raw data is processed by the computer to produce_____.

Ans: output.

(u) Results are obtained from the computer through its ____device.

Ans: output.

(v) 1 MB = ____ KB.

Ans: 1024.

(w) ______is an example of primary memory.

Ans: RAM.

(x) The octal number system uses the digits from _____to_____.

Ans: 0,7.

(y) A computer system comprise of both ____ and____.

Ans: hardware, software.

(z) _____represents the set of program that directs the computer how to work.

Ans: software.

3. State true or false.

(a) Another name for internal memory is primary memory.

Ans: TRUE.

(b) A hard disk can store less data than CD.


(c) software represents the physical components of a computer.


(d) A projector is an input device.


(e) Interpreter is a utility software.

Ans: TRUE.

(f) The first-generation computers used transistors.


(g) Atanasoff Berry computer was the first electronic digital computer.

Ans: TRUE.

(h)  IBM 604 is an example of second-generation computers.

Ans: TRUE.

(i) UNIVAC was one of the first commercially available computers.

Ans: TRUE.

(j) ROM is volatile.


(k) A group of eight bits is called nibble.


(l) Computers do not understand any language other than machine language.

Ans: TRUE.

(m) Pen drives use flash memory to store data.

Ans: TRUE.

(n) The monitor is a soft copy output device.

Ans: TRUE.

(o) A compiler translates a program written in machine language into a program written high level language.

Ans: TRUE.

(p) Bit is the smallest unit of data in a computer.

Ans: TRUE.


4. Short answer questions.

1.Who is known as the ‘father of the modern computer’?

Ans: Charles Babbage.

2. What is a computer? 

Ans: Computer is an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary from, according to instructions given to it.

3. Name a popular pointing device.

Ans: Mouse.

4. Who invented Jacquard’s loom?

Ans: Joseph Jacquard.

5. Give the full from of ENIAC and EDVAC.

Ans: ENIAC – Electronic Numerical Integrator and computer 

EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator.

6. Give two examples of second-generation computers.

Ans: IBM604, IBM1401, UNIVAC 1108

7. What is AI?

Ans: Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science of making machines that can think like humans. It can do things that are considered “smart.” AI technology can process large amounts of data in ways, unlike humans.

8. Give two examples of secondary memories.

Ans: 1. Floppy disk

2. Hard disk.

9. What does the CPU do?

Ans: A Central processing unit (CPU) interprets, processes, and executes instructions, most often from the hardware and software programs running on the device. 

The CPU performs arithmetic, logic, and other operations to transform data input into more usable information output.

10. Why do we use secondary memory?

Ans: We use secondary memory because

1. Large Storage: Secondary memory provides large storage space so that we can store large data like videos, images, audio, files, etc. permanently. 

2. Portable: Some secondary devices are removable. So, we can easily store or transfer data from one computer or device to another.

11. Give two examples of pointing devices.

Ans: 1. Mouse, and

2. Trackball

12. Which input device is used to record sound?

Ans: Microphone.

13. What is the use of a barcode reader?

Ans: A barcode reader is used to read information stored in a barcode. A barcode is a system of representing data using machine-readable lines.

14. What is system software? Give two examples.

Ans: System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs. 

Examples – 

1. Operating system, 

2. Encryption/Decryption Software

15. What is the role of CU?

Ans: The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor. 

It tells the computer’s memory, arithmetic/logic unit, and input and output devices on how to respond to a program’s instructions.

16. What is the function of ALU?

Ans: ALU is the Arithmetic and Logic Unit.  Which performs all the arithmetic and logical operations such as addition, subtraction, logical AND and OR etc.

17. What do you understand by memory word?

Ans: computer memory is the storage space in the computer. The memory unit provides space for storing data and instructions, space for intermediate results, and also space for the final results.

18. What is the function of a Compiler?

Ans: A compiler is a special program that translates a programming language’s source code into machine code, bytecode, from a high-level programming language to a lower-level language. The source code is typically written in a high-level, human-readable language such as Java or C++.

