Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 1 Ancient Kamrupa

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Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 1 Ancient Kamrupa

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Also, you can read SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given SEBA Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 1 Ancient Kamrupa Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

Ancient Kamrupa

Chapter – 1

Exercise

1. Answer briefly: 

(a) What is the name of Bhagadutta’s daughter?

Ans: Vajradatta Bhagadatta.

(b) During whose reign did Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited Kamarupa?

Ans: Hiuen Tsang was the Chinese traveller who visited India in Ancient Times between AD 627-643. He visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana who came to admire him for his deep devotion towards Buddhism.

(c) Which king married Amritprabha, the Princess of Kamrupa?

Ans: Meghavahana.

(d) Who was the best king of the Salstambha Dynasty?

Ans: Shri Harshadeva (725-750 AD).

(e) Which king did thwart Bakhtiar Khilji’s attack on Kamarupa?

Ans: King Prithu.

2. Find out the correct answer: 

(a) Pushya Barman/Bhaskar Barman established the Barman dynasty. 

Ans: Pushya Barman.

(b) Si-Yu-Ki was Kautilya’s/Hiuen Tsang’s book. 

Ans: Hiuen Tsang’s.

(c) The era began from the rule of Kumar Bhaskar Barman was known as Sakabda/Bhaskarabda. 

Ans: Bhaskarabda. 

(d) There was a system of monarchism/democracy in ancient Kamrupa. 

Ans: Monarchism.

3. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The main __________of ancient Kamrupa was__________. 

Ans: Capital and Pragjyotishpura.

(b) ______________ established the Barman dynasty. 

Ans: Pushyavarman.

(c) The best king of Pal dynasty was _____________. 

Ans: Dharmapala.

(d) The king of Kamrupa received the _____________ titles. 

Ans: Bhagadatta.

(e) _____________ was the main source of income for the state of Kamrupa. 

Ans: Land revenue.

4. Write short notes on: 

(a) Bhaskar Barman. 

Ans: During 350-380 AD approximately, Pushya Barman started a new era in Kamrup. The dynasty established by him is known as the Barman dynasty. Pushya Barman was a contemporary of the Gupta king, Samudra Gupta. His name is mentioned in the bronze scriptures of Nidhanpur of Bangladesh as a person of various qualities. The kings of this dynasty established by Pushya Barman were successful to rule over Kamarupa for almost 300 years.

After the death of Pushya Barman, his son Samudra Barman ruled approximately between the period from 380-405 AD. Samudra Barman was a skillful ruler and his wife Duttadevi was an intelligent lady. After Samudra Barman, Bala Barman 1 ruled Kamrupa from approximately 405-420 AD. According to many historians, a pleasant relationship between Kamrupa and Kashmir was developed during his rule. It is mentioned in the famous book named Rajtarangini written by Kalhan that Meghbahan, the king of Kashmir came to the swayamvar (marriage ceremony) of Princess Amritprabha of Kamrupa and accepted her marriage proposal in the presence of many other kings. From the description of this marriage, it can be assumed that along with other states of India, Kamrupa was also known as a powerful state. Kalyan Barman, Mahendra Barman, Bhuti Barman also known as Mahabhut Barman, Chandramukh Barman and Bhaskar Barman were the rulers of Kamrupa after Bala Barman. It is to be noted that Bhaskar Barman was unmarried that is why he was also known as ‘Kumar Raja’. He ruled Kamrupa for a long period of time. His rule was one of the most glorious episode in the history of ancient Kamrupa. Bhaskar Barman’s ascension to the throne in 594 AD created a new era known as ‘Bhaskarabda’ or ‘Kamrupi year’. Amongst several significant events during his rule, two of the most striking incidents are his cordial relationship with the valiant king of north India, Harsha Vardhan and the Kamrupa visit of Chinese traveller HiuenTsang.

(b) The education system of ancient Kamrupa. 

Ans: Ancient education system and curriculum in kamarupa were prescribed by the dharmasastra and education was centred round the guru-griha. Two types of education were in ancient Assam viz. vidya and kala. Vidya is literary study and Kala is professional activity.

(c) Bhagadatta. 

Ans: It is known from the resources that Naraka’s son Bhagadutta sat on the throne of Kamrupa after his father’s death. There is description of Bhagadutta’s bravery in many chapters of the Mahabharata. According to the sayings, Bhagadutta’s daughter, Bhanumoti was married to Durjyodhan. It is also said that Guwahati’s ‘Digholi Pukhuri’ was dug by Bhagadutta during the time of his daughter’s marriage. Due to this relationship, Bhagadutta fought along with the Kauravas in the war of the Mahabharata in spite of his friendship with the Pandavas. It can be assumed that Bhagadutta was one of the famous and brave kings of India from the contribution that he made towards the war of the Mahabharata After Bhagadutta, many renowned kings ruled Kamrupa. Bajradutta, Banroja and king Bhismak were among few of them who received popularity. 

(d) Religion in ancient Kamrupa.

