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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 31 Problems Of Other Deprived Sections
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Problems Of Other Deprived Sections
MODULE 4: INDIAN SOCIETY
INEXT QUESTIONS 31.1
Match the following A with B.
|(a) Girl children have to||(a) implemented in 1976.|
|(b) Girl children in poor families||(b) are called child labour.|
|(c) Street children are||(c) suffer from discriminatory behaviour.|
|(d) Persons earning wages below the age of 14 years.||(d) are also sold getting money.|
|(e) Child labour (pro-hibition and Regulation) Act was||(e) run away, orphans and trapped children.|
|(a) Girl children have to||(a) suffer from discriminatory behaviour.|
|(b) Girl children in poor families||(b) are also sold getting money.|
|(c) Street children are||(c) run away, orphans and trapped children.|
|(d) Persons earning wages below the age of 14 years.||(d) are called child labour.|
|(e) Child labour (pro-hibition and Regulation) Act was||(e) implemented in 1976.|
INTEXT QUESTIONS 31.2
Tick True or False for the following:
(i) Daughters enjoy the inheritance and succession rights in patrilineal family. (True/False)
(ii) Domestic violence on women is above caste. (True/False)
(iii) Giving and taking dowry is punishable offence as per anti dowry Act 1976. (True/False)
(iv) Women labourers are exploited in mode of payment. (True/False)
(v) Majority of women are aware of Act related to prohibition of their exploitation and deprivation of rights. (True/False)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 31.3
Fill in the blanks with suitable words from brackets:
(i) O.B.Cs occupy ……………. position in caste system. (middle/lower).
(ii) O.B.Cs of Annexure-I are …………….. developed economically and educationally. (less/more)
(iii) Mandal Commission was instituted in ……………. (1979/1989).
(iv) Mandal Commission’s report was implemented in …………….. (1990/1993).
(v) Majority of O.B.Cs of Annexure-I are ………………. (Zamindars/Marginal and small farmers).
Ans. Marginal and Small farmers.
Q.1. Who are the O.B.Cs? Write about Annexure-I and Annexure-II (200 words).
Ans. Meaning of other Backward Classes:
(i) In caste system of India all castes do not occupy equal position. There are many castes whose position (or the status) in the caste system was in the middle, i.e. in between higher castes and lower castes.
(ii) Most of castes had to perform traditional occupations. They used to render service to other castes under Jajmani system. They were known as agricultural, trading or artisan castes.
(iii) All castes whose position in the caste system was below the upper castes but above the lower castes, have been termed, politically and constitutionally, the other Backward Classes following the report of the Mandal Commission:
Annexure-I: A good number of extremely backward economically and educationally backward castes of Annexure-I are fully dependent upon higher castes for their livelihood especially in rural areas. They work as casual labour. They also render services under jajmani system.
Annexure-II: No doubt, a good number of O.B.Cs of Annexure-II own sufficient land. But it is also true that a majority of O.B.Cs of Annexure-I are marginal and small farmers. They do not have sufficient land for cultivation. They take land from higher castes for share-cropping. As share croppers they have to renew tenancy each year.
Q.2. Name five types of gender discriminations prevalent in our society? (200 words)
Ans. Five Types of Gender Discrimed prevail in our society are:
(i) Girls are deprived of educational opportunities: Being girl, she is deprived of education opportunities. The girls may not be enrolled in school. Rather, they are engaged and trained in household works, particularly in rural areas. They do not go to school and compromise with their fate as an assistant to mother in the house of father. After marriage, they perform their duty as house wife in the house of husband.
(ii) Early age marriage: According to a belief prevalent in some sectors, based on myth of our society, the marriage of a daughter must be held before puberty. This belief encouraged child marriage. Child marriage also deprived girls of their educational rights. Child marriage resulted into motherhood at an early age. It created several health problems including early motherhood and maternal mortality.
(iii) Least Chances for higher education: Another belief prevalent in rural India is that the education of girls creates complexity in the settlement of marriage. As such good number of parents get their daughter married soon after matriculation.
(iv) Low paid jobs and services: The girls of the poor families have not only to perform work in the house, but they have also to earn wages as maid servant and child labours. They are exploited physically as well as economically by their master, contractors, agents, etc.
The girl children are also sold in poor families of our society. For the poor families, girls are a source of income. Affluent people purchase girls for working as maid servant, kept and in some cases also as marriage partners.
(v) Childhood is away from full of pleasure, sufferers of negligence, abuse, exploitation and operation: It is generally said that the period of childhood is full of pleasure. But for the girl children in rural India, it is a period of neglect, abuse, exploitation and oppression. No one looks after the health of a girl. Only when the problem becomes acute, she is taken to a doctor or hospital.