19. What is the main limitation of a computer?

Ans: The main limitations of a computer are: 

1. The Computer cannot operate without the instructions given by humans. 

2. It cannot respond in a particular situation unless that situation is already programmed into them.

20. Mention three main features of a computer.

Ans: The main features of a computer are: 

1. Speed: A computer works at a much higher speed.

2. Accuracy: Computers perform calculations with 100% accuracy. Errors may occur due to data inconsistency or inaccuracy.

3. Memory: A computer has built-in memory called primary memory where it stores data.

21. What is a computer program?

Ans: A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language.

22. What are the fundamental components of a computer system?

Ans: The fundamental components of a computer system are:

1. Motherboard

2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

3. Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)

4. Random Access Memory (RAM)

5. Storage device.

23. What is application software?

Ans: Application software is a type of computer program that performs a specific personal, educational, and business function.

Microsoft Word and Excel, as well as popular web browsers like Firefox and Google Chrome, are examples of application software.

24. Mention various categories of application software?

Ans: Application software can be divided into two categories:

The first is general software like word processors, web browsers, spreadsheet software, etc. 

The second type of software is custom software customized according to the need of the user and their organizational needs

25. What do you understand by computer memory?

Ans: Computer memory is the storage space in the computer. The memory unit provides space for storing data and instructions, space for intermediate results, and also space for the final results.

26. What is the binary equivalent of hexadecimal 15 ?

Ans: (00010101)₂

5. Long answer questions.

1. Mention four features of a computer system.

Ans: 1. Speed: A computer can do Millions of Calculations in a matter of time, for which a simple person takes a lot of time to do the work, a computer can do that work very well in a very short time.

2. Accuracy: Computers are very fast as well as very accurate. It does not make any kind of mistake in calculating. sometimes we get some errors but these are because of the mistake performed by us.

3. Diligence: A person gets tired of doing some work in a few hours and a computer has the ability to do any work continuously for many hours, days, or months.

4. Storage: A computer can store a large amount of data, which is the biggest feature of a computer. Inside the computer, we can store many types of data such as images, videos, text, audio, files, etc.

2. Mention the characteristics features of third-generation computers.

Ans: Characteristics of Third Generation of computers: 

  1. Use of Integrated Circuits (IC) instead of transistors
  2. Use of Semi-conductor memory
  3. Small size than previous generation computers
  4. Use of magnetic storage devices
  5. Improved faster operations and more dependable output
  6. Use of mini computers
  7. Use of monitors and line printers
  8. Use of high-level programming languages
  9. Less expensive than 2nd generation computers
  10. Less expensive maintenance cost.

3. What do you understand by generation of computers? Mention two disadvantages of first – generation computers.

Ans: Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. Nowadays, generation includes both hardware and software which together make up an entire Computer system.

The disadvantages of first-generation computers:

  1. The computers were very larger in size.
  2. They consumed a large amount of energy.
  3. They heated very soon due to thousands of vacuum tubes.
  4. They were not reliably.
  5. Air conditioning is required.
  6. Constant maintenance was required.
  7. Not-portable.
  8. Costly commercial production.

4. Describe the functioning of CPU.


The functions of the CPU are: 

(1) The CPU receives the data when the computer inputs the data through an input device such as a keyboard or mouse.

(2) After this, the CPU process these input data by performing calculations and technical algorithm.

(3) And then CPU provides the processed data through output devices such as on the monitor screen.

(4) The CPU also stores the process data in the from of a cache for future use.

5. Discus Draw a block diagram of a computer system.

Ans: A computer basically performs five major operations: 

● Accepting data or instructions

● Processing data

● storing data

● Displaying results

● Controlling and coordinating all operations inside a computer 

A computer system consists of a unit to perform each of the above functions.

6. What are the categories of printers? Explain.

Ans: A printer is a hardware output device that is used to generate hard copy and print any document. A document can be of any type such as a text file, image, or a combination of both. It accepts input commands by users on a computer or on other devices to print the documents.

Printers can be divided into two distinct categories:

(1) Impact printer: In these Printers, there is a physical contact between the print head and paper. Impact printers are subdivided into line Printers and character printers.

Line Printer prints one line of text at a time. Examples of line Printers are: drum printer and chain printer.

Character printer prints one character at a time. Examples of character printers are-Dot matrix printer, letter-quality printer.

