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Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres Of Power
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VERY LONG ANSWER
Q.1. What is ASEAN community ? Briefly discuss about the three pillars of ASEAN community.
Ans : Since ASEAN had some of the most rapidly growing economics it expanded in objectives beyond the realm of social and economic cooperation. In 2003, ASEAN followed the European Union path by estabilising an ASEAN community with three pillars.
They are :- ASEAN comprises of three pillars_security community, economic community and social_cultural community.
ASEAN Security community :-
(i)The security community aims to maintain peace and security in the South Asian nations. For this they meet frequently to solve their security issues.
(ii) ASEAN nations also want to make their place is zone of peace therefore collaborate with each other to wipe out insurgency and terrorist activities.
ASEAN Economic community :-
(i) ASEAN targets to create a common market introduction base within ASEAN States and to aid social and economic development in the region.
(ii)It has also focussed on creating a Free Trade Area for investment labour and services.
ASEAN socio-cultural community :-
(i) ASEAN nations have tried to maintain close cultural relationship with all regions of the world there has been frequent exchange of sports and cultural teams amongst the ASEAN and non_ASEAN Nations.
(ii) They also aim that close cultural links will solidify the relations amongst ASEAN nations. The organisation has started awarding literary awards to people in the ASEAN region.
Q.2. Briefly discuss the role of three major alternative centres of power.
Ans : The role of three measures alternative centres of power discussed below:
(i) European Union :- European Union has played a major role as an alternative centre of power it has considerable political, military, economic and diplomatic influence. EU has a GBP of over which 12 million is the biggest economy in the world surpassing even USA. EU’s share of World Trade is three times bigger than that of US. The economic power of EU gives its power to influence neighbours as well as Asian and African countries.
(ii) ASEAN :- Since ASEAN has some of the most rapidly growing economics with expanded its objectives during the realm of social and economic cooperation. The vision 2020 builds ASEAN as one of the major alternative centres of power, by encouraging negotiation over conflicts in the region. For example ASEAN has mediated the end of cambodian conflict, the East Timor crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asia cooperation.
(iii) China as an Alternative centre of power :- China has opened up its economy which in turn has helped Chinese economy to break from stagnation of command economy. privatization of agriculture led to a remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes followed by an exponential growth of rural industry but during common economy industrial production was lagging behind. Presently the new trading laws and creation of special economic zones led to phenomenal rise in foreign trade whereas, under closed economy China’s international trade was minimal and per capita income was very low.
Q.3. Write a note in India China relations.
Ans : India and China about ancient civilization, sharing a common border and having a relationship with each for thousands of years. Buddhism spread from India and China and many Chinese scholars visited India to learn Buddhism. National movements in the two countries against colonial oppression led to some renewed contacts in the late 18th and 19th centuries.
Our relations with China after independence started off very well due to a number of friendly gestures on the part of India. India was one of the first countries to recognise communist China and later we advocated her membership to the United Nations. During the Korean War of 1950, India established contacts which China and played a positive role in the UN in defence of Chinese interests. In 1951, India voted in the UN general assembly against a resolution branding China as an aggressor in Korea. After independence, India re announced its extra territorial rights in in Tibet and accepted China’s suzerainty over Tibet.
In 1954, India signed the famous panchsheel, which started a new era of sino-indian friendship. The friendship between the two reached its zenith at the Bandung conference of Afro-Asian Nations in 1955. India gave full moral and diplomatic support to China and China supported India’s claim on Goa.
After 1957, problem arose over Tibet on the border issue. In 1956, China launched a full-scale invasion on Tibet. India protested against this and China accused India of being influenced by imperial powers. The revolt by the Tibetans in 1959 was put down. Dalai Lama along with thousands of refugees fleed to India . The grant of asylum to Dalai Lama was viewed as an enemy like act .
The Chinese reaction was very strong on the Sikkim issue. they accused India of being “expansionism” and trying to create a great Indian Empire with the baking of Moscow.
The boundary between the two Nations i.e the
MacMohan line was not accepted by the Chinese who referred to it as the “imperialist line” and they made and one and they made unwarranted claims to about out 1,28,000 sq. km. of Indian territory in NEFA now Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai chin area of the Ladakh sector increased Chinese Incursions into Indian territory where posing a serious threat to India’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
In 1962, the Chinese attacked India and occupied a large chunk of its territory. This unexpected attack after panchsheel led to the humiliating defeat of India.
The Chinese help to Pakistan especially during the two wars of 1965 and 1971 threatened India’s security. During the 1965’s war they accused India of criminal aggression and in 1971 of interference in the internal affairs of Pakistan.