Conclusion: Thus we observe deprivation and discrimination of a girl child in food, education and health care.
Q.3. What is dowry? Why it is an evil social practice? (200 words).
Ans. (i) Dowry: We have heard the term dowry at the time of marriage in your family or neighbourhood. Dowry is payment in cash and kind to the family of bridegroom by father of bride at the time of marriage. The payment of dowry was prevalent in upper castes previously. But now-a-days, the demand and payment of dowry have entered almost in every section of the society in one form the other. Modern education has played significant role in increasing the rate of dowry. The more the educated the boy, higher is the demand of dowry. Involvement of women in the demand of dowry is most unfortunate.
(ii) Dowry as an evil social practice:
(a) Giving dowry on own’s will is different from taking dowry by force. Each family has a budget for the marriage of a daughter. Every family has a wish to send its daughter to a family so that she could live happily. But when the demand of dowry exceeds its budget, it feels helpless. Another inhuman behaviour is demand of dowry even after marriage.
(b) In our country 4215 dowry deaths were reported in 1989. They hae increased to 6699 in 1999. It is very unfortunate that seven thousand married women have to meet dowry deaths each year in our country.
(c) Our Government is fully aware of this unlawful and inhuman behaviour prevalent in our society. The Government has made Dowry Prohibition Act, 1976. According to this Act, giving and taking dowry have been made punishable in the form of fine and punishment.
(d) When the Act came into force, some dowry givers and takers were punished. But dowry was not eradicated. In recent years, temptations for wealth and consumer goods have made the demand and payment of dowry more complicated, exploitative and oppressive.
Q.4. What is domestic violence? What are causes of domestic violence prevalent in our society? (200 words).
Ans. I. Meaning of Domestic Violence: When man and woman are bound together as husband and wife to reproduce children, they lay the foundation of a family. But it is very unfortunate that majority of women have to face the situation of domestic violence. Domestic violence takes place in the form of torture, beating, poisoning, burning, drowning and rape. It is not that domestic violence is prevalent only in rural areas, but it is also prevalent in urban areas. It is found not only in S.Cs, S.Ts and O.B. Cs. but also in the upper castes. So, the incidence of domestic violence on women is above caste religion and region. According to Human Development Report 1995, two-third of the married women has to face domestic violence. The UNICEF Report 2002 puts the number of domestic violence more than that India has witnessed a 278 percent increase in domestic violence from 1989 to 1999.
II. Causes of Domestic Violence are:
(i) Wrong and negative attitude of male member.
(ii) Bitter relation between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law due to poverty, dowry etc.
(iii) Under or lack of education and awareness among women.
(iv) Alcohol and use of drugs.
(v) In our society, domestic violence on women has existed since time immemorial. But in recent years there has been tremendous increase in domestic violence due to the temptation towards consumer goods. This has added fuel to the incidence of domestic violence.
(vi) In order to protect women from the incidence of domestic violence, there is a need to formulate effective Act. Our Government has prepared, protection from the Domestic Violence Bill (2001). But this Bill is being opposed by the women organizations due to weaknesses in the Bill.
Q.5. Name four problems of girl children (200 words).
Ans. Name of four problems of girl children are:
(i) Discriminatory behaviour in society.
(ii) Deprivation of educational opportunities.
(iii) Dowry and Domestic Violence.
(iv) Illiteracy and malnutrition.
(v) Physical and sexual abuses or oppressions.
Q.6. Who are street children? What are their problems?
Ans. I. Street Children: Some children of poor families come to towns and cities in search of work.They do some small work like polish, as helpers garages, newspaper hawker, etc. They also find out such work where their is not need of any capital, for example rag picking and begging. These children have to face to problem of accommodation. They cannot hire house or rooms in big cities due to high rent. As a result, these children have to spend day and night in the street. So, they are known as street children or rag-pickers. Specially during the night, they use public places like railway station, bus stand, garden and park etc. for their stay. According to an estimate, five lakh children live on the street in the cities of Bangalore, Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Madras.
These street children do not have any guardian to guide or control them. They are free to do anything. As result, they fail victims of intoxicants like Biri, Cigarettes, tobacco, Ganja, Bhang, liquor etc. Intoxicants spoil their health and life. These children also fall victim of sexual exploitation. The street children come in contact with the criminals of the They are trained in picking pockets and stealing goods from the public and crowded places. The street children when caught in connection with crime, are sent to jail. In jali, they come in contact with veteran criminals. In this way, they also become criminals in late life.
