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Class 10 History Elective Chapter 4 The Second World War
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Essay Type Questions :
Q 1. Give a brief history of German attack on poland and the Baltic States.
Ans : The outbreak of the Second World War on 1 September 1939 is a turning point in the world history. The event had far- reaching consequences which altered the face of the world.
(i) German invasions of Poland : The immediate causes for the outebreak of the Second World War was the German invasion of Poland whose integrity and unity had been guaranteed by England and France by the munich pact of 1938. Therefore , England and France declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939.
The people of Poland put up a strong resistance, but within a few days western poland was occupied by Germany. On 27 September, Warsaw, the capital of Poland was occupied by the German army. Fearing complete Occupation of Poland Russia also attacked poland . As a result of this attack from two sides, the western part of Poland came under German control while the eastern part of Poland came under the command of Russia. The Russian Occupation of the eastern partially blocked the expansionist plan of Hitler for some time. Although England and France had promised the integrity and unity of Poland, yet they were unable to do anything about it.
(ii) Russian invasion of Baltic countries: In November 1939 , Russia attacked Finland and in March 1940, she signed a Treaty with Findland. This Treaty secured Russia, the possession of an area for establishing a naval base in Findland a threat to her own security, Soviet Russia secured the right to establish military bases in the Baltic States of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuanian. This nade them satellite states of Russia.
(iii) German invasion of other European countries : The victory over poland towards Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg and Holland during April and May, 1940. Within a short time, the German army completely conquered these countries with very little opposition.
In the conquest of Norway, Germany used aeroplanes extensively. In the battle of Norway, Vidkun Quisling, the leader of the Fascist group, supported Hitler in annexing Norway, by betraying his own country. After establishing the German supremacy in the above mentioned countries, Hitler directed his attention to France.
Hitler attacked France with a huge force on 5 june 1940. The attack was so severe and violent that the prime Paris. In his place, Marshal Henri philipe petain became the prime Ministers. The new prime Minister signed an armistice with Hitler on 22 June 1950. Under the terms of this armistice, Hitler occupied half of France while the other half came to be controlled by Marshal petain. This part of France came to be known as the Vichy France as the headquarters of Marshal petain was in the city of Vichy.
|Chapter 1||Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism|
|Chapter 2||The First World War|
|Chapter 3||The World War Between the Two World Wars: 1919 – 1939|
|Chapter 4||The Second World War|
|Chapter 5||The United Nations Organization|
|Chapter 6||Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period|
|Chapter 7||The Non-Aligned Movement|
|Chapter 8||Foreign policy of India|
Q 2. Give a pen- picture of German attack on England culminating in the Battle of Britain.
Ans : The German attack on England in 1941 is one of the important stages of the second World War . The invasion was invasion was a failure. Nevertheless, it affected Both the countries greatly, strengthening the resolve of Britain to avenge the destruction caused by Germany on her soil while Germany was determined to bring down the might of Britain.
Soon after the conquest of France in 1940, Hitler began his assault on his arch enemy, England. In fact, after the defeat his France, England stood alone in the battlefield against Hitler. Therefore, Hitler started a strong mililtry offensive named the ‘Operation sea-Lion’ against England sometime in July-August , 1940.
The most severe part of the attack on Great Britain occurred from 8 August to 17 September 1940, The Germans bombarded the British seaports, airports , aeroplane manufacturing units, various Industrial establishemeants, residential house, etc. Most of the German attack was conducted on the city of London. The German attack was so severe that about 20,000 people died in the city of London alone. Many nearby cities and towns also were completely razed to the ground as a result of recurring German bombardments. In retaliation, England also resorted to a violent counter offensive against Germany and made heavy and repeated bombing on the capital city of Berlin.
During the April-May 1941, The British monthly force Shot down nearly 2,400 fighter planes of Germany . This air battel between Germany and Brittain during the period of 1940-1941 came to be known as the’Battle of Britain’. England won of the British airmen of the British Royal Force . The credit of success also goes to the American support and to the great leadership provided by Winston Churchill, the prime Minister of England.
Q 3. Briefly narrate the history of German attack on soviet Russia.
Ans : The German invasion of Russia in June, 1941 is a significant event in the history of the Second World War. The downfall of Hitler was one of the major causes for its failure.
The history of German attack on Soviet Russia is discussed below :
(i) First invasion of Russia : Hitler’s military offensive against Russia was cod named the ‘Operation Barbarossa’. The attack on Russia began on 22 June 1941 and continued up to 1943 in different stages. The main reason for the invasion of Russia were :
(a) The destruction of the communist rule.
(b) The annihilation of the Slavs of Russia along with the Jews.
(c) The Occupation of a living space for the surplus German population in the Urals.
(d) The Occupation of the Donetz valley which was full of raw- materials for Industrial production.