Conducting the Nuclear Test in Rajasthan in 1974 increased the tension between the two countries aa the Chinese viewed it at “Nuclear Blackmail” bye India against its smaller neighbours and decided to help Pakistan in case of an attack. Thus from 1958 to 1975, China saw India as its major geo_ strategic rival and wanted to keep India down.
Attempts at normalisation of relations between the two were taken at the Indian initiative in 1976. Due to this, Sino_ Indian diplomatic relations were restored with the exchange of ambassadors. JWG ( joint working group)was set up by both countries to find a solution to the border dispute. An agreement for maintaining peace between the two countries along the line of control was signed. Both countries also decide to reduce forces along the sino_ Indian Frontier and both pledged not to use or threaten the use of force against the other. In 1996, an agreement of confidence building was signed. According to this, forces on the Indo_ Chinese border would be reduced, no military activities should be undertaken by either country that affected the other, emphasis on the relevance of panchsheel.other agreements were signed regarding the fight against the smuggling of arms and narcotics and to regulate Maritime transport. In 1999, China was not happy with Pakistan’s intrusion into Kargil. Vajpayee’s visit to China in June 2003 India_ China relations out of years of Mistrust and mutual suspicion to mutual accommodation. The process of mending fences and emphasis on friendly competition has started. A good neighbourly relation is not only desired by the leaders of the two countries but also by the people.
A long-term stable relationship and peace between the two is important for the mutual benefit of both the countries.
Q.4. Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of ASEAN community.
Ans : Before and during the Second World War, South Eastern region of Asia suffered the economic and political consequences of repeated colonialism, both European and Japanese. At the end of the war it confronted problems of nation building, the ravages of property and economic backwardness and the pressure to align with one great power or another during the cold war. This was a recipe for conflict, which the countries of South East Asia could ill afford. Efforts at Asian and third World Unity, such as the Bandung conference at the Non. Aligned movement, very ineffective in establishing the conventions of informal cooperation and interaction. Hence, the South East Asian nations sought on alternative by establishing the association for South East Asian nations (ASEAN).And for the aspiration(ASEAN) was established in 1967 by five countries of South Eastern region__ Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand__ by singing the Bangkok declaration. The objectives of ASEANwhere primarily to accelerate economic growth and through that ‘social progress and cultural development’.
Q.5 Give your suggestions to resolve the contentious issue between India and China.
Ans : When China attacked in Tibet 1952_51, Dalai Lama, The political and the religious leader of Tibet took shelter in India. As a result the relations between the two countries become strained. India and China also have a controversy over the MC Mohan line, the border line between India and China. China and India were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over competing territorial claims principally in Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai China region of Ladakh.
During Indo__ Pak war of 1965, China clearly demonstrated its hostility towards India and gave moral and diplomatic support to Pakistan. China has been an aid_giver country to Pakistan. It has been supporting Pakistan’s military financially and technically. China has contributed Pakistan to build nuclear arsenals. China’s military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar were viewed as hostile to Indian interest in south Asia. China demonstrated its continued towards India, and support to Pakistan, during Bangladesh crisis in 1971. India’s nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998 have also been an issue of dispute between India and China. However, all these contentious issues between the two countries can be solved by mutual understanding on continuous genuine efforts by both the countries.
Now, China and India are to new emerging economic powers of the world ,they must solve their disputes amicably. As both view themselves as rising powers and global politics, and both would like to play a major role in the Asian economic and politics they should interact on regular intervals. steps should be taken to content conflict and maintain peace and tranquility on the border. Both countries should cooperate in the areas of science and technology.
cultural exchanges will further boost the relationship. As both are emerging economic powers they must enhance their trade relations. cooperation with each others in areas that could otherwise create conflict between the two such as bidding for energy deals abroad, is very necessary. At the global level, India and China must adopt similar policies in international economic institutions like the World Trade organisation. interesting transportation and communication links, on economic interests and global concerns will certainly help in establishing a more positive and sound relationship between the two most populous countries of the world.
Q.6. Write a note on European Union under following headlines ?
(b) Aims and objectives.
Ans : Since it’s formation in 1992,The EU is playing a very important role as a highly influential regional organisation. it has economic, political, diplomatic and military influence in the international field. it is clear from the following__
The EU is the world’s biggest economy with the GDP of more than 12 trillion dollars in 2005, which is slightly larger than that of the US. its currency EURO can pose a challenge to the dominance of US dollar. Its share of World Trade is three times larger than that of the US its economic powers gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa.