(2) Non-impact printer: In these Printers, there is no physical contact between the print head and paper. Non-impact printers are faster than impact printer. The main types of Non-impact printers are inkjet printer, thermal printer, electromagnetic printer, and laser printer.

 7. What is a bus? Explain three types of buses.

Ans: A bus is a subsystem that is used to connect computer components and transfer data between them.

There are three main buses.

1. Data bus: It carries data from the memory to the CPU and the CPU to the memory.

2. Address bus: It carries the address from the CPU to the memory.

3. Control bus: It carries instructions between the CPU and other parts of the computer.

8. What are the functions of a primary storage area?

Ans: Primary storage is the component of the computer that holds data, programs, and instructions that are currently in use. Primary storage is located on the motherboard. As a result, data can be read from and written to primary storage extremely quickly.

9. Explain three types of ROM.

Ans: The different types of ROM are: 

1. PROM ( programmable Read Only Memory) is read-only memory that can be programmed to store information only once by a user. It is not erasable.

2. EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) can be reprogrammed to record different information. The recorded information can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light.

3. EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) can be programmed and erased electrically.

10. What is the purpose of a language processor? Explain the three language processors.

Ans: A language processor, or translator, is a computer program that translates source code from one programming language to another. They also identify errors during translation. Computer programs are usually written in high-level programming languages (like C++, Python, and Java)

1. Compiler: The language processor that reads the complete source program written in high-level language as a whole in one go and translates it into an equivalent program in machine language is called a Compiler.  Example: C, C++, C#.

2. Assembler: The Assembler is used to translate the program written in Assembly language into machine code. The source program is an input of an assembler It contains assembly language instructions.

3. Interpreter: The translation of a single statement of the source program into machine code is done by a language processor and executes immediately before moving on to the next line is called an interpreter. 

11. Difference between data and information.


Sl. No.DataInformation
1Data is a collection of factswhile information puts those facts into context.
2While data is raw and unorganizedinformation is organized..
3Data doesn’t depend on information.Information depends on data.
4Raw data alone is insufficient for decision makingInformation is sufficient for decision making
5Data does not depend on informationInformation depends on data
6Data typically comes in the form of graphs, numbers, figures, or statisticsInformation is typically presented through words, language, thoughts, and ideas.

12. Write short notes on fifth-generation computers.

Ans: The period of fifth generation is 1980-till date. In the fifth generation, VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components.

This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets the means and method of making computers think like human beings. All the high-level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net, etc., are used in this generation.

Features of Fifth-generation Computers

Following are some features of fifth-generation computers:

  1. The ULSI (ultra large scale integration) technology is used in this generation of computers.
  2. Natural language processing is now in its fifth phase of development.
  3. In this generation’s computers, artificial intelligence has progressed.
  4. Parallel processing has advanced on these computers.
  5. The fifth-generation computer includes more user-friendly interfaces and multimedia functions.
  6. These PCs can be purchased for a lower price.
  7. Computers that are more portable and powerful.
  8. Computers are dependable and less expensive.
  9. It’s easier to manufacture in a commercial setting.
  10. Desktop computers are straightforward to operate.
  11. Mainframe computers are extremely efficient.

13. What are the basic differences between the four generations of computers? 

Ans: Over the years, many computing devices were invented that are used by humans to solve different types of problems. All these computing devices can be classified into five generations which refer to the phases of improvement made to different computing devices resulting in a small, cheap, fast, reliable and productive computer. The technological development in the field of computers not only refers to the improvements made to the hardware technologies but also the improvements made to the software technologies.

14. Write a short note on MARK – I.

Ans: Mark I was designed in 1937 by Harvard graduate student Howard H. Aiken to solve advanced mathematical physics problems encountered in his research. Aiken’s ambitious proposal envisioned the use of modified, commercially-available technologies coordinated by a central control system.

15. Explain the two main types of secondary memory.

Ans: The secondary storage devices which are built into the computer or connected to the computer are known as a secondary memory of the computer. It is also known as external memory or auxiliary storage.

The main types of secondary memory are: 

  • Hard disks
  • Pen Drive
  • SD Card
  • (CD)
  • (DVD) etc.