(e) The Occupation of Ukraine. This palace was known as the granary of Soviet Russia.
(f) The Occupation of the Caucasus that was full of mineral oils and resources.
Hitler made three attempts to conquer Russia but but failed in all his German force on 22 june 1941. The Russian put up a strong defence. To meet the challenge of war, a very powerful National Defence Council was formed in Russia with Stalin, Molotov, voroshilov , Berya and Malenkov as members. Germans had an upper hand in the beginning and was able to reach 20 miles from Moscow. But within a short time, the Germans were routed by the Russians mainly because the Russians were used to. Thus, the first attempt to conquer Russia ended in failure.
(ii) second and third invasion of Russia :
The second attempt started in April-May 1942. This time too the German were able to achieve some success. A severe battle for stlingarad was fought. During this attack, Germany lost 30,000 soldiers and thousands were wounded and crippled for life nearly 1,40, 000 men Surrendered to the red Army.
The thrid attempt started in the middle of 1943. The Germans were defeated in the Battle if kursk with a loss of 5,00,000 soldiers. Thus, the third attempt of Hitler in conquering Russia ended in failure. The main reasons for the failure were the stiff resistance put up by the Russians as well the servere Russians as well the server Russian cold which the Germans were not used to such extreme climatic conditions during war.
Q 4. Discuss the course of the second world war in Africa and Mediterranean Region between the Axis powers and the Allies.
Ans : The war between Germany and England in August 1940, gave the Italy a chance to take advantage and invade the British somaliland. Taking the British somaliland under the control, the Italian force Under General Marshal Graziani move towards Egypt and Suze canal area with an army of 2,50,000 soldiers in September 1940. Initially, the Italian force Under Marshal Graziani gained some success against the the British. Within a short time, the British retaliated with a stronger force Under British General Wavell and recaptured Libya and re- established her supermacy in Egypt and over the Suez canal region. The British soldiers moved further down and took control over sudan, Kenya, Italian somaliland and Ethiopia .
After These defeated of the Italian in Africa, Hitler sent Erwin Rommel better known as ‘ Desert Fox’ with a German auxiliary force. His arrival turned the tide of the war in favor of the Axis powers for some time.
Soon after his arrival, the British started a fresh military offensive against the Italians and the Germans cod named ‘ Operation Battleaxe’. But this offensive proved to be a failure. In April by 1941, Rommel defeated the British forces at Tripoli and Libya . This defeat compelled the British to start another military operation named the ‘ ‘Operation Crusader’ by Auchinleck .
But this offensive too did not bear much fruit.
Therefore, a new military operation named the ‘Operation Torch’ was started once again under the overall command of General Montgomery. While Montgomery concentrated his attck in Tunisia, Tripoli and Libya, the head of an Anglo- American force Eisenhower attacked Morocco and Algeria. The combined attack proved to be successful and Rommel was forced to retreat from the battlefield by about 1000 miles. On 6 March 1943, huge German force under Rommel was defeated in the Battle of the Kasserine pass .
This defeat compelled Rommel to leave Africa for good . In May 1943, the allied forces captured nearly 2,50,000 Italians stationed at Tunisia. These defeats of the Fascist forces in the African continent theatre of war, sealed the fate of the Fascist in Africa. Thus, by june 1943, the African region came under the complete control of the Allied Powers.
Q 5. Give brief resume of the history of the second World War in the far East following the Japanese attack on pearl Harbour.
Ans : America joined the Allies during the second World war, soon after the Japanese attack on pearl Harbour in the Hawaii Islands on 7 December 1941. The attack was a huge shock to America. On 8 December 1941, America declared war on Japan.
A huge American force under General Douglas MacArthur was dispatched to the Far East to bring japan to their kness. Inspiring by their success in the attack of prearl harbour, japan continued her military conquest of the region. She had already conquered china, Indo – China, British Burma, Malay Peninsula and Thiland in 1940. Japan occupied Hong Kong on 25 December 1941.
Before capturing Hong Kong, on 10 December 1941 , japan destroyed the two British warships named the ‘Prince of Wales’ and the ‘Repules’.
During the frist three months of 1942 , Japan occupied philippines, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. After that she occupied Burma , Java, Borneo, sumartra and Bali. With 60,000 soldiers, Singapore Surrendered to japanese on February 1942.
Within may 1942, British forces were expelled from Burma. With this defeat, British lost her pride of supremacy in interational arena.
Soon after the arrival of the American froce Under the command military offensive against japan. The first battle a serious the coral Sea between the solomon Islands and Australia in may 1942. This naval battel resulted in the defeat of the Japanese Navy. Within a short time, most of the countries that had been conquered by in Japan were freed by the American force. Philippines was freed from the Japanese control in October 1944.