It also functions as an important bloc in economic organisations such as World Trade Organisation (W.T.O). The EU has political and diplomatic influence. its two members__ Britain and France are permanent members of the Security Council of UNO and EU also has several of its members as non__ permanent members of the security council. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy economic investments and negotiation have been very effective as in the case of dialogue with China and human rights and environmental degradation. Militarily the EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defence is the second after USA . Two of its members, Britain and France also have large nuclear arsenals. It is also the world’s second most important source of space and communication technology.
Q.7. What are the major areas of influence of European Union. Discuss in detail ?
Ans : European Union, an influential Regional organisation in the Europe was formed in 1992. Since its inception EU continues to grow as a highly powerful organisation. The European Union has economic,political and diplomatic and military influence.
(a) European Union’s economic power :- The European Union the world’s biggest economy with the GDP of more than 12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than that of USA. Its currency, the Euro is now in a position to threat the dominance of the US dollar Its share of World Trade is three times larger than that of the USA allowing it to be more assertive in trade dispute with the USA and China. Its economic power gives its influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa. It also functions as an important bloc in international economic organisation such as WTO.
(b) The European union’s political power :- Two members of the European Union, Britain and friends hold permanent seats in the security council.The EU includes several non_ permanent members of the UNSC . This has enabled the EU to influence some us policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiation rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environment degradation.
(c)European Union’s military power :- Militarily, the European union’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defence is second after the US. The EU member states, Britain and France also have nuclear arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads. It is also the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.
Q.8. What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organization ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q.No.6 (Long Answer)
Q.9. In spite of the drastic economic development in China , Some economic challenges still exist there. list of the challenges ?
Ans : With the introduction of the New Economic Policy in China, while the Chinese economy has improved dramatically yet not everyone in China has received the benefits of the reforms and China is still faces some economic challenges like__
(a) Unemployment has rises in China with nearly 100 million people looking looking for jobs.
(b) Female employment and conditions of work are as bad as in Europe of the 18th and 19th centuries.
(c) Environmental degradation and corruption have interest to and unprecedented level.
(d) There is also a rise in ‘Economic Inequality’ between rural and urban residents and coastal and Inland provinces .
(e)There is violation of human rights and the people do not enjoy the requisite members of basic rights.
Q.10. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisation. Justify the statement.
Ans : The peace and prosperity of countries in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisation. The objective of establishing Regional organisation is to make sure peace and prosperity of the member countries. Various aims of establishing regional economic organisation are:
(i) To accelerate economic growth.
(ii)To accelerate social progress and cultural development.
(iii)To promote regional peace and stability,(iv) To increase political cooperation.
(v) To strengthen security cooperation.
(vi)To strengthen security, cooperation and progress.
Q.11. Briefly describe recent development regarding the international dispute between India and China ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q.No.5 (very long answer)
Q.12. Though the Chinese economy has improved dramatically these are areas where development is still to reach. Mention those areas.
Ans : When China attack Tibet in 1950_ 51, Dalai Lama, the political and religious leader of Tibet, took shelter in India. As a result the relation between the two countries become strained. India and China also also have controversy over the MC Mohan line, the border line between India and China. China and India were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over competing territorial claims principally in Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai china region of Ladakh. During the Indo__ Pak war of 1965, China clearly demonstrated his hostility towards India and give moral and diplomatic support to Pakistan. China has been an aid_giver country to Pakistan. It has been supporting Pakistan’s military financially and technically. China has contributed Pakistan to build nuclear arsenal. China’s military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar and were viewed hostile to Indian interest in South Asia. China demonstrated its continued hostility towards India, and supported to Pakistan, during Bangladesh crisis in 1971 India’s nuclear test in 1974 and 1998 have also been an issue of dispute between India and China.
However all is contentious issues between the two countries can be solved by mutual understanding and continuous genuine efforts by both countries. Now China and India are two new emerging economic powers of the world, they must solve their disputes amicably. As both view themselves as rising powers and global politics, and both would like to play a major role in the Asian economy and politics they should interact on regular intervals. steps should be taken to contain conflict and maintain peace and tranquility on the border.
Both countries should cooperate the areas of science an technology. Cultural exchanges will further boost the relationship. As both are emerging economic powers they must enhance their trade relations. cooperation with each others in areas that could otherwise creat conflict between the two such bidding for energy deals abroad, is very necessary. At the global level, India and China must adopt similar policies in international economic institutions like the World Trade Organisation, Increasing transportation and communication links, common economic interests and global concerns will certainly help in establishing a more positive and sound relationship between the two most populous country of the world.
Q.13. Write about the political and diplomatic influence of EU.
Ans : Same as Q.No.7 (Long Answer).
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