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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 39 Impact Of Media and Culture
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Impact Of Media and Culture
OPTIONAL MODULE 2: CULTURE
INTEXT QUESTIONS 39.1
Q.1. What do you understand by the following terms? Write each in one sentence.
(a) Mass Communication.
Ans. (a) Mass Communication is the way of delivering information, ideas, attitudes to a diversified audience through the use of media developed for that purpose.
(b) Intra Personal Communication.
Ans. (b) If the communication is internal to an individual, it’s called intra-personal communication.
(c) Personal Communication.
Ans. (c) If the act or process concerns two or more persons in a face to face relationship, it is interpersonal communication.
(d) Mass Media.
Ans. (d) It is that technological means of sending information, ideas, opinions etc. from the mass communicator to an audience which consist of newspapers, magazines and books (print medium, radio and television the electronic medium) and motion pictures.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 39.2
Match Column A with B:
|(c) Film||print medium.|
|(b) Newspaper||print medium.|
INTEXT QUESTIONS 39.3
Write answer in one sentence:
(a) What is diffusion?
Ans. Diffusion describes the spread of a cultural trait from the point of origin of it without an area and into the neighbouring regions and or to the neighbouring countries.
(b) Write briefly two items of culture.
Ans. (i) Food.
(c) Name two brands of aeriated drinks you mostly see in television advertisement.
Ans. (i) Pepsi,
(d) Give an example of religious practice that is spread through film and television.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 39.4
Write T for true and F for false:
1. Television programmes are informative and educative.
Ans. True (T).
2. Simple entertainment is the main purpose of television.
Ans. False (F).
3. Television has both positive and negative impact.
Ans. True (T).
4. Through television we can know what is going on in and around the world.
Ans. True (T).
Q.1. Define mass media and describe its different forms.
Ans. I. Mass media, is the technological means of sending information, ideas, opinions etc. from the mass communicator to an audience.
II. Forms: The media therefore consist of newspapers, magazines and books (which collectively called the print medium), radio and television (the electronic medium) and motion pictures.
Q.2. Write a brief note on the role of mass media in diffusion of culture.
Ans. (i) The most important role played by mass media is in diffusion of culture.
(ii) The work and beliefs of religious groups and a hundred others pertaining to the way human beings behave are constantly reported and discussed in the press, in books and on television and radio programmes.
(iii) The methods of presentation of information and other contents vary widely.
(iv) Media are the means for bringing different cultures together.
(v) National and local media play significant roles in the development of cultural unity.
Q.3. The impact of television both positive and negative. Explain and elucidate.
Ans. (i) TV has both positive and negative impact. But the positive impact always overweighs the negative impact.
(ii) The fact is that the impact can be bad or good depends upon what we watch and why we watch.
(iii) Modern men have built multi faceted mechanism for delivering their messages.
(iv) Mass communication is the way of delivering information, ideas, attitudes to a diversified audience through the use of media developed for that purpose.
Q.4. Write short notes:
(a) Print medium.
Ans: Print Media: The oldest media are those of the printed word and picture, which carry their message through the sense of sight. These are the newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets and direct mail circulars. These may be collectively called the print medium. In newspaper, the focus is upon the community, the nation and sometimes even the world of large. Magazines provide background information, entertainment, express opinions and display advertisements. Books offer a longer range and more detailed examination of subjects as well as entertainment. Pamphlets and direct mail pieces bring the views of commercial and civic organisation.
(b) Electronic medium.
Ans. Electronic Media: Means of communication runs with the help of electricity (or other source of energy) are called electronic media. For example Radio, Television and motion pictures are good examples of electronic, media.
Radio is the mass communication medium aimed at the sense of sound. Radio offers entertainment, news and opinions, discussions and advertising messages and can bring direct coverage of public events into the listener’s home. This is an electronic medium.
Television and motion pictures are appealing to visual and auditory senses. Television programmes are educative, informative and also offer wide range of entertainment and advertising messages. Films may inform and persuade as well as entertain. This also comes under electronic medium.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Make clear the meaning of the following words / terms, as short as possible:
Ans: Diffusion means act of diffusion or spread out.
Ans: Campaign means to gain publicity.
Ans. Revelry means merry making.
Q.2. What is the purpose of mass media? Write briefly.
Ans. Simple entertainment is not the sole purpose of mass media. Reporting the news and offering interpretation and opinions based on news are the two main functions of mass media. The functions of news, opinions and entertainment are closely related in mass media and the various media are heavily dependent upon each other.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Discuss in brief important agencies of communication, which are adjuncts of the mass media?
Ans. There are important agencies of communication, which are adjuncts of the mass media. There are:
1. The press associations collect the distribute news to the newspapers, television channels radio stations and news magazines.
2. The syndicates offer background news and pictures, commentary and entertainment features to newspapers, television and radio and magazines.
3. The advertising agencies, serve their business clients on the one hand and the mass media on the other.
4. The advertising departments of companies and institutions play merchandising roles and the public relations departments, serve in disseminating image-eq building information.
5. The public relations counseling firms and publicity organisations offer information on behalf of their clients.
6. Research and groups help gauge the impact of the message and guide mass media for more effective paths.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Explaining the meaning and definition of mass media. What is importance of communication in contemporary society?
Ans. I. Meaning and definition of mass media: Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one point or person to another. Each of us communicates with another individual by directing a message to one or more of his senses-sight, sound touch taste speech or smell. When we smile, we communicate a desire for friendliness; the tone in which we say ‘good morning’ can indicate feelings all the way from hostility to warm pleasure, and the words we choose in speaking or writing convey a message we want to put across to other person. The more effectively we select and deliver those words, the better is our communication with him or her.
Let us now define mass media. The mass media is defined as the technological means of sending information, ideas, opinions etc. through the mass communication device to a diverse audience. In one sense, words and pictures are the media by which thought and feelings are communicated but medium need not be restricted to this meaning. Medium means something intermediates, a middle state, something that intervenes. For example-money is a medium of exchange between a buyer and seller. Stone is a medium for sculptors’ recreation. A medium of communication can by any such item for transmission or transference of thought and feeling. Thus we can say, communication is an act or process involving transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills etc., by the use of verbal or non-verbal or non-verbal (words, pictures, figures, graphs, gestures, facial expression etc.).
II. Communication and Contemporary Society: Contemporary society is far too complex to function only through direct communication between one individual and another. Our important messages to be effective must reach many people at a time. For example a housewife who is angry at the frequent load shedding of electricity may talk to half a dozen neighbours about organising a boycott. But if the editor of a local newspaper publishes a letter she writes, she communicates her idea to hundreds of women in a short time. We can take another example of a politician contesting for election, he spends much of his campaign time visiting people personally, holding meetings in the hope of winning their votes. Now, he hires time on television and radio, buys space in the newspapers, trying to deliver his message to thousands of voters simultaneously. This is mass communication-delivering information, ideas, attitudes to a sizeable and diversified audience. through the use of the media developed for that purpose.
The communication process: Communicator (C) places his message in selected channel to reach audience (A).
Mass communication for a given message of one moment in time is illustrated here: Source (S) has his message reported by communicator (C) in channel controlled by editor (E) some adudience members (A) receive the message directly, others indirectly, but some are inattentive; feedback interactions may occur along the communication route.