In August 1943, British Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten was made the supreme commander of the newly created south- East command to fight against the Japanese. Under his command, the Alied Froces started capturing various countries that were Under the Japanese possession. Soon Burma , Malaysia, Singapore and China came under the control of the Allied Powers.
Q 6. Mention the principle events leading to the defeat of the Fascists.
Ans : The principle events leading to the defeat of the Fascists were :
(i) The change in the warfare of the Alied Powers initiated by Stalin gave the Allies an edge over the Fascists.
(ii) The Fromation of the United Nations Organization comprising 23 countries along with the two super powers, the USA and the Soviet Russia.
(iii) The havy defeat suffered by Farcists in Africa, the Mediterranean, Far East, the Soviet Russia and the Pacific region.
(iv) The massive attacks and bombardment by the Allied Forces in Italy and Germany .
(v) The defeat of Mussoulini in the election of the supreme council of the Fascists on 24 july 1943.
(vi) The Surrendered of the prime Ministers of the Italy, Marshal Pietro badoglio To the Allies unconditionally and the declaration of war against Germany on behalf of the Allies.
(vii) The Massive offensive drive by the Anglo- American under the code name of the ‘ Operation Overlord’ on Germany.
(viii) The freeing of Paris, Brussels and many other states.
(ix) The sovita Red Army liberated Bylorussia and northern part of Poland within the month of June 1944.
(x) In the Yalta conference ( of February 1945), a formula was accepted for the collective Occupation and control of Germany.
(xi) postsdam conference issued an ultimatum to japan that either she must surrender to the Alied Froces or face final destruction.
Q 7. How was japan forced to surrender to the USA and with what results ?
Ans : The president of the USA, Harry S. Truman was apprehensive of the role of the Soviet Russia in the war in the Far East. so, to take the control of the war in the Far East. Truman ordered to attack Japan by dropping two Atom Bombs consecutively on 6 and 9 August 1945, on Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively.
The total number of people died in this bombardment was More than 3,20,000. This attack forced the Japanese cabinet to decide to abandon the struggle and surrender unconditionally. Thus on 15 August 1945, the Japanese froces surrendered to the British and to the Soviet Russia. On 2 September 1945, the Japanese forces surrendered to the American General Douglas MacArthur on board to the battleship named Missouri.
Q 8. Discuss the immediate consequences of the Second World War.
Ans : The Second World War began on 1 September 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. The war continued for nearly six years and concluded with the dropping of atoms bombs on Japan in August, 1945. The war had the following far – reaching consequences on the world :
(i) peace treaties and settlement : Towards the close of the second World War , the ‘big five ñations’ namely the USA, Russia, Britain, Franch and China held a number of conference at Cairo, Moscow, Teheran, Yalta and postdom to discuss about the fete of Japan and Germany. However, no common formula could be evolved by the big powers for peace treaty with partitioned into four Zones to be administration by the four power while japan was occupied entirely by the given the task of establishemeaning responsible government in japan.
(ii) Disastrous effect of the war : It is almost impossible to assess accurately the loss of life and property caused by the war. In trems of losses of human lives, the number of people killed stood at 22 million and the injured at 34 million. The number of civilians killed in the war was around 20 million. The value of property destoryed stood at 1000 billion dollars. It brought untold economic hardship on the people all over world.
(iii) End of Fascism and Nazism : One of the war objectives of the Allies during the second World war, war the destruction of German Nazism and Italian Fascism. The war sounded the death knell for Fascism, Nazism, militarism, totalitarianism, imperialism and aggressive Nationalism.
(iv) Rise of the USA and Russia : The second world war led to the emergence of the USA and Russia as two super powers. England and France decillned in importance, as a result of the immense destruction and loss, they both suffered. New York and Moscow became the new political epic centers interational politics began to revolve around these two ñations.
(v) Beginning of the cold war : After the second World War, world came to be divided into two blocs namely the Western bloc led by the USA and the Eastern bloc led by Russia. Each of the bolcs tried to put down the other by covert and overt operation and intrigues. This state of international politics came to be known as cold war.
(vi) setback for Colonialism and imperialism : Colonialism and imperialism received a great setback. The Atlantic Charter signed by the USA and self- determination. The humiliation and the Economic destruction of the Secondly, starting of the liberation movement after the war sounded a great blow to the cause of colonialism and imperialism.
(vii) Triumph of nationalism : The war boosted the freedom and Africa. The principles of Atlantic Charter of 1941, stimulated nationalism in movement of India, Burma, Ceylon, Indonesia,China, Egypt , etc. took a leap forward and quickened the process of attaining Independence.
(viii) The birth of the UNO : The greatest consequences
of organizations on 24 October 1945 to preserve world peace and security. The havoc and misery caused by the war opened the minds of the international leaders Who tried to establish a premanent and more efficient interational organization to maintain peace and security in the world in the from of the UNO.
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