16. Describe various types of magnetic media.

Ans: The various types of magnetic media are: 

(1) Floppy disks: Floppy disks are a storage medium capable of holding electronic data, like a computer file. A floppy disk is a flexible disk with a magnetic coating on it 1.44 MB of data.

(2) Hard disks: A hard disk is a non-volatile data storage device. It is usually installed internally in a computer, attached directly to the disk controller of the computer’s motherboard.

(3) Magnetic taps: Magnetic taps can hold a large amount of data. Magnetic tapes are available in the form of cassettes, reels, and cartridges.

(4) Zip Diskette: Zip drive is used to operate the Zip disk. Zip disks had 100 and 250 MB of storage space that was used to save, share, and back up huge amount of data.

(5) SuperDisk: SuperDisk is a disk drive and diskette introduced by 3M, which became Imation. SuperDisk is capable of 120 MB storage over a single disk similar size of the oldest 1.44 MB floppy diskette, and further few times it was capable of storage 240 MB.

17. Mention some areas where computer are used widely.

Ans: Today, computers are used almost everywhere. Here are some of the areas where computers are in use widely.

1. Business and Finance: Computers serve as indispensable tools for intricate tasks such as data analysis, financial modeling, accounting procedures, inventory management, and secure electronic transactions. 

2. Education: Within educational institutions, computers are harnessed for research purposes, online learning platforms, collaborative projects, multimedia presentations, and administrative duties. By providing access to vast amounts of information, they enhance the learning experience and foster knowledge acquisition.

3. Communication: Computers, in conjunction with the Internet, revolutionize communication through avenues such as email, instant messaging, video conferencing, and the sprawling landscape of social media platforms. They foster global connectivity, enabling information exchange, collaboration, and vibrant social interactions.

4. Healthcare: Computers play an instrumental role in the healthcare sector, facilitating critical activities including electronic medical records management, diagnostic imaging analysis, laboratory testing, patient monitoring systems, research endeavors, and advanced medical simulations. By fostering accuracy, efficiency, and comprehensive healthcare services, they elevate the standards of patient care.

5. Entertainment and Media: Within the entertainment industry, computers serve as creative powerhouses, driving video and audio editing, special effects in movies and games, digital artistry, animation, virtual reality (VR), and computer-generated imagery (CGI). Additionally, they underpin the seamless execution of online streaming, gaming experiences, and content creation.

6. Transportation and Logistics: Computers significantly influence transportation systems, actively contributing to traffic management, airline reservations, navigation systems, vehicle diagnostics, logistics planning, and robust supply chain management. Leveraging their capabilities, we optimize routes, track shipments, and bolster the overall efficiency of transportation networks.

7. Science and Engineering: The scientific and engineering realms heavily rely on computers for cutting-edge research, intricate simulations, complex modeling, and comprehensive data analysis. Fields spanning physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering leverage their computational prowess to facilitate profound discoveries, precise simulations, and meticulous experimental design.

8. Government and Administration: Computers play a central role within the governmental landscape, powering administrative processes, record-keeping systems, data analysis, public services, and policy formulation. Through their implementation, we streamline workflows, enhance operational efficiency, and elevate the standards of governance.

9. Manufacturing and Engineering: The manufacturing and engineering sectors benefit immensely from computers, leveraging computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), robotics, process control systems, quality assurance mechanisms, and automation solutions. These applications bolster precision, productivity, and safety within manufacturing and engineering workflows.

10. Personal Use: On an individual level, computers permeate various aspects of our lives, catering to personal productivity, entertainment pursuits, online shopping endeavors, social networking engagements, content creation, and effortless access to information and services.

18. What are the major operations performed by a computer? 

Ans: Basic Operations of a computer system:

● Accepting data or instructions

● Processing data 

● Storing data

● Displaying results

● Controlling and coordinating all operations inside a computer.

19. Differentiate between the following pairs:

1. Input Unit and Output Unit.

Ans: The difference between Input unit and Output unit are:

Sl. No.Input UnitOutput Unit 
1Input is any data that is sent to the computer for processing. Output is the result of processed data that we can see through some other devices.
2Input devices are controlled by the users.Output devices are controlled by computers.
3It converts user-friendly instruction into machine-friendly.It converts the machine’s instructions to the user’s readable language.
4It takes the data from the user and sends it to the processor for execution.It takes the processed data from the processor and sends it back to the user.
5Mouse, Keyboards etc., are input device examples.Monitors, Printers etc., are examples of output devices.