Ans: The Religious Traditions of Ancient Kamrupa: Similar to the Vedic era, many people of ancient Kamrupa offered their prayers to the various elements of nature. They also considered trees, rocks, hills, rivers etc. as their deities. Since the society was based on agriculture, several religious ceremonies were celebrated around agriculture. They considered earth as their mother since it was the land that provided them with trees, fruits, berries as well as a livelihood. Shaivite religion was prevalent in Kamarupa since ancient times. It is mentioned in the Kalika Purana that there were 15 centres in ancient Kamrupa for the prayers of Shiva. Ancient Kamrupa was one of the main centres for Shakti puja. Traditionally, Kamrupa was recognized as the main centre of Shakti puja. The temple of goddess Kamakhya is the first of such centres. Shaktism is said to have evolved from the reverence and respect bestowed by the Indian male towards the feminine society since the eras long bygone. Few noted goddess of Shakti religion are ‘Durga’, ‘Kali’, ‘Kalika’, ‘Uma’, ‘Kamakhya’, ‘Tara’, ‘Sondi’, ‘Chamundi’ etc. In addition to Shiva and Shakti, Vishnu was also worshipped in ancient Kamrupa. Even Buddhism got some attraction in ancient Kamrupa. It has also been seen in ancient literature as well as the ruins of architectural monuments that the Sun was also prayed in ancient Kamrupa.

(e) Devadashi custom.

Ans: The Devadasi custom is a traditional practice in India where girls were dedicated to serve in temples, often in the service of a deity or a temple. This custom, which has roots in ancient India, was prevalent in various regions, particularly in southern and western India. 

(i) Origin and Meaning: The term “Devadasi” is derived from Sanskrit, meaning “servant of god.” Historically, Devadasis were women who were dedicated to worship and serve a deity or a temple for their lifetime.

(ii) Role and Duties: Devadasis were skilled in various arts, particularly classical dance and music. They performed rituals, danced, and sang in temples as an offering to the deity. They also participated in temple festivals and other religious ceremonies.

(iii) Social Status: Initially, Devadasis held a respectable status in society. They were patrons of arts and culture and were often educated. Their performances and contributions were highly valued in the temple and by the community.

(iv) Ritual of Dedication: The dedication ceremony, known as “pottukatt” involved the girl undergoing a marriage-like ritual where she was symbolically wedded to the deity. Once dedicated, she was not allowed to marry any mortal man.

(v) Decline and Exploitation: Over time, the Devadasi system declined due to various social, economic, and political changes. The original religious and cultural significance deteriorated, and the system became associated with exploitation and prostitution. Devadasis were often exploited by temple authorities and wealthy patrons.

5. Describe the administrative system of ancient Kamrupa.

Ans: As our country has been divided into states, districts, sub-divisions, panchayats, village etc. for convenience to rule, Kamrupa was also divided into bhukti, mandal, bixoy, pur, gram etc. In some of the stone inscriptions it was found that the north bank of the Brahmaputra River was named as North- Kuladesh and the south bank was named as South-Kaladesh. There was a system of monarchism in ancient Kamrupa. The rulers portrayed themselves as a part of god. For example: the plates discovered in Dubi of Bajali district describes Pushya Barman, the founder of Barman dynasty as the second image of Vishnu and Narayan Barman as Chakrapani. In order to oppress the general public with their power they bestowed upon themselves with titles such as ‘Param Bhattarak’, ‘Maharajadhiraj’, ‘Param Parmeshwar’ etc. The coronation ceremony of the kings were observed with much pomp and gaiety following Vedic traditions. Vassal kings, priests, nobilities and kings of other states were invited to these ceremonies. The bronze tablets hold evidence that the kings of Kamrupa were compared with the Hindu gods Indra, Hara, Vishnu, Varun, Agni, Kubera and the queens with goddesses like Aditi, Lakshmi etc.The ministers and court assembly were an integral part of the administrative system of Kamrupa. The ministers and the high ranking royal officials were given the titles like ‘Amatya’, ‘Sachib’, ‘Mantri’, ‘Maha Pratihar’ etc. The chief of the army was known as ‘Senadhakhya’ and his subordinates were given the titles like ‘Senapati’, ‘Nayak’, ‘Ranok’ etc.

6. Describe how the stone inscriptions help in gathering information and knowledge about ancient Kamrupa. 

Ans: The ancient Kamrupa was an exceptional centre point of Indian traditions and cultures. Like other places of India, in Kamarupa also, the vedic traditions, Sanskrit language, architectures, structures and astronomy etc. were broadly known. We can assume that the ancient Kamrupa was a prosperous state of India from the various resources like the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, Arthashastra, Puranas, stone inscriptions, bronze scriptures and archeological th resources. In the Kalika purana, written in 10 century, it was mentioned that Kamrupa was located in the east of Karatoya river and its length was 100 (450 miles) and breadth was (135 miles). According to this, the state was triangular in shape. The Kamakhya temple was located at the centre of the ancient Kamrupa. th According to the Juginitantra written in 16 century, the Kanchenjunga mountains were towards the north of Kamrupa and the meeting point of the Brahmaputra and Lakhya (Bangladesh) river in the south, the Karatowa river was in the west and the Nikkor bhavini (Dikorai river) in the east. The Kamrupa was divided into four parts or pith in the above mentioned book. They were Ratnapith, Kampith, Swarnapith and Saumarpith.

7.  Draw a map of present day Assam and mark the places where the capitals of Barman dynasty, Salstambha dynasty and Pal dynasty were situated. (take help from the teacher).

Ans:  

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