II. Problems of Street Children: From the above account, we come to understand about the following points related to the street children:
(a) These children are run away or trapped children.
(b) They are orphans or separated from the families.
(c) These are victims of poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition.
(d) These children are also victims of physical and sexual oppressions.
(e) Their made of working is disorganized and episodic.
(f) They generally perform unskilled labour.
(g) These children make encroachment on government land and are uprooted time to time.
(h) In bad company, these children start taking liquor and drugs which spoil their health and life.
(i) They are also involved in crimes and are sent to jail.
Q.7. Who are child labourers?
Ans. Child labour: You might have seen children earning wages at an age when they are expected to attend school. They belong to age group of 5-14 years. They generally come from families below poverty line. Their parents do not have sufficient means or income to feed and cloth them, so their parents send them to earn wages, in place of sending them to school. They are known as child labours.
The employment areas of these child labour are hotels, domestic servants, carpet industry, dye industry, bangle industry, lac industry, foot-bread industry, leaf plate industry, papad industry, flour industry, biri industry, mines, firework industry and car garage ceramic industry etc.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is the position of O.B.Cs?
Ans. O.B.Cs occupied a middle position in caste system. They were mostly tenant cultivators and dependent on higher castes. But to day, they have emerged powerful politically. O.B.Cs of Annexure-I are less developed educationally and economically, so the benefit of reservation is taken away by O.B.Cs of Annexure-II.
Q.2. Briefly write the position of women comparing with the males.
Ans. Women constitute nearly half of the population of our society. But in spite of their numerical strength, they are dependent upon men. This dependency leads to their deprivation of rights and freedom. They are subjected to gender discrimination, domestic violence, dowry death, and exploitation.
Q.3. What is the importance and position of children for or in our society?
Ans. Children are backbone of society and childhood is regarded as most joyful stage of life. But poverty has forced a good number of children to survive as street children and child labour. They do not go to school and struggle hard for their survival.
Q.4. Why do the child labourers are liked by their masters?
Ans. Child labourers are profitable for the masters because they work peacefully and for more hours per day. Child labourers are paid low wages. They are not paid as per Child Labour Act.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What are the causes behind the persistence of child labour in India? What problems are faced by child labours?
Ans. I. Cause of Child-Labour: Poverty, illiteracy, absence of earning member in family, exploitation and opression by land owners, inhuman treatment by parents, temptation to earn more money and buy consumer goods, low payment to parents, no regular work to parents, landlessness etc. are the main reasons behind the persistence of child labour.
II. Problems of Child Labour: The child labour has to face a number of health problems because they have to render labour in unhygienic condition. They are found to be suffering from asthma. T. B., respiratory track infection, burning, arthritis, eye disease, ear disease, skin disease siliconsis, neurological problems and sexual diseases. They have also to face the situation of accident and death. The child labour are abused physically by the owners, contractors and agents. They do not resist because they are afraid to lose employment. Frequent sexual abuses make them abnormal.
Q.2. Women in different roles in families and their role in India’s culture.
Ans. In most of the families we see such kin as mother, sister and grandmother. After marriage you would have such kin as wife and daughter. These kin are women on the basis of sex status. In every society, women constitute nearly the population. It is also true with our society. In our country, male-female ratio as per 1991 census is 929. It means that sex ratio is not balanced. It is unfortunate that women are deniet equality with men and are deprived of their rights and freedom.
Women are the custodian of our family traditions and culture. Mothers are the first teacher in the family. In our literature, we find, them as incarnation of Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth. But in practice, we find them deprived of the right of inheritance and possession of any kind of property. We hear and wherever women are worshipped, the gods and goddesses reside. But in practice, we find that women are subjected to torture and violence.
Q.3. Write a paragraph on “Gender Discrimination in our country.
Ans. Gender Discrimination: Sex is a natural thing. For the continuation of family, linkage, inheritance succession and community the importance of both sexes is equal. But it is unfortunate that sex has been a basis of discrimination in our society. A majority of communities in our country, excepting some tribal groups, are patrilineal. In patrilineal society, lineage, clan, inheritance and succession are patrilateral. In this type of family, son continues family name from on generation to the next. Girl is treated as other’s property (Paraya Dhan).
Due to different value associated with both sexes, gender discrimination is in our society. The most unfortunate scene is involvement of women in the discriminatory behaviour against women. Generally birth of son is celebrated. When a woman becomes widow, she does not have that prestige as she had earlier. But when a man becomes widower, he does not lose anything.