2. RAM and ROM.

Ans: The difference between Ram and Rom are:

1RAM stands for Random Access Memory.ROM stands for Read Only Memory.
2Random Access Memory (RAM) is costly if compared to ROM.ROM is more inexpensive when compared to RAM.
3The data saved in RAM is utilized by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to prepare current instructions.The data collected in ROM is applied to bootstrap the computer/PC.
4It is a high-speed memory.It is much slower than the RAM.
5It is employed as CPU Cache, Primary Memory in a computer.It is utilized as Firmware by micro-controllers.

3. Hard copy and soft copy.

Ans: The difference between Hard copy and soft copy are:

Sl. No.Hard copySoft copy
1Hard copy is a printed document file.Soft copy is a non printed document file.
2It is a physical copy.It is a virtual copy.
3Hard copies are physical paper copies.soft copies are electronically written copies.
4Hard copy does not require an electronic interface like computers or mobiles etc to read and display.Soft copy requires an electronic interface like computers or mobiles etc to read and display.
5Hard copies are not easily portable like soft copy.Soft copies are easily portable than hard copy.
6Testing is a part of the SDLP phase.Debugging is the consequence of testing.
7These copies are mainly preferred in official works.These copies are mainly preferred for private purposes.
8Books, newspapers, magazines, etc. ExamplePdf file, scanned copy, word doc, presentation file, etc. Example

4. Primary memory and secondary memory.

Ans: The difference between Primary memory and secondary memory are:

Sl. No.Primary memorySecondary memory
1Primary memory is temporary.Secondary memory is permanent.
2Data stored in primary memory can be directly accessed by the CPU.which cannot be accessed in secondary memory.
3Primary memory is a semiconductor memorysecondary memories are magnetic and optical memories.
4The speed of data accessing in the primary memory is fasterThe data accessing speed of the secondary memory is slower..
5Primary memory is volatile, which means it is wiped out when the computer is turned off.Since it is non-volatile, data can be retained in case of a power failure.
6Primary memory can be accessed by the data bus.Secondary memory is accessed by I/O channels.
7It is expensive in comparison to secondary memoryIt is less expensive in comparison to primary memory.
8RAM, ROM, Cache memory, PROM, EPROM, Registers, etc. ExamplesHard Disk, Floppy Disk, Magnetic Tapes, etc. Examples

5. Impact printer and Non-impact printer.

Ans: The difference between an Impact-printer and a Non-impact printer are:

Sl. No.Impact-printerNon-impact printer
1Impact printers create pictures and figures by hitting a device such as a wheel or a print hammer against an inked ribbon.Non-impact printers create figures and pictures without any connection between the printing device and the paper.
2Faster speeds around 250 word per second.Slower speeds around 1 page per 30 seconds.
3It prints by hammering a set of metal pin or character set.Printing is done by depositing ink in any form.
4Impact printers use an inked ribbon.Non-impact printers use tonner or cartridge for printing.
5Have banging noise of needle on paperWorks silently
6Impact printers, other than dot matrix printers, do not print graphic images.Printing graphical images using a non-impact printer is very feasible.
7They are cheap.They are expensive.
8Except for dot matrix printers, impact printers cannot change character style.Non-impact printers can print various character styles.

6. Assembler and Compiler.

Ans: The difference between an Assembler and a Compiler are:

Sl. No.AssemblerCompiler
1Compiler converts the source code written by the programmer to a machine-level language.Assembler converts the assembly code into the machine code.
2It converts the whole code into machine language at a time.But the Assembler can’t do this at once.
3The output of the compiler is a mnemonic version of machine code.The output of the assembler is binary code.
4Source code in high-level programming language.Assembly level code as input.
5A Compiler is more intelligent than an Assembler.But, an Assembler is less intelligent than a Compiler.
6It considers the whole code as one during the conversion into machine languageThe conversion of complex programming into machine ones cannot be performed in a single operation
7Mnemonic version of machine code.Binary version of machine code.
8C, C++, Java, and C# are examples of compiled languages.GAS, GNU is an example of an assembler.

7. Hardware and software.

Ans: The difference between Hardware and Software are: 

Sl. No.HardwareSoftware
1Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer that help to set up a computer system and execute instructions.Software refers to the set of instructions that help users to interact with computer components and instruct the CPU to do the intended or specified tasks.
2Tangible. We can see and touch the hardware.Intangible. We can see but cannot touch software.
3Hardware cannot perform any task without software.Software cannot be executed without hardware.
4Hardware is not affected by computer viruses.Software is affected by computer viruses.
5Storage Devices, Input Devices, Output Devices, and Internal components are the primary categories of hardware.Operating Systems, Application Software, and Programming Software are the main categories of software.
6A Hardware engineer physically builds a hardware using electronic components.Software is developed by software engineers using various programming languages.
7We can replace the hardware with a new component if damaged or corrupted.When damaged or corrupted, we can install the software again using a backup copy.
8Examples: keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Printer, CPU, Hard disk, RAM, ROM etc.Examples:MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, Photoshop etc.

8. System software and application software.

Ans: The difference between system software and application software are: 

Sl. No.System softwareApplication software
1System Software is the type of software which is the interface between application software and system.Application Software is the type of software which runs as per user request. It runs on the platform which is provide by system software.
2Low-level languages are used to write the system software software.While high-level languages are used to write the application software.
3This software runs independently and works as a platform for working application software.This software is not capable of running independently, which means they need system software to work on.
4Without system software, system can’t run.While without application software system always runs.
5It is classified as a package program or customized program.It is classified as time-sharing, resource sharing, client-server.
6A computer system can’t run without system software.A computer system can always run without application software. However, for users, it is required to have some important application software to work on.
7It’s a general-purpose software.While it’s a specific purpose software.
8Examples of system software include operating systems, compilers, assemblers, debuggers, drivers, etc.Examples of application software include word processors, web browsers, media players, etc.

20. Carry out the following conversation:

(a) (135)₁₀ = (?)₂


∴ (135)₁₀= (10000111)₂.

(b) (1100110)₂ = (?)₁₀

Solutions. (1100110)₂

= 1×2⁶+1×2⁵+0×2⁴+0×2³+1×2²+1×2¹+0×2⁰

= 64+32+0+0+4+2+0

 ∴ (1100110)₂ = (102)₁₀ .

(c) (110.110)₂ = (?)₁₀  

Solutions. (110.110)₂

= 1×2²+1×2¹+0×2⁰+1×2⁻¹+1×2⁻²+0×2⁰

= 4+2+0+1/2+1/4+0

= 6+0.5+0.25

= (6.75)₁₀ .

(d) (35.375)₁₀=(?)₂

Solutions. (35.375)₁₀

∴ (35.375)₁₀=(100011.011)₂ .

(e) (265)₁₀=(?)₈


∴ (265)₁₀=(411)₈ .

(f) (205.375)₁₀=(?)₈


Integer part       

Fraction part 3       


∴ (250.375)₁₀=(372.3)₈ .

(g) (375)₈=(?)₁₀

Solutions. (375)₈

= 3×8²+7×8¹+5×8⁰

= 3×64+7×8+5×1

= 192+56+5

= (253)₁₀ .

(h) (25.6)₈= (?)₁₀

Solutions. (25.6)₈

= 2×8¹+5×8⁰+6×8⁻¹

= 2×8+5×1+6/8

= 16+5+6/8

= 21+6/8

= 21+0.75

= (21.75)₁₀ .

(i) (125)₁₆=(?)₁₀

Solutions. (125)₁₆

= 1×16²+2×16¹+5×16⁰

= 1×256+2×16+5×1

= 256+32+5

= (293)₁₀ .

(j) (436)₁₀=(?)₁₆      


∴ (436)₁₀=(1B4)₁₆

Note: 10₁₀=A₁₆           13₁₀=D₁₆

11₁₀=B₁₆                      14₁₀=E₁₆

12₁₀=C₁₆                      15₁₀=F₁₆

(k) (213.03125)₁₀=(?)₁₆


∴ (213.03125)₁₀=(D5.08)₁₆ .

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